Henry VIII
January 1545, 1-10


Institute of Historical Research



James Gairdner and R. H. Brodie (editors)

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'Henry VIII: January 1545, 1-10', Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 20 Part 1: January-July 1545 (1905), pp. 1-20. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=80373 Date accessed: 17 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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January 1545, 1-10

1. Chapuys and Van Der Delft to Mary of Hungary.
viii., No. 19.
Since arriving here have received several letters from her touching English outrages upon the Emperor's subjects about Arras and upon sailors from Nieuport, Dunkirk and Ostend. Upon these and innumerable other complaints, and also for the daily seizure of ships, they remonstrated to the Council and expected a definite reply yesterday; but the Council informed them that orders had been sent to the Admiral to enquire into the matter. Unless other steps are taken the Emperor's subjects will suffer notable injury. The reply to the Arras complaint is that it shall be considered. London.
1 Jan.2. Subsidy.
R. O.Acknowledgment by Edm. bp. of London of receipt, by his vice-collector, from Mr. Wm. Latymer, master of the college of St. Laurence Poultney, London, of 71. 19s. 9½d. for an annual rent or pension due to the King by authority of Parliament-at Christmas last: and of 71. 3s, 10d. for the second payment of a certain subsidy likewise due. Dated 1 Jan. 36 Hen. VIII. Signed per me Joh'em Crooke, vic.
ii. Paid also by the said Wm. for two stipendiaries in the said college and one stipendiary in the church of All Hallows, upon their salaries, 20s. Signed.
Lat., p. 1 (§i being a printed form with blank spaces for names and amounts).
1 Jan.3. Gunners at Mersea.
R. O.Receipt, given 1 Jan. 36 Hen. VIII., by Ralfe Byrkehed, captain of the bulwark at Marza, Robt. Rowse, his lieutenant, Wm. Germen, porter, and Wm. Hepe, Geo. Mundon and Robt. Preston, gunners there, for payment by Fras. Jobson, a particular receiver of the Augmentations in co. Essex, of their wages from 1 Oct. to "the last day of September (sic), being the space of four score [and twelve] days." Amounts detailed, total 251. 6s. Signed: Rec. by me Ralfe Brykenhed, captayne.
Large paper, p. 1.
1 Jan.4. The Privy Council to Shrewsbury and Others.
Add. MS.
32,656, f. 117
B M.
ii., No. 395
The King, perceiving the untrue proceedings of the earl of Anguishe and Sir George Dowglas without any remembrance of the help they found at his hands in their necessity, and thinking that to get them into his hands would be a help to his affairs and a terror to all the rest, prays you to send word to the wardens to devise for trapping them, Besides the expenses of achieving the thing the King would give for the earl 2,000 cr. and for Sir George 1,000 cr., and requires the wardens to use dexterity and Shrewsbury to advise them.
Draft, pp. 2. Endd.: Minute to therle of Shrewesburie etc., primo Januarii 1544.
1 Jan.5. Lord Evers to Shrewsbury.
Add. MS.
32,656, f. 115.
B. M.
ii., No. 394.
This New Year's Day at 1 p.m. an espial who was in Edinburgh yesterday reported that at 10 a.m. to-day he saw 20 ships off St. Abbes Head. Believes them to be the Scots ships bound for France. The espial says that the Governor, Angus, Cardinal, and Sir George Douglas are in Edinburgh but there is no other great assembly. The Governor and Cardinal had sharp words and the Governor half drew his sword, but they have spoken "charflie" together since. Sir George Douglas and the Cardinal are very great together.
A servant of the laird of Burnestane's has just arrived with letters in cipher to the King. Another espial says that the Governor, Cardinal and other lords at last Council, after they had been at Coldyngham, made bond to the French ambassador "that the French king shall have the young Queen to marry where he list." Also that in the spring both Queens shall be sent into France. Berwick, 1 Jan. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.: 1544.
1 Jan.6. Mary Queen Of Scots to Charles V.
viii. No. 1.
Sends David Paniter to congratulate him upon his peace with France and beg him to remain friendly with Scotland. Stirling, kal. Jan. Signed by Arran.
3 Jan.7. Chapuys and Vander Delft to Charles V.
viii. No. 2.
Arrived here late on the day before Christmas Eve and next day notified the Council that they would not importune the King for audience in the holidays, but leave it to his pleasure. On Christmas Day the King sent the secretary of the Council to welcome them; and they requested audience, which was granted for next day or Sunday. Chose Sunday, (fn. 1) after dinner, but on Saturday evening, Winchester and Mr. Bertellet came to say that the King would prefer the morning. Doubtless he desired people to see them. Met him going to Mass, and Vander Delft handed him the Emperor's letters; but he forgot, both then and afterwards, to make the usual enquiries after the Emperor's health. The King then entered his oratory and the writers were conducted to the oratory of the Queen, whom they thanked for her good offices in preservation of the amity and for her kindness to the Lady Mary. They then saluted the Lady Mary, who was "humbly thankful" for the Emperor's greetings. Were then taken to the King's oratory, who, after mass, greeted them heartily, saying that neither Chapuys nor himself seemed so well as they were in the camp at Boulogne—and indeed he seems much broken. He said very loudly that the French had been whipped both by land and sea, his ships of war had lately seized a great quantity of wine, his subjects of the West had taken over 50 French ships, and the men of Rye had not been backward. Dined with the Council, whom they asked to move the King to send to the Queen Dowager of Hungary certain Frenchmen taken by an English ship of war while attacking a Zealand ship off the coast of Zealand. Also remonstrated with them upon the embargo at Dover of 18 or 20 ships laden for France by the Emperor's subjects. They replied that some of the ships were laden with herring, whereas the conveyance of victuals to France was prohibited, and the other merchandise seemed to belong to Frenchmen; and, from the Chancellor's look, while he whispered something to Hertford, the writers suspect that it is not meant to release these ships until the Emperor answers the demands made by Hertford and Winchester. Ten or twelve more ships which brought goods from Antwerp have also been embargoed.
