Elizabeth
September 1585, 11-20

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Institute of Historical Research

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Sophie Crawford Lomas (editor)

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1921

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16-30

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'Elizabeth: September 1585, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 20: September 1585-May 1586 (1921), pp. 16-30. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=79184 Date accessed: 23 August 2014.


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September 1585, 11–20

Sept. 11.Walsingham to the Hanse Commissioners.
The importance of your letter of August 31 has necessitated a longer consideration than usual. Although you might have gathered from our last letter what was the true meaning of our conversation with you and of our letter of the 23rd from Wimbledon, yet as you again call in question what we thought was beyond controversy, we must repeat what we have already written. We confess that our opinion has always been that, in return for an undertaking by us to remove the decrees in England, you for your part undertook to secure what the Alderman promised us last September; namely that the decrees in your country should be removed and that a Residence would be granted to our merchants at Hamburg. This was offered by the Alderman on the strength of certain letters written from Hamburg to the Queen and myself, her chief secretary. When a request was made by the Alderman that an envoy might be sent from here to the diet of the Hanseatic States at Lubeck in order to treat with them, especially with regard to the offered Residence, we answered that this might be done more suitably in England, and that any ambassadors sent hither to treat with us would be favourably received.
Thus while the Alderman promised two things, viz., the abrogation of the decrees and the Residence at Hamburg, we promised that the decrees should be abolished here and that your envoys should be favourably received.
This has always been our view of the matter, and was so in the conversation and letter mentioned above, while you seem to be still insisting on verbal pin-points (verborum apicibus) and to be quite unmindful of the promises made by the Alderman before your arrival; separating the two things which he had joined together, and asking us to be so good as to be content with the abolition of the decrees only. Again, whereas the Alderman asked that an envoy should be sent to Lubeck to treat of this very Residence, and we said we should prefer an ambassador to be sent here with full powers, behold the ambassadors arrive with no authority to treat in the matter! And so, with all respect to you, your arrival has satisfied neither the offers made by the Alderman or our answers to him. It was not our business to propose reasonable articles for the Residence at Hamburg; that was for you to do, as the Alderman made the offer. We were in hopes that you would come with such instructions as would enable you to declare what was inequitable and unreasonable, in the previous agreement between the magistracy of Hamburg and the Merchants Adventurers. It seems to us truly absurd to answer, as your Alderman did after your arrival, that the matter did not come within the scope of the conference between Hamburg and the other Hanseatic States, and therefore no definite instructions could be given to you by them. As if all the other Hanseatics had been contented to make complaints in their letters to the Queen and in their petitions to the Emperor and other princes, of the harm done by the Residence to the Hanse League and the Roman Empire, without knowing the conditions and circumstances of that Residence! And is it likely that the city of Hamburg, which you yourselves say was appointed, with three neighbours, to settle these controversies, would have refused to make these agreements known to the others? Can any sane man believe that the other States did not ask for this information from those of Hamburg, and if they had refused it, would have given them full powers in this matter, which so greatly concerns themselves?
So that if you have come under such conditions as you pretend, it is certain, with all due respect to you, that it would have become you better to have come so instructed, that you might have treated satisfactorily the offers made by the Alderman and our answers thereto. If you have written home that we have refused(?) to exhibit such articles of Residence as appeared to us equitable and reasonable, we must protest that you have not rightly apprehended our meaning, and have reported what has always been very far from our intention. We are and always have been, most eager to restore and strengthen our ancient peace and friendship with you, but so far we have not seen any fitting ground for such a consummation in your propositions. You demand an immediate confirmation of your old privileges, when you cannot be unaware that they were resumed before her Majesty came to the throne, and when by our treaties we ought to have enjoyed equal liberties and immunities in Prussia and other Hanse places. Have our people ever been able to obtain that? Your own decrees prove the contrary. Notwithstanding, since the Queen came to the throne, your people have been treated more liberally by us than ours by you, or than any other foreigners in England, which you cannot deny. And the only reason why this is not still the case is that while you all wish to reside freely in this realm, you are most unwilling to grant our people a residence in any one of your sixty cities. You provoke us to insisting on points of law. Well, we are not ignorant that more can be said in law against the privileges to which you pretend than for them, a fact which will appear when we enter into treaty with you or with others to whom we know some sort of authority has been granted. In the meantime it seems to us absurd that a direct answer as to the confirmation of your privileges should be so summarily demanded by persons whom we cannot find have any power either to make a demand, give an answer, or come to an agreement,supposing we consented to treat with you.
