Henry VIII
February 1546, 11-15


Institute of Historical Research



James Gairdner and R. H. Brodie (editors)

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95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109


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'Henry VIII: February 1546, 11-15', Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 21 Part 1: January-August 1546 (1908), pp. 95-109. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=80835 Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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February 1546, 11-15

11 Feb.193. Paget to Lord Cobham.
Harl. MS.
283 f. 349.
B. M.
The King has appointed Sir George Somerset to be captain of Rise-bank, and requires you, until he comes, to see the house kept and nothing in it spoiled. According to your request I spoke for Mr. Browne, but the King had already determined upon Mr. Somerset. I trust that with "the next meet office that shall fall" Mr. Browne will perceive the King's goodness. Thanks for my herrings. Indeed I thought that the owners had given me them, as they promised, for "helping that they should not be forfeit." Pray thank Wm. Stevins in my name for the piece of wine. The King looks for his piece. William Cobham was here of late, but, because he was come without your knowledge, I made him a little sour countenance and he came not again. "He said he would into Kent, wherefore I think he be returned to Bullen." Commendations to you and my lady your wife from me and my wife. Grenewiche, 11 Feb. 1545.
Hol., p. 1. Add. Endd.
11 Feb.194. The Landgrave to Mont.
R. O.Has it from a high source that the King of England will have Count Otto von Ritperg raise for him 36 standards of knechts and 4,000 horsemen. Is surprised to hear this, as the Count is now the greatest enemy of the Landgrave and his confederates; and is a light person (as his dealings with them have shown) in whom no reliance can be placed. Mont may inform the King of this. Marggpurk, 11 Feb. '46. Signed. Phelips 1. Hessen m. ss.
German, p. 1. Add.: Dem erbarnn, &c., Christophero Mundo, &c. Endd.
R. O.2. Latin translation of the above, with addition to the following effect:—
Especially you may advertise your King of the underwritten companions, as not to be trusted, viz.:—
Count Otto de Ritperg, Herbertus a Langen, Dithericus Mintzaw, Achim Ruben, Johannes a Munchausen, son of Stalmus, Beunhardus Lipp junior, Eberhardus de Reck, Johannes a Wintzingenrod, Chr. a Wrisperg.
These all adhered to Duke Henry of Brunswick and some of them served him of late when he was captured, and that not very faithfully.
Latin, In Mont's hand, p. 1.
11 Feb.195. William Watson to Henry VIII.
R. O.Came to Breame on the 9th of "Feverell," and next day delivered the King's letters to the council of the town and declared his instructions to get wheat, rye, bacon and certain ships. After a short consultation, they answered that victuals were never so dear this 100 years, of wheat and rye there was scant enough "to serve the town till that the waters be open" and there was a restraint of corn until it be seen what "will come down when the waters be open"; then they would rather have it shipped to England than elsewhere, and till then none of them would bargain for corn. It is said here that the Emperor "will have war with the Dowche lords, the which be knit together as concerning God's word," who have commanded all their subjects to be ready when called and to victual themselves. If this war chance, none of the Eastward towns will suffer corn to pass, nor will the king of Denmark suffer ships to pass through his streams. Here is no store of bacon, which must be gathered in the country 20 miles round, and will be costly, being now at 2½d. st. the lb. This Council would suffer 3,000 flitches and 3,000 gammons to pass. Begs that John Dymocke and he may be instructed whether to buy it. As to ships of war, this Council answered that most of their great ships were abroad in Holland, Selland and Daunsyke, and that such as were at home "were already freighted [by] divers young men of Lewbycke and Rey and Revell, to go into Fraunce to lade salt, and so to sail eastward," so that they could not supply ships. Expects like answer at Hamborough and Lewbycke; and knows that these places have not enough corn for themselves. Sees no remedy but to make the first provision out of Braband; and after Easter, if it be peace betwixt the Emperor and the Dowche lords, every merchant will be doing towards Luxborne, and they must pass betwixt Dover and Callys, "where your Highness may take for your money both wheat and ships, such as shall like your Grace best, the which is the best remedy that I can think." Fears that if the King had need of Breame, Hambroughe, Lubycke and Daunsycke, they would deceive him. "They speak fair with their tongues, but God knoweth their hearts." A gentleman dwelling within 7 miles is here building a great ship of 800 or 900 tons, which is 100 ft. long by the keel and 40 ft. broad upon the "overlop." It is launched and will be ready to sail towards Luxborne about Easter, and is a strong ship meet to serve the King. The gentleman has no partners. This night came news that the Palsegrave and two of his brethern "be come in consert and bonds of the Dowche lords as concerning God's words." Here they marvellously rejoice that in his old age he is become a new man again, and they "pray to God daily, in their sermons," to give the Emperor grace to leave the Bishop of Rome and "take God's word upon him;" and then "all the Douche forsten and lordes wold lyve and dye with hym agaynst the French kynge and the Bysshop of Rome, and also the Greake Turke" (sic, "Greate Turke" in No. 196). Breame, 11 Feb. 1545. Signed.