Were then summoned to the King, who graciously insisted on Chapuys being seated before himself. Detail subsequent interview between the King and Chapuys, who began by saying that the Emperor was surprised that his answer to Hertford and Winchester was not thought sufficient, the demand made by them being both ill-grounded and confused, and really amounting to a request for prohibition of trade between the Emperor's subjects and the French, to the Emperor's hurt, whereas even during the heat of the war trade was allowed under safe-conducts; the peace made by the King's consent must extend to subsidiary points. The King, who had listened impatiently, here broke in angrily saying that he never consented except on condition that he was satisfied, the Dukes of Alburquerque and Suffolk were witnesses, besides Arras, De Courrieres and Chapuys, to whom he never gave credence to convey such a report to the Emperor, whereas his own ambassador was properly accredited and should be believed. An angry altercation followed, but Chapuys persisted that he himself had heard the expressions which Arras and De Courrieres reported to the Emperor, and reminded the King that while he remained at Boulogne he never contradicted them, and that at the request of Du Bellay he des-patched a courier with Secretary 1'Aubespine to inform the Emperor that he might proceed in treating with France as he (Henry) expected to obtain his conditions. The King said flatly that this was a lie; but he did not refute the assertion, only disputing about the time of the occurrence and in his anger getting quite confused about the comings and goings of Du Bellay and Arras. Softened by Chapuys' protestations, he then gave his own account of what he said to Arras, viz., that he blamed those who advised the Emperor to advance so far into France, and said that the Emperor might negociate, and he would convey his views more fully through his ambassador. Chapuys pointed out that thus no conclusion was possible, neither the Emperor nor the Ambassador being empowered; and the King retorted that the ambassador was empowered, but had no occasion to exhibit such powers since the peace was concluded either before or soon after Arras left on his mission. Chapuys argued the contrary, pointing out that the Emperor subsequently captured Soissons; but this the King contradicted, and said that he did not complain at Boulogne because Chapuys gave him to understand that, according to the Queen's letters, the Emperor was negociating for him. This Chapuys disproved by reminding him that after their interview Winchester and the General dcs Guerres (fn. 2) came to inform Chapuys and De Courrieres that Du Bellay had reported the conclusion of peace and the French King's submission to arbitration, whereupon Chapuys had had an altercation with Winchester, maintaining that, even without such submission, the Emperor was justified in concluding peace; moreover, when the Emperor's letters brought word of the treaty and submission Chapuys had reported them and also had conversed with the King at his leaving Boulogne and heard no objection.
Having thus failed to convince them by argument, the King said that this wrangling was waste of time, negociations must be in writing, as he had always conducted them. Chapuys answered that during the 15½ years he had been here he had never written a word in any negociation and in this affair it was unnecessary, as it consisted simply of the three points (of the Emperor's answer); the treaty enabled him to return to his original demands and had moreover stipulated that the French king should leave the friendship of the Turk, submit the question of pensions to arbitration and abstain from aiding the Scots. The King turned the matter aside and incidentally allowed that he had made sure that the French would accept his conditions. Chapuys promptly remarked that therefore he had so frankly consented to the Emperor's treaty, and a conversation followed about the best means of treating, as discussed when Framoiselles came first to the camp at Boulogne, the King saying that Chapuys had commended the besieging of Boulogne, and Chapuys replying that, on the contrary, he had complained to some of the ministers that it violated the terms of the treaty. The King retorted that none of his ministers would bear out this, and ended by saying that all the world murmured that the Emperor had made peace without him. Finally, he referred them to his Council, and suggested that, as it would be inconvenient to return from Greenwich at night, they should meet the Council next morning. Next day, to show some resentment for the rudeness they had experienced, they sent the Council word that they were both indisposed. Yet the King was evidently sorry for his treatment of them and not displeased at the Emperor's delay, but only anxious as to the Emperor's intentions when that delay expired, which he calculated would be in eight or ten days, counting from the giving of the answer to his ambassadors. Reminded him that he had said the terms conveyed to him by Arras would be hard even if their object was to release the Emperor from prison. He thereupon passionately declaimed about the two marriages as a most unwise condition.
Since writing the above yesterday, to avoid discussion before "such a turmoil of Councillors," requested, in view of the importance of the matter and their indisposition, that the King should instruct some of his Councillors to wait upon them. He deputed Hertford, Winchester and Paget, to whom this morning (discussion detailed), Chapuys said that the affairs in hand were of the highest consequence and should be heard by the nation at large if the common talk was, as reported, that the Emperor had failed in his obligations; certain unpleasant passages had occurred in their interview with the King which any other minister than Chapuys would probably have resented; the matter at issue was, 1st, whether the Emperor ought to make the declaration demanded, and, 2nd, the unpleasant assertion of the violation of the treaty (i.e. by the King) which gave the Emperor rights that he would certainly not renounce. Chapuys then repeated the substance of the discussion with the King. The Deputies wished to make out that before the return of Arras the Emperor's peace with France was ready for signature, war having slackened and the French Admiral being with the Emperor; and that this had been reported by the English ambassador and not denied by Granvelle. Chapuys answered in the terms of the Emperor's letter to De Courrieres and himself from Soissons. He further demonstrated (arguments given) that French invasions since the peace would not justify the Emperor's renewal of war, nor ought the Emperor to continue the hostility with Scotland; and he pointed out the opening which a general war gave to the Turk, and the ability of the English unaided to resist the French. As to non-fulfilment of the treaty the Deputies said that in besieging Montreuil and Boulogne the King followed the Emperor's example of St. Disier, and he might easilyhave led his army across the Somme and then sent the Emperor notice that unless the latter raised the siege of St. Disier and marched to his aid he must make peace. Chapuys, however, reminded them how, twice, before the King left England, he urged the King to pursue the main intention of marching on Paris, but was met with coolness and the allegation of difficulties which must have existed even when the Viceroy was here, and how his last conference with the Council was "peremptorily closed by one more subtle than the rest" in order that the Emperor might not know that the King did not mean to fulfil the plan; the King repeatedly declared that he would a hundred times rather capture Boulogne than Paris, and the Emperor's ministers had shown that Boulogne and Montreuil need not be captured, as the King could easily advance along the Emperor's frontier, whereas the Emperor had to depend on Lorraine for victuals and without St. Disier could get none; the plain truth was that the sieges of Boulogne and Montreuil did not excuse the King from fulfilling the main plan, that of Montreuil was a mere sham to gain time, while that of Boulogne, which might have been taken by assault at the first bombardment, was purposely prolonged. To this the deputies could make no reply, but Winchester said that in presence of De Courrieres and Chapuys he had asked Arras whether he was instructed to complain of non-fulfilment by the King, and was answered in the negative. Chapuys "easily upset this contention" and pointed out, as of himself, what an advantage it would have been to the Emperor if the King had remained neutral; for then his Majesty need not have chosen the difficult route through Champagne, taken at the King's request, and might have saved the cost of the horse and foot raised for the King and the 2,000 men at sea, and received 200,000 cr. from the Netherlander for exemption from furnishing supplies; the Netherlands had suffered much by the prohibition of trade with France, English ships had plundered the Emperor's subjects, principally Spaniards, of 150,000 ducats' worth of goods, and just before the war 40,000 cr. worth belonging to merchants of Burgos was seized at Southampton; the deputies boasted of their armies, but the French made so little account of them that even the garrisons would have gone away to fight the Emperor had it not been for the Imperial troops under Arschot and De Roeulx. Winchester repeated what he said at Brussels, viz., that their master's friendship had greatly aided the Emperor. Chapuys told him that this constant repetition took the form of a reproach, and it was equally true that God granted the Emperor success even when he was the King's enemy, as when Lautrec was defeated; and, to go further back, before the alliance with Spain, England had suffered terrible combustion through the Scots, Peterkin Warbeck, the Marshal of the West, and others; and as for the capture of the French king the English could not boast therein, for, after Mr. Russell, no one knew better than Chapuys what became of the broad angels the King was then sending,—part of them were at Genoa, part at Rome, and a small sum handed to M. de Bourbon for his expedition to Provence; it was absurd to assert that the English troops sent to Landrecis caused the submission of the Duke of Cleves, who probably did not know of their existence, and whose submission must be ascribed to God and the battle of Daren (Düren). Here all three deputies interrupted him, and confessed that the alliance had been advantageous to both. As to the supply of waggons, when Chapuys had related the matter and the efforts of the Queen they had nothing more to say, especially when he pointed out the discourtesy used in sending all the best mares into England for breeding, the King himself having sent over 200 besides those exported privately from Holland and elsewhere.