We would have you know this; that when in the beginning we promised to use our influence with the Queen and our colleagues of the Privy Council, we were under the impression that you were fortified with a very different authority, and that your proposals would be more welcome to us and consonant to the former offers of the Alderman.
We are not so foolish or unfair as to allow ourselves to be led away (as you fear) by sinister reports of your adversaries. We confine our attention, as it is our duty to do, to the question of what is equitable and good, honourable for the Queen and salutary for the realm; and can always give true and legitimate reasons for our actions. We are displeased that our merchants, here and everywhere, are burdened and traduced with the hateful name of “monopoly,” especially as we cannot see why the Residence of the Hanse cities in this realm should not deserve that name as much as ours at Hamburg or elsewhere. We know whence those calumnies arise. And considering that for about a hundred years a Residence was granted to our merchants by the Emperors at Antwerp, in the Duchy of Brabant, which was a member of the Empire, and elsewhere; that the men of Hamburg put up with one in their city for ten years; and that our merchants carried on business on the same lines in Prussia at one time, as is proved by old records (vetera monumenta) and the fact that even now there survive old houses at Kulm and elsewhere which are called by the name of our nation; and all without any suggestion of illicit trade or monopoly, it seems curious that some people should have become so penetrating and subtle as to discover at last that what was formerly approved of is really illicit and inadmissible. For it is not another sort of Residence that we have asked for; and if you can demonstrate that any of the conditions contained in the former argument between Hamburg and the Merchants Adventurers were inconvenient and unreasonable, we have already promised in our former letter to you to find a remedy. Can you ask for anything more just, fair and reasonable?
You keep on insisting that because the decrees have been abolished with you, they ought to be abolished here, and the question of the Residence raised afterwards. This we would allow to be equitable if our people would obtain the same advantages therefrom as yours. You, whose society consists of sixty cities, have a Residence here; and for all purposes of toll and freedom of selling and buying are accounted as free as natural inhabitants of the realm. We cannot obtain the same privileges in even one of your cities. We offer and present certain benefits. You promise uncertain benefits to come. Is this equal treatment?
But you will say that all this is due to you by special agreement with the city of London. And whence and how have they the authority to grant you this liberty? By reason of general treaties, by which as much is due to us from you as to you from us. And if Hamburg, a free and imperial city, is to be so restrained by a decree of the Hanseatic League as not to be able to make an agreement with us on its own account, do you think the city of London ever had any greater authority? And if the men of London think they have cause, may not they then do to your people what those of Hamburg did to the Merchants Adventurers? If it is only to be a case of mutually abrogating the decrees, we find that you will gain great advantage and we suffer much disadvantage. So there is no cause for us or our merchants to consider the abrogation only, unless the Residence at Hamburg is to be granted with it.
We do not hold you personally responsible, but this we must plainly say to you . . . that by these tortuous methods the business may be spun out but cannot be promoted, and that we are not receiving such treatment as your history proves that we received formerly in times of similar controversies and as law and equity demand. Wherefore we must again and again repeat to you that we cannot possibly consent to abolishing the decrees here, unless full assurances be given to us, either by you or by an answer from the four cities to which you say you have written, as to both the Alderman's offers. From this opinion, for many necessary reasons, we have firmly decided not to withdraw.
As for your statement that you fear lest, if our demand be too rigid, the whole negotiation may end in nothing, and your costly mission be useless, we have no doubt that it will be quite clear to everyone, from the account of what has passed between us, that the blame is not ours. Let it lie at the doors of those who have not fulfilled what was offered and expected. But if you can give assurances as to the Alderman's promise, then the whole affair could be quickly and easily settled.—Nonsuch, 11 September, 1585.