Pp. 3. Add. Endd.
11 Feb.196. William Watson to the Council.
R. O.To the same effect and almost in the same words as the preceding. Breme, 11 Feb. 1545. Signed.
Pp. 3. Add. Endd.
Feb.197. The Privy Council to Vaughan.
R. O.The King has received your sundry letters, and seen those written to me, Sir Wm. Paget, of your proceedings with Jasper Douche, marvelling what the said Jasper means, after having once "received his patent of the fee, to refuse the same again." Although his Highness suspects the cause, he would gladly know the very truth. Where he offers to give the King the jewel which he would have delivered at 100,000 cr with the monthly emprunture of 100,000 cr. for other five months, and, besides that gift, to emprunt 600,000 cr. In six months, if licensed to transport hence upon English custom commodities of this realm not forbidden, to the value of 4,000l. yearly, considering the loss which the King should sustain by such a bargain, both in customs and from his own merchants, who would give him much to empeach it, and how his own subjects should be hindered thereby, the King cannot altogether grant this, but, for the said gift and emprunture, would grant such a licence for four or five years. You shall stand with him for this, and if necessary increase the term even to ten years or during his life; but he must keep it secret or our merchants would cry out upon us for it. "And seeing now that he hath his own asking, you must make an end of the bargain with him roundly" and take this emprunture of 600,000 cr. with the gift of the jewel and also the 30,000l. in money and 10,000l. in fustians, and despatch the matter; "for his Majesty thinketh now there is no longer cause of delay, unless Jasper mean to do nothing but to 'foder' his Majesty with fair words. And what answer you have herein, and what is further to be done for the obligation of London, you must advertise with all diligence possible." [His Majesty writeth at this present ——] (fn. 1)
Draft in Paget's hand, pp. 3. Endd.: To Mr. Vaughan, Februarii 1545.
12 Feb.198. Accounts of Sir Thomas Palmer, Treasurer of Guisnes.
See Grants in February No. 27.
12 Feb.199. Jasper Duchy to Henry VIII.
R. O.The King is specially illustrious for three things—magnitude of power, bounty of clemency and liberality of munificence towards the deserving (erga meritos); and of this last the writer had surprising experience when, by Mr. Stephen Vachan, the King sent him a patent for an annual pension of 250l. st. The gift not only astonished but shamed him; for if it were made for anything he had done or could do, it was far too much, but if recompense of the loss to him in herrings and jewels (clinodiis), surely the King could easily compensate a loss of this kind by some other means. There are, however, weighty causes which do not permit him to accept the condition, which otherwise he would have eagerly accepted; but he will continue ready to do the King all services compatible with his duty to the Emperor. Antwerp, 12 Feb. 1546. Signed.
Latin, pp. 2. Add. Endd.
12 Feb.200. Jasper Duchy to Paget.
R. O.The King's patent, sent to him by Mr. Vachan, for a pension for 250l. st. he felt to be a great honour, nevertheless (as he has answered Mr. Vauchan and writes to the King by letters herewith, which he begs Paget to present), he would not accept it; but with God's help he means to do more service than if he had accepted it. As to his request for the remainder of the herrings and the loss of the jewels, which he hopes that the King likes, sends herewith a letter which he received from Mr. Antoine Fugger, to show the truth of the said loss. In view of the King's benignity he does not intend to ask anything; but would be glad of the gift of a sum of money to be received out of that which the Duke of Florence owes the King annually. Because Barthelemy Compaigne has only received about 800l. st. of the sale of the herrings, and the writer seeks by Paget's means to have the King and Council command restitution of the whole, which is about 1,400l., begs him to assist Jehan Baptista de Bardi to receive the rest. The better to furnish a house which he has made near this town with some pastime for Paget and other servants of the King, when they come hither, his said man will ask for a dozen deer (vous priera pour ungne douzaine de bouck de estrange poyle). Antwerp, 12 Feb. 1545. Signed.