See no sign that the King is negociating with France; on the contrary he fortifies Boulogne and has retained M. Loys de l' Arme, a Bologneae,Count Bernard de St. Boniface, a Veronese, and one Philip Prince of Bucharest to go to Venice and look out Italian soldiers, pending the coming to them of the Queen's secretary with instructions and money. This secretary goes first to the Diet of Worms; and, upon what he learns there, will either go to Italy or engage troops in Germany. The King has also decided to send some one to the King of Denmark. Knew this some days ago, and Paget has now informed them of it.
Ended the interview by requesting the deputies to use their influence that the King might be satisfied. Hertford and Winchester promised to do their best, if only in return for their treatment when with the Emperor. They seemed convinced that the Emperor would make the declaration when the ten weeks expired; but, before leaving, they asked earnestly if the writers bore any fresh message on the subject, since the Emperor had said to Hertford and Winchester that he would send ambassadors to satisfy the King, whereas hitherto they had had no new justification nor satisfaction. Replied that the King would accept the justification as satisfactory. London,3 Jan. 1545.
3 Jan.8. Wotton to Henry VIII.
R. O.
St. P.,x. 237.
On the 2nd inst., in the afternoon, Monsr. Darras and Dr. Boisot, of the Emperor's Council came to show him that since Darras was last with him other complaints were made of wrongs done to the Emperor's subjects, and specially that now of late a whole fleet of ships of these countries had been taken by Henry's subjects, so that the Emperor could not but be moved and wonder that such things were suffered, and he must reform the matter if Henry did not speedily reform it. The Emperor desired this to be signified to Henry, and the enclosed copy of the complaint was delivered to Wotton. Answered that, though the Emperor and his Council could do no less than hear such complaints, it was always wise not to give too much faith to them till the accused were heard; and Henry's subjects daily complained of wrongs done them by the Emperor's subjects. In this communication Darras stated that this is not the way to entertain the amity and that people cry out that it were better to have open war with England than, under colour of friendship, to be worse treated than enemies. Thinks it expedient to advertise this matter with speed.
The Emperor begins to mend, and will depart hence as soon as he can ride; not to Andwerpe but straight to Coleyn. The voice continues that from Wormes he returns hither. "What that should mean I cannot perceive." Gand, 3 Jan. 1544. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.
3 Jan.9. Wotton to Paget.
R. O.Here are "nothing but complaints upon complaints," which I advertise with diligence because in this bill of complaint sent now it is required that our ships and men here may be stayed and because Mons. Darras said the people cry out that it were better to have open war with us, and I cannot tell whether these words which he ascribes to the people might not rather be spoken by some of the Councillors, such as he is. Albeit he says he has good affection to the amity, I have had my fill of such words. He used earnest obtestntions requiring me, as I tendered the amity, to write earnestly for redress of this matter.
Here was a tale that the kintg of Romans was coming hither in post, but there is no likelihood of it, and the master of the posts says that he hears nothing of it. "Here is great search made for heretics and many daily brought in out of the country." Gand, 3 Jan. 1544. Signed.
P.1. Add. Endd: 3 Decemb. (sic) 1544.
3 Jan.10. Wotton to Paget.
R. O.Whereas the Emperor had sent part of the Spaniards that he had in France towards Hungary, and dismissed part of them, who were already gone into Zeeland to embark for home; I now hear that all who were going home are stayed, and "conjecture that these complaints of the taking of their ships is the cause of it; whereof I thought expedient to give advertisement." Gand, 3 Jan. 1544. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.
3 Jan.11. Francis I.
(3rd edit),
Legations de
Suede &c.,
p. 10.
Instructions to the Sieur Richer, Ambassador to Denmark. Presenting the King's letters and commendations, he shall remind the King of Denmark of their treaty (copy delivered to Richer) and show him how that he is specially included in the late treaty of peace with the Emperor (copy of the article also delivered). Richer shall then tell how last year the King of England, seeing the King's forces engaged against the Emperor, invaded his country and found means to take the town of Boulogne, fortified it, and then, on the King's approach, fled into England. It being already winter, the King could not encamp at Boulogne; but a powerful fleet is being reserved to invade England when the season arrives, as the best way to constrain the enemy to make restitution and satisfaction, and perhaps, with God's grace, to deliver the people of England from his tyranny. Knowing that the said King of England acts unjustly towards him in some things (lay tient tort de plusieurs choses) and this is the time for him to obtain satisfaction, the King invites his co-operation; and expects that, threatened with their two fleets and the Scots, the King of England, who is hated by his nobility and subjects for well known reasons and exhausted by two years of great expense, will, like most of his predecessors, find himself deserted by his own subjects.
Should the King of Denmark point out that even if it were a question of defending the King's own countries he is not bound by the treaty to lend aid unless at the King's expense, Richer shall reply that in France he could not profit by the war and therefore it is only reasonable that the King should bear the whole expense, but that this is a question of making conquests from England of which he will retain what he takes; and moreover it would cost him little, seeing that his ships are always ready and many of his subjects will join in the enterprise for their own profit, if he gives them permission, to which Richer shall endeavour to persuade him; adding that the King has already allocated all the expenditure he can bear.
If reiterated persuasions avail nothing, Richer shall urge the King of Denmark at least not to lend or allow his subjects to lend ships, material or men against the King. Should the King of Denmark point out that, upon the King's promise, he expended 200,000fl. and set forth a fleet, expecting the King to send him 100,000 cr., Richer shall let him know that the King, although burdened with expenses, sent to Strasburg, by Count Glig, 50,000 cr. for him, which remained there eighteen days until the Sieur de Fresse, then ambassador with him, wrote that he was determined to make no enterprise until he had the whole sum in hand, and then only war by sea, although Hans Ranso by the agreement at Cleves promised that it should be made both by land and sea.
Richer shall use the blanks delivered to him for writing on the King's behalf to the Kings of Sweden (aux Roys de Suede), dukes of Prussia and Lunebourg, and other Easterling towns of the Teutonic Hanse, &c. Fontainebleau, 8 Jan., 1544.
4 Jan.12. Chapuys to Charles V.
viii. No. 3.