Minute. Endd. Latin. 10 pp. [Hamburg and Hanse Towns II. 19.]
Sept. 12.Davison to Norreys.
Has received several letters from him since his arrival [at the Hague] on Wednesday night, but has not “written back,” as he desired first to see what would be resolved upon his audience, which was not till this morning. Has also received the letters he expected from her Majesty, which he would have sent him, but wishes to confer with him on matters of importance touching both their charges. Is tied to this place until he has answer from the States, but would be glad to see him “here” as soon as possible.—The Hague, 12 September, 1585.
Minute. Endd. ½ p. [Holland III. 69.]
Sept. 12/22.Rossel to Walsingham.
Your kind letters, received by Mr. Davison, more and more bind me to her Majesty's service and your own. I have made enquiry of Mr. Davison upon two points in relation to her resolution to support the United Provinces; viz. whether the edicts will be issued and moneys for the war levied in her name. He has put me off until his return from Holland, where I have exhorted him to make no long stay, warning him that delay in making an end of these matters will be harmful, for the ill-affectioned thus gain the more leisure to build their counterpoints.
I wish her Majesty's garrisons were already put into the places necessary for her security, and especially into Flushing, on which I know the enemy has his eye above all other places.
Mr. Noritz, since his general muster, has gone into the field, and is in the Veluwe, where the enemy has appeared and they have had some skirmishes. The enemy is retiring. The Prince of Parma has sent into Gueldres five or six hundred horse to join the others, so as to charge Mr. Noritz's troops advantageously. If he could break them, he would greatly advance his affairs, especially in the ill-affectioned towns and such as were wavering before the arrival of her Majesty's forces. I have warned Mr. Noritz to be on his guard. I had expected to receive orders to take up my charge of quartermaster-general in his army, and had already bought horses for the service.
For the rest, the enemy, who made a feint of going to Ostend have not advanced, and now make as if to go to Berghes, preparing strong ships of war. They do not know at which end to begin, but all in Antwerp whisper that some great design will shortly manifest itself.—Middelburg, 22 September, 1585.
Add. Endd. “22 September, stilo novo.” Fr. 1 p. [Holland III. 70.] [Even if o.s. the news of Norrys is premature.]
Sept. 12.Walsingham to Davison.
Owing to the absence of several of the lords of the Council, he cannot get the amended Act signed, which is to be delivered to the commissioners. “The point of reformation” is that they require 5,000 foot and 1,000 horse, besides the garrisons of the cautionary towns, “which clause of reservation or exception was omitted in that send unto you.”
By letters from Zeeland we hear that they of Flushing are as forward to accept an English garrison as any town of Holland; but until we hear it from yourself, we do not hold it as a matter of certainty.
“Though her Majesty hath been greatly pressed to give order to the Earl of Leicester to put himself in a readiness for the government of that country, yet can she not be drawn thereto till she hear from you.”
Minute. Endd. with date. [Ibid. III. 71.]
Sept. 12.Captain Nicholas Erington to General Norreys.
It having pleased your lordship to give me the charge of this English garrison of Ostend, I thought it my duty to let you know the wants we shall have if attempted by the enemy, as also the weakness of this fortification, notwithstanding your good brother's former letters, “without whose company and good assistance I had been a mere and naked stranger.”
There is no better defence than a sufficient number of soldiers, “which cannot be under two thousand or above, and yet shall scarcely single man the town. The Dutch companies is not above six hundred, and God knows of them many poor and weak creatures.”
The fortifications are of sandy earth, subject both to sap and battery; without any convenient flank, and the mounts mostly without ordnance and naked. “It is thought the water in the `stankes' may be drained by the enemy, which is our greatest strength; it cannot be denied but that they will be masters of the haven; the other sea-course from the sea will be at the devotion of wind and weather,” and if the enemy continue the siege there will be great want of powder and weapon.