French, pp. 2. Add. Endd.
12 Feb.201. John Dymmocke to Paget.
R. O.Has received a letter from Mr. Vaughan with one from the Council, dated the 4th inst., which he has perused and forwarded to William Watson at Breamme. There is cheese and butter in Amsterdam and wheat and rye is expected at "next open water;" but at present there is no corn to spare. Has sent to Dorte to buy 3,000 qr. of wheat and rye which is "special good stuff." Mr. Vaughan writes to him to buy it if he can have it out; but unless he buys it now he could not get it. Will make shift for licence and conveyance afterwards. Bacon and Martlemas beef is best bought at Breame. "The great ship of Lubecke did not return home, but was taken with 8 French ships of war and brought into France, whereas she was overthrown and will never be recovered, by men's sayings; whereof I am not sorry for." If the King wishes great ships of Breame, Lubecke and Hamboroch, Watson must have another commission; as men who have their ships safe at home will not send them to serve without money. A letter to the countess of Emden is needless, for no victuals are to be had there; neither is there any corn in Hamborowe or Lubecke, so that Watson must go to Dansycke. Enough butter, cheese and bacon may be had, but here is neither meal nor biscuit bread "because that this is a town which has many ships which does provide themselves here to goen forth on their voyage." Also it is not 1,000l. st. and 600l. Fl. that will make this provision, for it requires ready money. "Nyewis ys here in thys parties howe that the Prodestants have ressevyd in to theyre relygyon the cytte of Norenborech and foure cytties and towens of Swytserland, where of Bassell ys one; and also the Hanse stedes ar come in to them; licke wysse also the byschope of Drynten with twooe other byschopes ar in there relygyon; also the ducke of Pomerland and hys brothr and Ducke Hendrycke of Maykelborowe and the Palesgrave Fredericke of the Ryen ys in. And the Prodestanttes have sent certayen lerned men to th' Emperour with certayen lordes of the Hansse stedes and ricke steddes for to certefye hym they re wyll and meannynge. Also hyt ys sayed that the Ducke of Brwnyswyckes seconnd sone shall have the Launtgraves doucghter; and he to inherytt hys fathers lande with condyscyon that he shalbe sworen in to the Evangelycall bande, and Vollefvenbudell to be rassed, which ys the stroungyste castell that ys in all Brwnyswicks lande. And thys has byn schowyd me by a verye honeste marchanttes whyche ys comme fromme Nornborech. And also hyt ys agred amongeste the corevostes that no nobell man shall suffer annye asemble to be made of annye men of warre secrettlye, as the Ducke of Brownesike dyde the last yerre, but hyt shalbe knowen for whomme that they ar gathered and whoe ys theyre lorde or master; so that they woll not have theyr poure comons no more dystroyed as they have byne."
Begs to be remembered, or else that after this voyage he may tarry at home; for he cannot continue thus with 10s. a day, he and his servants spending double what they used to spend. Men who came "but yester" have fees of 40l. or 60l., and he has served two years, leaving his own business, which should have been worth at least 400l. or 500l. st. Begs pardon if he writes largely, "for I do see that there is no troublesome commission sent for to be done but I am put unto it." Amsterdam, 12 Feb. 1545.
Has just heard that the Lantgrave has entered upon all Ryffenburgh's goods and lands until he clear himself against the King.
Hol., pp. 4. Add. Endd.
13 Feb.202. The Privy Council.
A. P. C., 334.
Meeting at Greenwich, 13 Feb. Present: Privy Seal, Hertford, Essex, Admiral, Browne, Paget. Business:—Letter to Mr. Wingfeld, at Dover, to deliver to Henry Garbrande certain herring stayed at Dover, which the said Henry intended to sell at London.
13 Feb.203. Vicechancellor and University of Cambridge to Henry VIII.
R. O.Protest their obligations to the King and readiness to put their possessions at his service. Cantab., e senatu nostro, decimo tertio Februarii.