Since the enclosed joint letter from Chapuys and his colleague was written, Hertford, Winchester and Paget came to-day, as they said, to chat with him privately. After apologising for the King's behaviour last Sunday, they said they could not believe that Chapuys had come to England only to repeat statements already made at Brussels. Replied that the mission was important enough to justify the coming of a greater man; albeit, if the matter had been understood before, his coming now might have been somewhat unnecessary. Showed letters from the Queen of Hungary complaining of recent excesses by English troops near Arras and ill-treatment of men of Dunkirk, Nieuport and Ostend,—as fresh proof that the King's neutrality would have been to the Emperor's advantage; adding that a Spaniard had this morning promised to furnish a statement of Spanish losses far exceeding the amount he named the day before. The Councillors looked blankly at each other, but could not reply. They said that, as Chapuys knew, the King was very amenable to friendly approaches, and a few amiable words written to him by the Emperor would influence him more than anything. Asked what kind of words? They answered that the Emperor might assure the King of his sincere amity and intention to fulfil all engagements; and then, after hesitation, they added that the letter should contain a third clause, viz., that the Emperor was satisfied with what the King had done in the enterprise and intended to fulfil the terms of the treaty. Chapuys laughed and said he was surprised that they did not add a demand for the Emperor to beg the King's pardon; his own opinion was that the King had broken the treaty, and since, as they said, all the world was talking unfavourably of the Emperor and they had raised a doubt about the King's consent given to Arras, it was necessary to let the world know what really happened. Asked them what the King would do if the Emperor consented to write as desired. They answered, consent to the delay. Replied that though the delay was three times as long the Emperor would be under no obligation for it, in view of what passed upon the King's declaration against Cleves and Denmark. Told them he did not believe the King so bad a friend as to ask the Emperor to throw all Christendom into danger, without any benefit to the King (for now the strength of France was reduced by the French contingent against the Turk) and to the destruction of the trade on which the Netherlanders depended; the French king would not care a cabbage for the declaration. As a hint towards a settlement, Chapuys said that he thought them unwise to press for a declaration; there were other means. They asked eagerly what these means were. Told them, as in confidence, that the Emperor did not desire the arbitration,—adjudicating between two enemies might gain the friendship of one, but between two friends it could only turn one into an enemy; nevertheless, the best means of settlement appeared to be this arbitration. They finally approved the suggestion. London, 4 Jan. 1545.
4 Jan.13. Vaughan to Wriothsley.
R. O.Jasper Dowche lately told me, as I signified to the Council, that he and the Fowkers have communed together about the furniture of a good sum of money to the King; and, after waiting about fourteen days for an answer out of Almain from the chiefs of the house of Fowkers, which is now come, he tells me that, if licensed to bring into England certain jewels, which he purposes to show the King, without paying custom unless he chance to sell them, he will indelayedly repair to the King, and there bargain for any sum the King pleases, upon the credit of the Staplers and other merchants, and will also bargain for the King's lead and devise other ways to furnish money. If this be the King's pleasure I will send him. He covets to have me with him; and doubtless, as well acquainted with the man, I could always show the King "to what end he worketh, what he may be able to do, and what close devices he fantasieth," and could spur him forward. "If he come, do your Lordship but only provide to feed his glorious mind and ye may make him do marvels, for, without doubt, he may do great things here and shalbe a very necessary instrument to serve the King's Majesty in these parts, during the wars of the same."
A man of good reputation here lately showed me how evil he misliked the late peace with the French king, saying that the Emperor still burdens these Low Countries with such heavy payments that, if the French chance to set upon them, they will be in great danger; and that the bruit is that the Emperor lies sick of the gout, but is really more sick of melancholy that he has so imprudently made a peace which will work him displeasure when he was well forward to have a triumphant victory over the French king, with the aid of the Almains, Spaniards and his other subjects, whereas this peace "bringeth th'Almains in a suspicion of him, the Spaniards in a loathsomeness to serve him, and all others to fear (afar off) lest the same will bring a bitter end." He added that the Emperor promised to be at the Diet in Almain, "but neither he goeth ne is thought to go to it." Thus I perceive the peace to be evil liked among the wise sort; who also marvel that nothing is done at Cambraye. As for the conclusions of the peace, no man I have talked with has read them or heard any man certainly talk of them. The Turk is come on this side Constantinople and gathers a great army. If the Emperor have any wars, either with the Turk or other prince, he will be evil served both of the Almains and Spaniards. Begs answer touching Jasper Dowche's coming and the licence. Three weeks past I signified both to the Council and Mr. Secretary Paget Douche's desire to know whether to come to England, but have received no answer. He entreats me to write for delivery of his woad; but I perceive that, as he may be set a work to recover other men's goods, the King prudently stays delivery thereof. Andwerp, 4 Jan.
Hol., pp. 3. Add.: lord Chancellor. Endd.: 1544.
4 Jan.14. Vaughan to Paget.
R.O.As I have already signified, Jasper Dowche daily resorts to me to know whether I have answer concerning his coming into England. As the Council commanded me to seek means to bring him into England, and I have brought it to pass that he now covets to go thither, I should know the King's pleasure betimes, or else it may be thought that the King passes not upon his coming. Please let me know if the King will license him to bring certain jewels and plate free of custom unless sold. The ship wherein I laded your diaper damask is departed hence, "but the wind hath been so wavering that I know not where he (sic) is become." Pray help me among the Queen's Councillors for the acceptation and payment of an account of my wife's for things delivered. It is a great sum and much to my hindrance to forbear it so long. Andwerp, 4 Jan.
Hol., p. 1. Add. Endd.: 1544.
5 Jan.15. The Benevolence.
Commission. Sec Grants in January, No. 5.
16. [The Privy Council] to ——
R. O.Having always reputed you men of honesty, wisdom and good affection to the King's service, and knowing you to be in the same estimation with his Majesty, we require your assistance in a matter which we "intend to break unto you." It has been sundry times of late notified to you why his Majesty entered this war with France, and how he "is now left alone destitute of him that should always have taken such part as his Majesty doth" With sending two great armies against Scotland, keeping garrisons on those borders and armies upon the seas in those quarters, sending aid to the Emperor against the Frenchmen, going in person against them, and now entertaining continually by land and sea 35,000 men, all that his good subjects gave, and six times more of his own besides, is defrayed. The Frenchmen are determined to invade his Highness" pieces beyond sea and also this realm and the Scots mean to invade the North parts; so that two or three great armies must be levied for defence, or else the enemies will destroy us, our wives and children, with fire and sword; and, albeit the money which his subjects have contributed is small in comparison with what has been defrayed and must be further expended, "yet, it is no small charge to every man apart," and his Highness is loth to charge them further, but would rather furnish the necessity by other means if you will endeavour yourselves therein so discreetly as he conceives that you will, "and that is, of every parish church where are two chalices of silver or moo to take one [and likewise such other silver plate as may conveniently be spared in the same], (fn. 3) which matter as it may to some men that either want experience or a right judgment of things seem somewhat strange" (breaks off' abruptly).
Draft, pp. 9.