The victuals will not last above twenty days if the haven be taken away. The small portion received from England is preserved for necessity, and if we spend the beer we have received they say we must pay the excise, “which will be an utter impoverishment to the soldier.”
The “emulation” [discord or ill-will] amongst the Dutch soldiers for want of pay is such that in any extremity we shall have as much occasion to doubt them as the enemy. Most part of the best inhabitants are with the enemy, and said to be making great offers to the adjacent towns for the “recovery” of this one.
The town is the principal key of this fertile country, therefore the greater care must be had of it, and the rather that “this winter season” all succour must come “at the devotion of wind and weather.” We can get nothing but for ready money, and this month's pay is far spent.
Also we are daily persuaded by the governor to attempt something upon the small fortresses of the enemy near at hand, but I thought good not to yield too much thereto without your further direction in writing, as your first is only for the guard of the town. I refer all these matters to your lordship, and in the meantime we shall with all diligence do our duties as good and faithful soldiers.
Postscript.—According to your opinion of the governor here, M. de Loker, we find such great courtesy at his hands that we pray you to give him your thanks in your next letters. The furrier of Colonel Perone just now brings word that the enemy “is preparing towards this country.” It is reported that M. Perone is coming hither with four or five companies, but not above forty men in each. It is generally bruited that the enemy will presently be here.—Ostend, 12 September, 1585.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Flanders I. 38.]
Sept. 12.Captain Erington to Walsingham.
I must crave pardon for my sudden departure without taking leave. I left my excuses with Mr. A. Douglas. Your letters in behalf of Mr. Bruin, commissary of the victuals, came to my hands on the 10th inst. I will do my best both for the utterance and payment of the victuals.
Mr. Norreys has appointed me to remain here with four companies of English soldiers. I will use all my forces, senses and diligence to discharge my duty, but think good to make some relation of the state of the town and country, for my own discharge.
It is one of the chief ports of this coast in Flanders to bridle the enemy by sea and land, and if in their hands, would be very “noisome” to passengers between England and Zeeland.
The garrisons here have laid the country waste for many miles around, so that the enemy are in miserable distress up to the gates and even inside the town of Bruges. Their other towns, up to the frontier towns of Artois, are also said to be in distress, so that if they have no victuals out of England, they must either starve or revolt.
But the weakness of this town is such that it cannot be guarded under two thousand men. It is altogether unfurnished with artillery or munition to any purpose, and has no flank to “answer either bulwark or curtain.” The haven may easily be taken away and the “fursies or stanks” drained; yet small vessels or boats with men or victuals may be put into the base town, if wind and weather serve. If there were here 2,500 foot and 300 light horse, the towns would be almost cut off from victuals.
Here are ten Dutch companies, not 600 strong, and so poor for want of pay that they are daily ready to mutiny or revolt, so that if the enemy come to besiege us, as we daily look for, “truly we should be in more doubt of them than of the enemy, they are so poor and miserable.”
Bruges and other adjacent towns have offered the Prince of Parma 15,000l. towards winning this town. Most of our richest burghers are with the enemy. By spies we hear he is preparing boats and bridges for the siege.
The coming of the Earl of Leicester into these countries is as much wished for as the death of the Prince of Orange was lamented. One chief may command all, where many, being of divers opinions, cannot be obeyed. We hear there has been a great mutiny between the Spaniards and Walloons, because the Spaniards are paid for five months and Walloons but for one.—Ostend, 12 September, 1585.
Add. Endd. 1 ½ pp. [Flanders I. 39.]
Sept. 13.Walsingham to Davison.
We have now received the enclosed Act from the deputies left here, and desire you to procure the hands and seals of their late colleagues, or as many as may be “next at hand”; my lords commissioners having reciprocally delivered their Act to the deputies. It is now looked for here that the States shall make no difficulty in delivering the towns agreed on into your hands until her Majesty shall send over some well chosen persons to take the charge of them, though they may defer it until they have received our Act from their deputies. The imperfect Act formerly sent you are to retain in your own hands.—Nonsuch, 13 September, 1585.
Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Holland III. 72.]
Sept. 13.Walsingham to Davison.
“Sir Philip Sydney hath taken a very hard resolution to accompany Sir Francis Drake in this voyage, moved hereunto for that he saw her Majesty disposed to commit the charge of Flushing unto some other, which he reputed would fall out greatly to his disgrace to see another preferred before him, both for birth and judgment inferior unto him. This resolution is greatly to the grief of Sir Philip's friends, but to none more than to myself. I know her Majesty would easily have been induced to have placed him in Flushing, but he despaired hereof and the disgrace that he doubted he should receive hath carried him into a desperate course. There is some order taken for his stay, but I fear it will not take place; and yet I pray you make me no author of this unpleasant news.”—At the Court, 13 September, 1585.
Postscript.—“If it shall please God to incline his heart to stay I will not fail to advertise you with speed.”
Holograph. 1 p. [Holland III. 73.]
Sept. 14/24.Mauvissière to Walsingham.
I send this bearer, Florio, to learn how her Majesty is, begging you to kiss her hands humbly on my behalf, and to thank her very heartily for all the honour and kindness I have received from her since I had the happiness of knowing her, and for the fine present of silver plate which she has given me. If my government had been left to me, I should have enshrined it in the castle which I have held for twenty-three years, and where I thought to spend my old age, but I must bow to the misery of the time, which has brought more loss to me than to any I know. Nevertheless, if I can be of any service to her Majesty and her State, and may see her ever bound in perfect friendship with my King and with France, my own grief will be the less, and for this I will do all the good offices possible, as I have done in the past.
I desire to set out on Thursday at the latest, by God's aid, but if her Majesty wishes me once more to kiss her beautiful hands, I shall esteem my fortune to be the happier for it. This will be as she pleases, for I would not be importunate, but desire to have and merit her favour, wherever I may be.
I also beg you to listen to Florio concerning a charge I have given him to get Gyrault, my butler, discharged from an action brought against him with as much reason as if I were to claim a right to Barnel [Barnelms].
I must send him away this evening with my baggage, but without this discharge, he cannot depart. I am doing what I can to pay my debts. When it pleases you, remind her Majesty that by your express commendations at divers times and in writing I paid Nuchas [Nutshawe] 860l. sterling, because the King had written to me to maintain friendship with the Queen his good sister and her subjects; and also because the Sieur de Walsingham had so urgently intreated me on Nuchas' and Mr. Warcop's behalf, which his Majesty intended to cause to be repaid on the estate of Baron de la Garde, general of his galleys, who declared in full Council, and a la mort that the corn which Nuchas was taking to succour the King's enemies at Rochelle was good prize, and had been so judged by the King's Council. The said Baron is dead, his Majesty being indebted to him and the galleys in which he distributed the wheat more than 600,000 crowns, and to me his said Majesty owes more than 60,000, of which for my life, I cannot get a halfpenny, although I was treasurer for Nuchas for nine years. I pray you lay the matter before the Queen and be witness of the truth.—London, 24 Sepember, 1585.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Fr. 3 pp. [France XIV. 83.]
Sept. 14.Musters.
Note of the musters taken upon this date “upon the field by Utrecht,” of the captains, officers and soldiers hereunder named, who have there openly taken oath to her Majesty, “as their good and natural princess,” and also to the States General, Count Maurice of Nassau and the Council of State; with the strength of the companies and what money every company is to have. [Margin, by Burghley: “Note that the Queen's soldiers were paid for one month, beginning the 12 of August and ending the 14 of September [o.s.], to the number of 30 days.”]
At the charges of her Majesty. Prest men, 23 companies.
Colonel Morgan, his regiment; Captain Edward York, lieut.-colonel; Captain Richard Hudlestone, treasurer; Captains John Boroughe, Edward Norris, Henry Norris, Thos. Knowlles, Fras. Darseys, John Wootten, Thos. Vavaser, John Scott, Tho. Maria Wingfield, Gilbert Havers, Edmond Bannester, John Shellton, Tho. Baskerville, John Roberts, Digory Hender, Thos. Rowles, Emanuel Lucar, Sir Walter Waller, Edw. Morgan, Edw. Uvedale.