Lat. Hol., p. 1. Endd.: 1545.
13 Feb.204. Vicechancellor and University of Cambridge to Paget.
R. O.Applauding Paget's virtues and reminding him of the importance of Universities to the state, they ask his protection, understanding that they are included in the Act touching colleges, that the cause of letters may not be handed over to such as know better "quid pecunia solet facere quam quo in loco doctrina debet esse," but to such as can rightly esteem both. Cantabrigiæ, e senatu nostro, decimo tertio Februarii.
Lat. Hol., p. 2. Add. Endd.
13 Feb.205. The Council of Boulogne to Henry VIII.
R. O.
Howard, 205.
The service of the Coronell of the Arbanoyes and his company here is so painful and chargeable that it is bard to stay the soldiers from going to Callayes and Guysnes, "where they are received of the captains there"; and now it is reported that the King has licensed a Spaniard called Captain Charles, under Gambo, to make a company of horsemen, who seeks to embezzle soldiers from the old captains. Thus, by the new company of the Spaniard and two other captains (fn. 2) of the Arbanoyes that served in Scotland last year, the King will only be at a greater charge for officers and have no more horsemen. The Arbanoyes captains are greatly discontented to see the Spaniard "rob their soldiers from them." Further the Coronell desires them to be suitors for a reward to the soldiers for the great number of horses that they have had slain, amounting to over 60. Beg him to extend his "natural liberality" in that behalf, assuring him that service here is "more accident to losses than in any other place." Bouloyn, 13 Feb. 1545. Signed: H. Surrey: John Bryggys: Rawff Ellerker: Thorn's Palmer: A. F.: Rychard Wyndebank: Rychard Caundysshe.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.
13 Feb.206.Vaughan to Paget and Petre.
R. O.Fernando Dassa and Martin Lopes, the merchants with whom I made the bargain for alum, desire me to in treat you for the King's command to deliver, in Hampton or London, to Thomas Corbynelle, or in his absence to Bartilmew Compaigne, 50 or 40 "fowthers" of the lead; and if alum to that value be not delivered within a quarter of a year they promise to make up the amount with ready money. This is not to the King's disadvantage. I am credibly informed that most of the alum is already laden in a hulk and two Portingall ships and will be here with the first southerly wind. Is writing largely to the King of a talk with Chr. Haller concerning his former bargain for the emprunture of 60,000 cr. and a new offer made by him; and the hasty departure of bearer, the merchants' post, gives no leisure to write more. Andwerp, 13 Feb.
Hol., pp. 2. Add. Endd.: 1545.
14 Feb.207. Chantries and Colleges.
Commission for survey. See Grants in February, No. 30.
14 Feb.208. The Privy Council.
A.P.C. 334.
Meeting at Greenwich, 14 Feb. Present: Chancellor, Great Master, Privy Seal, Hertford, Essex, Admiral, Gage, Browne, Wingfield, Paget, Sadler, Riche, Baker. Business:—Warrants to treasurers (not named) to pay at appointment of St. John, Gage, Riche and Rither, or any two of them, for victuals for Boulogne, l,000l.; to Thos. Chaloner, for Clevois in the King's service 4,000l., and to Hugh Counseill, for Spaniards, 3,000l.; at the appointment of St. John, &c. (as before), for freight and transport of victuals, l,000l.; to Robert Legge, treasurer of the King's ships, 500l.; at the appointment of St. John, &c. (as before), for provision of victuals, 1,600l.; to Ric. Knight 1,000l. to be employed, by order of Lord St. John, for victuals "for the sea."
209. Anthony Bourchier.
R. O.Bill of receipt 14 Feb. 37 Hen. VIII, by John Latton from —— (blank) Bocher, of 20s. for a quarter's rent due Christmas last of "a capital messuage in Putney wherein one Whythorne late inhabited." Signed.
Small slip, p. 1.
14 Feb.210. Bradninch Rectory.
R. O.Surrender by Thomas Brykenhed, rector or parson of Bradniche, Devon, of the said rectory. Dated 14 Feb. 37 Hen. VIII. Signed: Per me Thomam Birkehed, rectorem de Brednynche. Also signed by Sir Edw. North, as taken before him, 24 Feb. 37 Hen. VIII. Seal appended.