17. Henry VIII. to the Commissioners for the Benevolence.
R. O.Our enemy the French king means to do his uttermost for the recovery of Bulloyne and annoyance of us and our subjects, but, God willing, shall perceive that he has "to do with a prince and a nation which have lost no piece of the virtue of their progenitors and forefathers." Our charges last year, upon the league entered with the Emperor for the benefit of Christendom and recovery of our right to the crown of France, and the great preparations now to be made, have and will exhaust more money than we can sustain without the help of our subjects; and, knowing by experience our people to be so loving towards us that they will as gladly contribute what is necessary by way of benevolence as if it were granted by Parliament, we forbear troubling them to repair hither, and, by our Council's advice, require those of the value of (blank) and upwards to contribute what they conveniently may by way of benevolence. Having confidence in you, as men of experience and gravity, to give a precedent yourselves in contributing liberally, we have appointed you our commissioners in that our county of — (blank) and sent herewith certain instructions and our commission; praying you to use diligence and discretion, so that those of whom we desire this relief may see that it is for their own cause, not pressing any poor man where you know it is not to be had, and that the money may be paid to the treasurer appointed by the day prescribed in the instructions. Signed at the head with the stamp.
Draft, pp. 3. Begins: Right reverend father in God. Endd.: M. to the bisshops for the benevolence.
Cleop. F. vi.
B. M.
2. Another draft also signed with the stamp and worded as addressed to a bishop.
Pp. 3.
R. O. 3. Earlier draft of the preceding, beginning "We greet you well."
Pp. 9. Endd.: Mynute of a l're to divers lordes, etc., for the benevolence.
18. The Benevolence.
Lansd. MS.
2 f. 32.
B. M.
Names of Commisioners to obtain a benevolence for maintenance of the King's wars in 36 Hen. VIII.
Lists of Commissioners and some of the totals paid in cos. Kent (6,471l. 8s. 2d.), Herts, Midd., Line, Suss. (1,861l. 3s.) and Hants. (2,453l. 15s. 2d.).
Later hand, pp. 3.
5 Jan.19. The King's Return from Calais in 1544.
Add. MS.
5,753, f. 123.
B. M.
Suffolk's warrant to Sir Ric. Southwell, to pay Anthony Rous, master of the Jewel House, and Walter Myldemaie, one of the King's auditors, 27l. 7s. 6d., viz. 10l. 14s. 10d. to Rous for conveying eight loads of plate and jewels from Cales castle to the Tower of London in November. last (items for packing, carriage by road from Dover, watching, etc., set out); and 16l. 12s. 8d. to Eous and Myldemaie for "carriage of one load of the King's Majesty's treasure and books of the wars" from Cales to London, and waiting at Cales for ten days about taking the water-bailey's account for transportation of the army and "perfecting the remembrances of the estates of the furniture and victuals" of Cales and the rest of the King's pieces there (items detailed). Given 5 Jan. 36 Hen. VIII. Signed.
Pp. 2.
5 Jan.20. Sir William Wise to St. Leger.
R. O.I have both written and sent to my lord of Ormound to set forth the levy of the galloglas money. My lady his sister and he will be next Thursday at Mothel beside Curragh More, with the earl of Desmound and Sir Thomas Butler and a great resort of people, for an obsequy for the soul of the lord Power, "where much devotion of meat and drink is prepared. The poor people are like to sing requiescant in pace, but I leave them to the furies of hell, for the more they cry the more sorrow increaseth. I desired Mr. Solicitor, for divers considerations, that it might be done in this city for avoiding of poor men's charges that now must make provision for galloglas money, which might be deferred by such charges. God send good success to them that meaneth well and small power to shrews, and to your Lordship as much honor as I do wish you. Although ye take me for the wily serpent which can neither tempt my lady and you ultra posse, I would there were no more bribes taken than is betwixt us." Waterford, Twelfth Eve.
Hol, p. 1. Add. Endd.
5 Jan.21. Charles V.
viii., No. 4.
Commission to Dr. Charles Boissot, to arrest English ships and property in Antwerp and Bergen. Ghent, 5 Feb. (sic) 1545.
5 Jan.22. Charles V. to Henry VIII.
Add. MS.
28,594, f. 67d.
B. M.
Begs credence for the Sieur de Torquen, "gentilhomme nous servant de bouche," with his (Charles') ambassadors resident, to declare certain things on his behalf.
French. Modern copy from Brussels, p. 1.
Add. MS.
28,594, f. 66.
B. M.
2. The Emperor's instruction to the Sieur de Torquen, sent to the King of England.
VIII., No. 5.]
To go with speed to his ambassadors, Chappuis and Vander Delft, deliver his letters and show this instruction, so as to have their advice. Then, presenting the Emperor's letters of credence to the King, he shall say that, ships of the Emperor's subjects being arrested by the English, and his requests for their release disregarded, the Emperor has no resource but to order a gentle arrest of all ships and merchandise of the King's subjects now here, and of the persons (moderately, however, and with as little bruit as possible), pending the King's answer, which, he hopes, will be such as the close amity requires. That he is despatched expressly to intimate this and to pray the King, in accordance with the treaty, to make the said release and in future let the Emperor's subjects pass freely. And that the Emperor has despatched his Councillor and master of requests, Messire Charles Boisot, &c, to declare to the English merchants the cause of the arrest and the Emperor's intention.
This is to be done with the utmost moderation, and the King is to be persuaded to take it well. Gand, 5 Jan. 1544.
If the King should answer that the ships were laden with merchandise and victuals for France, and therefore might lawfully be arrested, Torquen shall show him that even then it was not for him to arrest the Emperor's subjects, but rather to advertise the Emperor without actually proceeding against them contrary to the treaty. Thus he shall let the King know that the Emperor means to secure the indemnity of his subjects.
French. Modern copy from Brussels, pp. 3.
[5 Jan.]23. Charles V. to Chapuys and Vander Delft.
R. O.Having lately been advertised how the King of England has arrested a great number of ships of his subjects as carrying merchandise into France, although some of them were empty (in order to lade in France) and others were bound for Spain, has decided (after representation to the King's ambassador here resident, of which the bp. of Arras has particularly advertised them) the sooner to obtain release and to satisfy his subjects, with the most moderation and least bruit possible, to likewise arrest all the vessels and merchandise of the English here. This is already done, and letters of credence are sent to the Court-master of England at Antwerp by the Councillor Boisot(?), to declare the cause. Sends bearer, the Sieur de Torquoyn, gentleman of his mouth, with an instruction, by their advice, to speak to the King and Council for release of the said ships and merchandise.
Fr. Modern transcript of the original undated minute at Vienna, p. 1.
5 Jan.24. Charles V. to the Governor of the English Merchants at Antwerp.
R. O.
St. P., x. 243.
Credence for his Councillor and master of requests ordinary, M. Charles Boisot who is going to Antwerp and will speak to him touching the arrest of the persons, ships, merchandise and goods of the King of England's subjects. Gand, 5 Jan. 1544. Subscribed as signed, countersigned by Secretary Bave and addressed "A n're trescher et bien ame le courtmaistre de la nation Angloise demeurant en Anvers."
French. Copy, p. 1. Endd.
5 Jan.25. Charles V. to the Drossart of Berghen op Zoom.
R. O.
St. P. x. 243.