Colonel's company, 200 men; paid 2,200 guilders.
The other companies, each 150 men, paid 1,700 guilders; except Capt. Bannister, 141 men, paid 1,610 guilders.
At the charges of the States. Voluntary men. 21 companies.
The Colonel's [i.e.. Norreys] ancient; Lieut.-Colonel Captain Roger Williams; Captains Barneby Pallmer, Edw. Cromewell, Robert Sydney, Edmond Huntley, Thos. Willson, Richard Wingfield, John Hill, Oliver Lambert, Edw. Symes, John Himinges, Fras. Litleton, Thos. Gainford, James Wootten, Robert Petty, Richard Greene, John Sibthorpe, Edw. Wolley, Thos. Watson, Wm. Inge (these last two of Colonel Morgan's regiment).
The Colonel's company, 244 men, paid 2,640 guilders.
The other companies, each 150 men, paid 1,700 guilders; except Palmer, 142; Cromwell and Wootten, 139; Watson, 80; paid in proportion.
Four prest companies sent to Ostend by the general at their first arrival.
Captains Errington, Brett, Charles Blunt, Carsey.
Each company 150 men, paid 1,700 guilders.
Also allowed to Peter Crips, Marshal, “for his better service,” 30 footmen, to be changed next muster into hargeletiers on horseback. Allowed for each man, 15 guilders.
Monthly allowance for twelve officers.
The Colonel, “which is our general,” 1,200 guilders; lieut.-colonel, 600. The rest, from 300 to the treasurer to 50 to the commissary of victuals—Total, 3,150 guilders.
More at the charges of the States.
A cornet of 100 lancers on horseback. Allowance in all 3,000 guilders.
“Set down and examined by me, Henry Swynnerton, muster-master-general for her Majesty's forces in these Low Countries.”
Endd. 2 pp. [Holland III. 74.]
Another copy of the same.
Endd. 2 pp. [Ibid. V. 75.]
Sept. 15/25.Dr. Hector Nunñez to Walsingham.
“I think my often writing . . . will give me the name of idle or vagabond, but I see as the Latin proverb saith, that I do move and yet I do not prosper.”
I wrote to you before concerning the Spaniards brought out of Biscay, that if one of them were suffered to go home, they would perform all reasonable conditions demanded by the lords of the Council, and he would promise to return into England. I understand that one Peter de Villa Reyeall can do much, having good friends in the King's court, and think that from his going will grow some further benefit; which I gather from a letter received by him, the copy whereof I enclose. “If the words of the letter be true, the world goeth not so hard [there] with Englishmen as it is said here.”
If you like well of their motion, I think it were not amiss for the said Peter to wait upon you, for you to declare to him your mind and to conclude upon what is to be performed by him.—London, 25 September, 1585.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Spain II. 48.]
Enclosing:
Domingo de Reye Alto, post-master of Ierrone [qy. Irun], to Peter Reyeall.
Acknowledges his letter of the 23rd instant. “We are sure that the English merchants will not suffer that you shall be misused in that country. The English merchants here have the same self liberty that they had before, but only their goods are in deposition,” and we look every day that his Majesty shall release them.—Ierrone, 31 August. [Year date torn away.]
Copy. ½ p. [Ibid. II. 48a.]
Sept. 16.Commissioners Of The States to Walsingham.
Thanking him for his letter received last night with the Act signed and sealed by the lords of the Council, and praying him to fix a time when they may see him, at the Court, Barnelms or elsewhere, as they particularly desire to confer with him before the said Act is sent away to the States. Signed by vander Does, Valcke, Buys and Aysmall.—London, 16 September, 1585.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Holland III. 76.]
Sept. 17.Davison to Norreys.
I have this morning received your letters of the 13th, and am sorry I cannot speak with yourself at large, but seeing your business there and mine here—where I stay for the resolution of the States—otherwise disposes of us both, I impart to you in a line or two the substance of what I have here in charge.