Parchment. [See Eighth Report of Dep. Keeper of Public Records, App. II. 11.]
14 Feb.211. Vaughan to Henry VIII.
R. O.Chr. Haller has been with him, an Almain with whom, about August last, Vaughan bargained for an emprunture of 60,000 cr. at 14 per cent, upon the bond of three Italian merchants of Andwerp; but, after he had sent the contract to the King, being moved by the Lord Chancellor (through Bonvyce and others in London), they absolutely refused to be bound, and Haller refused the bonds of Bonvice, Ancelyn Salvage and Bartilmew Compaigne, Italians of England; so that the bargain failed. Haller was much offended and spoke little of the matter till yesterday, when he asked whether Vaughan brought him any order for his satisfaction; and, on Vaughan's explaining, as above, that the bargain was void, made a new offer, viz., to deliver the 60,000 cr. upon the bonds of Bonvice, Salvage and Compaigne, releasing Vaughan from the other bargain, for 9 months (seeing that he had lost 3 months) at 14 per cent. Answered that the King would never give 14 per cent. for 9 months; but for 12 months it might be done, upon the obligations of London, which Vaughan could "boldlyer" promise than those of Bonvyce, Salvage and Compaigne. Haller answered that he would not take the obligations of London; but Vaughan promised to signify his offer "and answer him by my next letters." Expects to bring him to a more reasonable offer.
Would gladly have the King's letters to the lady Regent for licence to export 200,000 cr., as he expects to get money shortly, which later is like to be "both care and rare." Mr. Bren and Mr. Brygenden arrived yesterday, and are to receive 6,125l. by the order of Sir Rafe Warren, Sir Ric. Gresham, Sir John Gresham and Sir Roland Hill; but the order does not appoint payment in crowns, the only coins current in Estland, "and by all those ways where both your Majesty's commissaries, Watson and Dymok, shall have anything to do." Despairs of getting crowns without giving interest, and therefore begs instructions. Balbany, to whom the bills of exchange are consigned, has just come to say that he is only bound to pay in current money and can deliver no other.
Being here entrusted with the receipt and payment of huge sums of money and not able to account while matters are fresh in memory, begs that the King's two principal secretaries and Sir Ralph Sadler may be commissioned to take and audit his accounts from time to time.
It is here said that the French king seeks a league with the Princes of Almeyne, who offer that, if he will first receive their religion, they will make a league offensive and defensive "for matters of religion only." The Emperor comes on the 15th inst. to Mastreght and departs thence within three weeks towards Almayn. All the States of this country are summoned to attend him at Mastreght. Thinks he wishes some great portion out of hand of the money given him by these Base Countries. Will send Watson and Dymok the money appointed by the Council. Andwerp, 14 Feb.
Hol., pp. 6. Add. Endd.: 1545.
14 Feb.212. Gardiner, Thirlby and Carne to Henry VIII.
R. O.
St. P., xi. 44.
Received the Council's letters of the 15th ult. on the 26th, and spoke with Grandvela concerning the obligations of the towns and nobles and the present state of things (to procure them to war against France or at least get the Emperor's grant of some noble personage to lead Henry's men), and also of the marriage. Could bring him no further than that he would speak with the Emperor. On Candlemas Eve arrived letters from the Council, with the ratification; and, knowing that the Emperor would depart on the day after Candlemas, Gardiner and Thirlby obtained audience on Candlemas Day. Told him of the ratification and Henry's "contentment for the matter of merchants." He seemed glad, and said that he would sign his ratification with all speed. He misliked not the bond of the towns and nobles, but must speak with his Council therein,—whereby it appeared that Granvela had said nothing of it. Gardiner then reminded him how much he had granted to obtain the French king's friendship, which he would doubtless have performed had not God taken away the Duke of Orleans, and yet the French king forgot all and practised with Henry to enter war against him. Here the Emperor said that he believed it, for the French likewise solicited him to war against Henry. Gardiner, continuing, reminded him that he would find Henry still unwearied and in practice to have a good frontier town of the French king's; and the restitution of the Duke of Savoy, which the French king refuses, would provide an excuse. The Emperor answered that these matters were weighty and he would commune with his Council therein. He made us very pleasant countenance.