Subjects of the King of England have arrested several ships of our subjects as we have shown to his ambassador. While awaiting the King's answer, we will here arrest the persons, ships and goods of his subjects; and this we charge you to do at Berghes, gently, and with as little bruit as possible. Gand, 5 Jan. 1544. "Et estoit dessoubz escript 'Charlez' et soubz signe 'Bave.' Sur le doz estoit escript 'A n're chier et feal le drossart de Berghes sur le Zoom, ou son lieutenant.'"
French. Copy, p. 1. Endd.
5 Jan.26. Vaughan to John Dymock.
R. O.I have received your letter written on St. Stephen's Day and thank you for the news of the taking of the 16 sail of Frenchmen by our men of Fowee and Dartemowthe. It is three weeks since I wrote to the Council and to Mr. Paget, secretary, that Jasper Dowche would go into England if the King would license him to bring certain jewels free of custom unless sold there. "I have brought him to that pass that ye never saw man more desirous to go," and daily he sends to know if I have answer about it; which I marvel that I have not, seeing that I have written so oft to Mr. Secretary therefor. Pray speak therein. Jasper thinks himself mocked, and, unless taken in his heat, will never go. "Commend me, I pray you, to our friend Thomas Lock. With his fair wife he hath a crow to pull. I marvel that you desire not to make account of the money we received and paid, whiles ye be in England. Time draweth many perils. We may chance so to be sparpled abroad as we shall not meet togethers a good whiles." Andwerp, 5 Jan.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: To my very gentle and loving friend, Mr. John Dymok, London. Endd.: 1544.
5 Jan.27. Vaughan to Paget.
R. O.I have long looked for answer concerning Jasper Dowche's going into England, who thinks he is mocked and, unless he know the King's pleasure shortly, will never be brought thither. I have brought it to pass that he thirsts to go to the King. Pray let me know whether he may have licence to come and bring certain jewels free of custom unless he sell them. I will send or bring him as shall please the King. Wm. Damesell has great quantity of powder to be sent into England and abides to know whether wafters will be appointed for it. "It were time, I promise you, that it were gone from hence; for the people murmur and grudge at the conveyance of so great a quantity from hence, themself not knowing what need they may have; and what toy may fall in the th'Emperor's head to stay or prohibit the conveyance of powder hereafter, even when ye should much need it, who can tell?" Your damask diaper is gone long ago and. should be in England. Andwerp, 5 Jan, I beseech your help with the Queen's Council that I may have my late wife's reckoning allowed. Her Grace owes me a great deal of money, as bearer can tell; "and she spent her life in labouring and toiling in her Grace's works." Mr. Walsingham, Mr. Arondell, Mr. Buckeler and others are all my good friends, but at your remembrance they will do more than at my suit.
Hol, pp. 2. Add. Endd.: 1544.
5 Jan.28. Chr. Mont to Henry VIII.
R. O.
St. P., x. 239.
Immediately after writing last, began his journey to the Prince of Hesse; to whom he spoke at length of the dangers of the time, and the wiles of the Bishop of Rome and his hatred both of Henry and the Protestants, whom it behoved to join arms for the sake of the purity of the Gospel and the complete expulsion of the Bishop's tyranny from their dominions. The Landgrave in reply spoke of the failure of the last embassies and [said] that, with the present war between Henry and the French king, the towns of Higher Germany, who have many dealings with France, would object. Mont replied that the Protestant cities had far more dealings with England than with France, that what hitherto did not succeed might be done by more direct counsels, that it was evident to both that the coercion of the one party would weaken the other [and] that he was confident that Henry could be persuaded to enter this league. Finally the Landgrave said that he feared the Elector of Saxony would be against making this league; but agreed to send an ambassador of his own to sound the Elector, and to certify Mont by letter. He added that the league of the Protestants had many heads, and that he himself for his long friendship with Henry would undertake to send Henry 8,000 or 10,000 or more chosen footmen and 2,000 horsemen, at reasonable pay and under good leaders, to any place appointed, only they must not be used against the Emperor; and in return he wished condign remuneration, for he feared the French king, through the duke of Brunswick or some other papist, might trouble him for this. Mont thanked him for his goodwill, but thought that Henry would rather enter league with the whole Protestant body than with a single member of it. The Landgrave agreed that that would be more honorable, and would do his utmost to promote it. He then turned to the marriage of Lady Mary and suggested that the King of Denmark's brother, Adolphus duke of Holstein, aged 24, was a suitable match for both realms, because of the nearness of the cities of the Hanse, and as a means of restraining the Scots; and, in last Diet at Spires the whole controversy about the realm of Denmark had been remitted by the Emperor.
In returning to Strasburg, took his way by Worms, at the time when the cardinal's hat was there brought to the bp. of Augsburg, and likewise the brief of indiction of the General Council at Trent for 25 May next. Letters of indiction to the chief archbishops of Germany are now sent by the Bishop of Rome; for he (Romanus Veterator) strives with the fable of this Council to prevent any dealing with religion now, in this Diet. All the Emperor's concessions to the Lutherans last only until the observance of the General Council. There is report of a new league between the Emperor, Ferdinand, Poland, France, the Venetians and the Roman Bishop. What this Diet brings forth will appear after the Emperor's coming; meanwhile the delivery of the money collected is the main question. Datum apud postam prope Spiram, 1545, 5 Jan.,
Lat. Hol., pp. 3. Add, Endd.: 1544.
5 Jan29. Chr. Mont to Paget.
R. O.Wrote on the 14th ult. How he had begun his journey hence to the Landgrave; with whom what he did and what replies he received are written to the King. The cost of such a journey is beyond his means and he begs Paget so to commend him to the King that he may not lose his expenses. At Worms he caused the Emperor's quartermasters to assign a suitable lodging for Dr. Wotton; and, since the Emperor comes not yet, he returns to Strasburg to get rid of the horses worn out in this journey. Commendations to Dr. Peter. Ex posta apud Spiram, 5 Jan., 1545.
Lat. Hol., p. 1. Add. Endd.: 1544.
6 Jan.30. Wotton and Carne to Paget.
This night about 9 o'clock we received a letter from Mr. Stephen Vaughan signifying that this day at dinner, he and William Damsell were arrested by the scowtette of Andwerpe, as appears by the copy herewith. Divers who were captains under the Emperor in these last wars are recalled, "for what cause we know not." One of credit told Carne today at Court that an ambassador of Scotland (fn. 4) is arrived here to the Emperor. Gand, 6 Jan. 12 p.m. 1544. Signed.
In Wotton's hand, p. 1. Add. Endd.
r.o.2. [Vaughan to Wotton].
"Post scripta, sitting at dinner, there came unto our table the scowte of this town of Andwerpe, which, finding me and Mr. Damesell, a servant of the King's Majesty's, sitting together, arrested us both in the Emperor's name; but it was done very gently. And before us he charged our host, which is also an Englishman, with all such goods as we had in the house, and, without any other thing done to our persons or goods, gently took his leave." You may from Gawnt better despatch a post into England to signify this than we here. The like is undoubtedly done to every Englishman in Andwerpe and Barrow, "even this twelf day, and upon their ships."