After your departure, her Majesty, upon advertisements from these parts and advice with some of her Council, thought it expedient to grant these countries the full number of 5,000 footmen and 1,000 horse, upon the cautions before demanded by her, and thereupon despatched me hither to ratify the said contract on her part and to see her assured and cautioned according to their promise; appointing me to confer with you about the choice of the most loyal and best qualified captains and companies in your regiment and under her pay to be put into the Brill and Flushing (which are to be delivered into my hands) until she send such persons as she finds expedient to take the government of one and the other. I have not yet the final resolution of these Estates, who, according to their manner “find pretext enough to prolong the time,” but look hourly to be told to take order for putting garrison into the Brill and Flushing, for the guard of which you are to choose out of your troops the most fit of the companies entertained by her Highness; of whose loyalty and good behaviour you have the best opinion. Wherefore I pray you to take such order, as when you next hear from me in that behalf they may be ready to march, that on our parts there may happen “no default to advance her Majesty's for speedy and full contentment.” And understanding secretly that you have some enterprise in hand in those upper parts, for which you have destined most of your forces, besides the fourteen ensigns to be sent towards Bergen, “though I doubt not but you foresee well enough what may succced thereof in case the main force of our nation, which is now the principal strength in a manner of these countries, should miscarry (a thing I know some men here could well like of), and that for the first it were not amiss they were disposed into several garrisons, according to the advice of the Council of Estate in such frontier places as are of most importance, both the better to bridle the enemy and to train our people, which . . . had need to be spared at their first employment, especially for the field and towards winter, yet would I not fail to touch the same in a word or two, to the end that at the least so many as shall be necessary for the guard of those two places may be reserved and ready to be sent thitherwards upon the first advertisement.”—The Hague, 17 September, 1585.
Postscript.—The deputies of Frise, Guelders and Utrecht are absent. Those of Zeeland have been here since Monday, and have urged me to write to you for six more ensigns “to be sent into their parts after the fourteen appointed, pretending great need of them,” besides which you must reserve seven or eight companies for the Brill, Flushing and Rammekins, “so that this deduction will unfurnish and disappoint you for the exploit you have in hand, besides that I find the Council of Estate desirous to have the rest distributed into several garrisons.
“Of the enterprise, I have understood somewhat from Schenke, who intreated me to help it forward in your behalf, but being a matter that tendeth to the hazarding of her Majesty's forces— whose misadventure should not only give matter of triumph to the enemy and astonishment to this people so soon after the loss of Antwerp, but also of offence to her Majesty, because they are now employed and entertained upon the general contract . . . I have made no haste to recommend it unto you”; especially as her Majesty's direction for the troops to be employed in the cautionary towns is first to be looked to, and cannot be ordered to her contentment unless you are present yourself.
Touching the companies entertained by the States, Mr. Secretary has written to me to confer with you about adding a thousand of them to the rest under her Majesty's pay, and also about some other things concerning this service.
Minute. Endd. 1 p., very closely written. [Holland III. 77.]
Sept. 18/28.M. de Mauvissière.
Certificate by the above that Mr. Jehan Florio, for the two years during which he had been in his service, and especially as instructor of his daughter Katherine Maria in languages and other honourable care of his affairs, bore himself prudently and faithfully, and gave occasion for warm commendation and praise from himself and all his household, so that in future, whatever in his favour, he or his may be able to do, they engage not to omit it.—London, 28 September, 1585. Signed. Latin. ½ sheet. [France XIV. 84.]
Duplicate of the above.
Signed. Latin. ½ sheet. [Ibid. XIV. 85.]
Sept. 18.Walsingham to Davison.
Presently after the signing and sealing of the amended Act by my lords the commissioners, I sent it to the deputies here, asking them to convey it over as speedily as might be ; but they first desired conference with me, when they declared that at the instant of receiving the Act, they were advertised from that side “that the States understanding that her Majesty was now resolved to wade thoroughly into the action,” meant to despatch one presently with further direction to treat in the cause, until whose coming they prayed to be excused from sending the Act over. But I find her to insist still very earnestly that Mushing and Brill be delivered into your hands ; alleging that if she causes a nobleman to make ready to go over, and then they make difficulty to deliver the towns, “it would sound greatly to her dishonour.”
And on the other side, I fear that they may make stay in the delivery (being as they term them, the keys of their surety) until those be nominated to them that shall receive them at your hands; “wherein how you may carry yourself, I leave your own discretion,” who are an eye-witness of their proceedings and humours, not doubting that “such as are ill-affected may have no advantage given them to breed any doubt or jealousy in the people's hearts of the sincerity of her Majesty's meaning towards them.”—Nonsuch, 18 September, 1585.
Signed. Add. Endd. 1. p. [Holland III. 78.]
Also, “Copy of the above.” [Ibid. III. 79.]
Sept. 18.Walsingham to Davison.
Desiring him to inform the States General that her Majesty wishes them to renew the powers of the Council of State until such times as she shall send over a nobleman, at whose coming “they may with his advice, upon conference with the well-affected and experienced in the state of the country . . . establish further either that or some other form of government that shall be found most convenient.”—Nonsuch, 18 September, 1585.
Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Ibid. III. 80.]
Copy of the above.
Endd. ½ p. [Ibid. III. 81.]
Sept. 18/28.The Bailiff and Magistrates of Flushing to Davison.
The report by M. Jehan vander Becke, councillor and pensionary of their town, of her Majesty's care for it and its inhabitants has been received with due reverence and affection, and has so confirmed them in their desire to do her service that they would esteem nothing difficult which she commanded them. Thanking her humbly, they beg her to continue her good offices, which they hope some day to repay. They have desired their said councillor to pray his honour to grant them, in behalf of her Majesty, certain articles which they believe to be both for her service and for the good of the town.—Flushing, 28 September, 1585. Signed, A. Oillarts.
Add. Endd. Fr.. 1 ¼ pp. [Ibid. III. 82.]
Enclosing:
Articles which the Magistrates of Flushing desire Davison to sign on behalf of her Majesty.
1. That the inhabitants of Flushing may have free trade into England, paying only such dues as do the English themselves, and that the said inhabitants shall not be molested or stayed, either by sea or land, for any debts of the States General or of Zeeland, to her Majesty or to others.
2. That the English merchants who are not of the Company of Merchants Adventurers may traffic freely into the town without molestation or hindrance, unless the Merchants Adventurers shall make their residence there as they have formerly done in Antwerp and now do in Middelburg; to effectuate which her Majesty shall lend her helping hand.
3. That the temple or church shall still belong to the inhabitants of the town, and that the Governor shall arrange with the States General for some place to serve as church for the garrison.
4. That her Majesty shall not charge the town with extraordinary garrison, by which its trade might be hindered and the inhabitants more heavily charged and inconvenienced in their lodgings than at present.
5. That her Majesty will observe all the articles of the Treaty made with the States General on [August 10–20] 1585, which any way touch the inhabitants, and that this promise may be of as great force as if those of Flushing had themselves made the Treaty.
6. That the ambassador will procure letters patent from her Majesty to the said town for the inviolable observation of the above articles.
Fr. 2 p. [Holland III. 83.]
Sept. 19.Count of Neuwenar to Walsingham.
Believes his honour is well aware of the tractation between the Elector of Cologne and himself, and of the justice of his cause. Desires to be commended to her Majesty and grieves much that affairs are carried on so coldly and that he cannot do more service to her and to this country.—Utrecht, 19 September, 1585.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. III. 84.]
Sept. 20/30.Colonel Norreys to Walsingham.
Recommending Captain Francis Littelton, “a gentleman of long abode in these parts, and for his sufficiency a man to be well accounted of,” who is going into England to levy some soldiers to fill up his company.—Camp by Utrecht, the last of September, 1585, stilo novo.
Signed. Add. Endd. ½ p. [Ibid. III. 85.]