Copy without name or address, p. 1.
6 Jan.31. Stephen Vaughan and William Damesell to Henry VIII.
R. O.
St. P., x. 241.
Describes how upon Twelfth Day, as he and Wm. Damesell sat at dinner with their host and hostess in the English house at Andwerp, the scowt of Andwerp arrested them, and noted the names of Damesell and the host in "a pair of writing tables"; and commanded that no goods should be conveyed out of the English house, but "neither sought the counting house, chest, nor other thing of me, Stephen Vaughan, being in the said house." He had already been at Damesell's lodging and sealed up his counting house, chests, and other things; and did the like to all other Englishmen. Doubtless no less is done in Barrow, where all the English merchants are at present, with their goods and ships, keeping their mart. Yesterday Vaughan despatched Hen. Maye, an officer of the English merchants, with a letter that Mr. Wotton directed to the lord Deputy of Calles, wherein (he guesses) was one to Henry. Andwerp, 6 Jan. Signed.
In Vaughan's hand, pp 2. Add. Endd.: 1544.
6 Jan.]32. John Sturgeon, Governor of the English Merchants at Antwerp, to the Company of Merchant Adventurers at London.
R. O.Andwarpe the 21 (sic) of Jenyver:—This day, at dinner time, all the merchants of our nation and their goods were arrested in the Emperor's name by the scowt, "and the names of such as were of certain free hosts' houses written by the Serjeants." Hearing, in my chamber within the English house, of the scowt's coming to me I came forth; and he, "with much humanity, required me neither to be displeased nor dismayed," and then arrested me, saying that complaint was made by certain merchants and mariners of Zelond that their ships and goods were "straynyd and pilled" by the King's subjects. I answered that I would obey his arrest; but as for the restraint it was doubtless for some great occasion, and as for the pilling "I was out of all doubt it was not so." At leaving he declared the arrest for all Englishmen within this house, "[and I] did accept the same; and so departyd Gilpin is son (?) ij owars past to ye Kynges embassador." Signed.
P.S.—The two borowmasters have since sent word that they would come and speak with me; which I gladly accepted, and they, coming with certain skepins, declared that the margrave, yesterday, at Brussels was commanded to arrest all ships and goods of England, upon complaint "by the lord Admiral and other merchants" of the detaining certain ships of this country by English men of war. They were sorry for it and trusted that the matter would be soon pacified; and they prayed us, if we heard of the release of the ships before they did, to inform them and they would procure our release. I required leave to send one of our company with a post to your worships, and was answered indirectly that the Emperor had sent to his ambassador yesterday; but, on my repeating the request, it was granted. We then agreed to send Mr. Caltrop. "Certen of or Inglis men war at j of ye clock at ye bere hed for to have gone over the water, but yal war stayed by sergantes of yls towne; and, as it is sayd, every gate kept with sergeantes. Thus wons agayne i do comyt [you] to God."
Hol., pp. 2. Add.: "To the worshipfull Emanuel Lucar, deputye to ye company of Marchant Venturars and to the generality of the same resident in London, present this lettar." Endd.: xxj January.
7 Jan.33. William Claye to the Council.
R. O.
St. P., x. 243.
On the 6th inst. came the Emperor's commission to the drossart of Barrow to arrest all Englishmen and their goods and ships; which is done. A commissioner of the Emperor has delivered me the Emperor's letter directed to the governor of the nation of the merchants Englishmen. The commissioner, named Charles Boisot, declared to me and the Company here that this arrest is at the suit of the Emperor's subjects whose goods are arrested in England, to the number of 36 great ships and rich; and that Donckerk and Newport exclaim that their fishermen have their fish taken from them. He added that the King's ambassadors had promised to write therein and, upon a good answer, all would be well; and the Emperor intended not war nor to break any point of the intercourse or league,, but only to defend his subjects, with many other gentle words. The lady Marquis of this town of Barrow and her officers commanded some of us to warn the rest of the Company to remain within the town and not convey out any of our goods, but only make good cheer. They refrained from taking an inventory of our goods or shutting up our pack houses; and they offered to help us with their lives and goods, as gently as we could require. This chance coming the night before our first show day could not be worse; for I have not seen in seven years so many buyers come in one day. It should have been a profitable market. Encloses copy of the Emperor's letter delivered by the commissary. Barrow, 7 Jan. 1544.
Hol, pp. 2. Add. Endd.
7 Jan.34. William Claye to Wotton.
R. O.On the 6th inst. command came from the Emperor to the drossart of Barow to arrest all Englishmen here, with their goods and ships; which is done, "but under a gentle manner." A commissioner from the Emperor has brought a letter of credence directed to the Governor, in whose absence it was delivered to the writer. The Commissioner, Mr. Charles Boisot, declared that this arrest is at the suit of the Emperor's subjects whose goods are arrested in like manner, to the number of 36 great and rich ships, and the complaint of Donekirke and Newport that they might not go a fishing, for their fish was taken from them. He added that Wotton had promised to write for reformation of the same, and upon a good answer all should be well; the Emperor intended no war, nor to break any article of intercourse or league with them, but only to defend his subjects. "Sir, this chance is very evil to us merchants, but we must needs be obedient unto kings and princes." We are well treated by the Lady Marques and her officers. Barow, 7 Jan. 1544.
Copy in the hand of Wotton's clerk, p. 1. Headed: The copye of the Governor's deputyes l're.
8 Jan.35. The Navy.
R. O.The Council's warrant to Sir John Bakere to deliver to bearer, John Wynter, treasurer of sea matters, 1,000l. st. Greenwich, 8 Jan. 1544. Signed by Canterbury, Wriothesley, Russell, Hertford, Westminster, St. John, Gage, and Wyngfeld.
Subscribed by Wynter as received from Richard Warner, one of the four tellers of the Receipt at Westminster.
P. 1. Add.: in his absence, to the tellers of the Receipt of the Exchequer.
8 Jan.36. Carne to Paget.
R. O.On the 6th inst. Mr. Wotton and I wrote together to you of the arrest of persons and goods of the King's subjects in Andwarpe that day. They have been compelled to swear what goods be theirs and what be others'. Musters of 5,000 or 6,000 men are made in Cleveland; some say it is for the French king. Mons. de Ruez is sent hence to the frontiers of Artoys in haste. I sued to the Lady Regent for a passport for "certain liminers horses" for Bolongne that were bought here, and she sent word, by Cornelius Skyperus, that she could grant none while the Emperor was here. Thinking that a strange answer in so small a suit, I obtained audience for 2 p.m. on the 6th and, after attending until she had heard evensong, moved her for the passport. She replied that the Emperor, being here, must be moved in it. I desired her to move him, which she promised to do and to send the answer by Skyperus (whom she had called to hear what I would say) but as yet I have no answer. Posts come apace from France. I cannot learn the certainty "wher" (whether) the ambassador of Scotland is here. One that told me he was come ought to know; but he afterwards said he had it on hearsay, and seemed to repent that he had told me. Gande, 8 Jan., 1544.
Hoi, pp. 2. Add. Endd.
9 Jan.37. The Borders.
R. O.The Council's warrant to Sir John Bakere to deliver to bearer, Sir Brian Lay ton, to be conveyed to Sir Ralph Sadleyr, for the garrison [s] and other charges in the North, 5,000l. st. Grenwich, 9 Jan. 1544. Signed by Wriothesley, Suffolk, Russell, St. John, Gage, Petre, Wyngfeld and Paget.
P. 1. Add.. in his absence, to the tellers of the Receipt of the Exchequer.
9 Jan.38. Gardiner and Others to Lord Cobham.
Harl. MS.
283, f. 337.
B. M.
Have appointed Robert Dunne, the bearer, to the charge of the King's victuals left in Cales by Mr. Birckes; "and have appointed him to ship certain wine, seckes, hoppes and other things to Bolen." Grenewiche, 9 Jan. 36 Hen. VIII. Signed: Ste. Winton: John Gage: Anth. Rous: John Ryther.
P. 1. Add. Endd.: 1544.
9 Jan.39. Lisle and Others to the Council.
R. O.I, the lord Admiral, taking shipping at Dover on Wednesday afternoon, could not be landed at Boulloign till this Friday morning, bringing in safety the 3,000l. which "I, Sir Hugh Poulet, treasurer," have received. The whole retinue here of soldiers, artificers and pioneers is unpaid for "two whole pays, which containeth one month," in all 7,O44l. 16s., as appears by the treasurer's declaration herewith. Expected the "tailes for the victuals" to serve a great piece of these payments; but the surveyors of victuals report that the garrison men have, till within these three days, paid ready money which is defrayed for the King's affairs, and that the labourers' "tailes" amount to little more than 300l., and that they will deliver a declaration tomorrow. Will deliver out this 3,000l. in prest, trusting that the Council will remember to send more money. Desire also 2,000 pikes, 600 bows, 1,000 black bills, 12 chests of arrows, 60 gross of strings and 300 Italian handguns; wherein the King will "save money," because most of the labourers have no weapons and promise that, if they may have weapons, "they will lay on good load."
As to the present assembly of the enemies, refer to a letter of the lord Admiral herewith, who trusts within two or three days to know their intent, "which Mr. Knevett shall bring with him." At the King's town of Boulloign, 9 Jan. Signed: John Lisle: Thomas Ponynges: John Bryggys: Rauff Ellerker: Hugh Poulet: Rychard Caundysshe: John Jenyns.
P.S.—Enclose a device by Mr. Comptroller of this town for the sending of meal hither instead of wheat, so as to save the charge of a great number of horses and men occupied at the mills. Here is no provision of board, timber, tile nor rods for maunds; and Rogers, the surveyor of works, now in England, did not make us privy to the intent of his going. Likewise most of his wardens and clerks are departed without giving knowledge to any of us. Now a great piece of the utter wall of the braye next to the King's Majesty's breach is fallen down, and divers other things need mending, which cannot be ordered in the absence of the Surveyor and his ministers.
Pp. 3. Add.
R. O.2. Tabulated statement showing that the garrison of Boulogne is unpaid for the month, 6 Dec. to 16 (sic) Jan. "last," the labourers in High Bulleigne and Base Bulleigne unpaid from 13 Dec, to 16 Jan., and the labourers about the Oldeman unpaid from 2 Dec. to 29 Dec, which, "in the judgment of Mr. Palmer, charged with the said works," will be 300l. more than last pay. Total unpaid, by estimate, 7,014l. 16s. Signed by Sir Hugh Poulet.
Pp. 2. Endd.: My lord Admyrall with the rest of the Counsail at Boulloyn to the Counsail, ixoa declaration of the rate of wages of all the captains, soldiers and labourers of the same, Basse Boulloyn and th' Old Man.
10 Jan.40. Vaughan to Henry VIII.
R. O.I lately "talked with a Scot named John Drummyd, a man broad set, wearing a long beard coloured between ruddy and yellow, and was wont till now within one year or little more to be much in your Majesty's realm, and while he was there used often to repair to th' earl of Anglishe. The same told me how he lately talked with an Italian in Andwerp, that came about 6 days past out of Italy, which, amongst other talks, told him that he met in Italy with an English priest named Cole, which, as I guess, should be sometimes chancellor unto the bishop of London that now is, going towards Rome; but more he told me he could not learn of the said Italian concerning the cause of the going of the same Cole to Rome." The Italian also said that, in Mylane, coming hither, he heard that the marquis of Gwast had arrested two English gentlemen going to Pole with letters, and had sent the letters to your Majesty. The Scot told me that on the 2nd inst. he was in the house of the master of the Posts in Andwerp when two packets of letters arrived from Cardinal Pole; both addressed to the lord Cardinal of Scotland, and one of them endorsed also with these words "To Doctor Elyot." (fn. 5) The postmaster sent both packets to a house of "Francis Friars" in Andwerp, to one Nelson, an English friar, to be conveyed into Scotland. The Scot also told me that lately arrived out of Scotland a gentleman of France who is gone to the Emperor; and promised to learn his mission. I purpose to set this Scot to creep into Nelson's favour and "learn some secret works of the friar and his setters a work." The Italian did not know the names of the Englishmen stayed in Mylane. The gentleman of France came out of Scotland with two ships, a man of war and a merchant, which lie in Seeland. The Emperor has, by proclamation, recalled all the Spaniards "sparsyd abrode in these parties." The bruit goes that he will not be at the Diet in Almayn, but send Don Fernando, "which is thought not to be well taken by th' Almayns." Andwerp, 10 Jan.
Hol., pp. 3. Add. Endd.: 1544.
10 Jan.41. Vaughan to Paget.
R. O.As Mr. Claye, the governor's deputy of the merchants, writes to the Council the manner of the late arrest in Barrow I need not eftsoons write it. The day before we were here arrested Mr. Wotton wrote me "these words. 'The Emperor taketh pepper in the nose with the taking of his subjects,' with which yet I was warned as a damsel overnight to be married in the morning." The scowt that arrested us commanded us not to leave Andwerp without licence. If the hoy in which I laded your diaper damask is arrived, my sister Lodge will deliver it. Pray comfort her whilst her husband is here under arrest. Andwerp, 10 Jan.
By my letter to the King you shall know many things. Pray help me home to a poor house running into decay through my long absence. P.S.—At his departing the Council paid him, through Mr. Williams, 50l., at the rate of 20s. a day. Left on 9 Nov., now 60 days since. Begs another prest; for he has here spent 100l. of his own, and his folks write that they have no more money. Is fain to keep a table and be at great charge; and also lays out money for postage, which is not allowed by his warrant. The money to be paid here, Mr. Chamberleyn being here to see what is done, should be paid to "them that gave the credence, or else, ye shall make ij. payments of it, one to me and I to the creditors again."
Hol., pp. 2. Add. Endd.: 1544.


1 December 28th
2 That is, the General Treasurer of the Wars, Sir Richard Riche,
3 Inserted in Paget'a hand.
4 David Paniter?
5 Hilliard?