We moved the Emperor to lend some of his captains and men in the parts near your Highness for a sudden enterprise. He answered that "he wold prefer re captaynes to your Highnes' service, but they wyl derobbe al; mary, he thought they wold serve your Highnes truely. We told hym we had harde of them, but meant to have captaynes of his Lowe Countries, with sum of his garrysons." He said he might not do so, for the French king would take it for a breach; but he would speak with his Council therein.
Turning then to the marriage, Gardiner suggested his sending a commission into England if he was prepared to furnish a suitable dote, for that already mentioned was so meagre that the Council refrained from telling it to the King. He answered that the King of Romans had many daughters and was exhausted by the wars. "But, sire, quoth we, ye marry her as your own daughter and are able to set her forth accordingly." The Emperor smiled, and said that he had daughters of his own to marry; he desired it, and so did his brother and sister, and he would speak with Grandvela therein. We having pretermitted no occasion to speak of my lord Prince's virtues, Grandvela charges us to sue that so noble a prince may be provided with so noble a parentage as this is; and with these gay words avoids the increase of the dote.
We mentioned Captain Courtpenyng, and the Emperor said that the man could lead footmen and he would speak of him to Grandvela.
On our departure the Emperor sent for Grandvela and kept him until 9 o'clock in the evening. Suppose that the Emperor was touched with the matter of the war more than Grandvela liked, who next morning told Gardiner that he had used dexterity in opening those matters; the Emperor had told him every circumstance of the town on the frontier, and was now going into Germany to stay matters, and my lord of Westminster would be told how things proceeded; the duke of Savoy could do nothing, for poverty,—indeed the Emperor "found the Prince of Pyemont at his charges." We answered that we did not speak of the Duke as able of himself, but because, if the Emperor would restore the Duke, now was the time. As to the bonds of the towns and nobles, Grandvela said, that matter might be largely considered hereafter; Mons. de Eke Skepperus should be sent into England with commission for the marriage, and, as for men out of these Low Countries, the Emperor must forsee that the French had no matter of quarrel in his absence, but would gladly know if you would have the other captains. We answered that we had no commission to retain captains, and mentioned Courtepenyng. He answered that the Emperor had willed him to speak to the Queen therein, as he thought that the man was banished these countries. He told how the Bishop of Rome's nuncio had complained that the Emperor was joined with you, and the Emperor had answered that he would defend your countries against all men; the Emperor had stayed the confirmation of Parme and Placence to the Bishop's nephew, and the Bishop would not be so favoured as he expected; and as for the Council which the French solicit against you, you need not care for it.
To hear them thoroughly, we had deferred to speak of the aid. We now told Grandvela of the receipt of the ratification and your acceptance of the articles for the merchants, desiring him to remember the subsidy and aid. "'No, no,' quoth he, 'that matter is gone.' We asked him why. 'Mary,' quoth he, 'by this covenant.' 'Why,' quoth we, did not we upon New Year's Day, at which time we fully agreed on all things, demand the aid and protest to you that it should not be taken away by this covenant; whereupon you took upon you to speak with the Emperor in the matter?" Hereupon Grandvela "waxed suddenly warm and denied all"; and we affirmed it strongly, reminding him of what President Skore said at the time. Skore was called and remembered that he said so, but not that Grandvela undertook to speak with the Emperor; and Grandvela denied it so extremely that it was not expedient for either him or Skepperus to remember it. Seeing that it could not be denied, Grandvela would have it that we spake not serio, and when we replied that it were strange that we should not speak serio in so serious a matter, he said that if we so took it "there was yet nothing done"; and departed in choler.
The Emperor was gone, and Grandvela followed by and by. We conjectured that Grandvela was not pleased with our boarding the Emperor so plainly in the matter of the war, "and, remembering himself, would not cast off the matter thus." The day after the Emperor departed the weather waxed such that we expected him to return hither. Next morning Skipperus made great intercession to me, Winchester, to stay writing to your Highness, and things should be framed well enough; and that evening he brought the Emperor's ratification and offered to deliver it and receive ours. We were content to do so, with protestation that the aid was reserved. Skepperus said that he durst not admit such a protestation, but would communicate with Mons. de Prate and write to Grandvela; so we delayed sending our post. His answer was returned on Sunday, containing a great discourse of reasons, with a resolution that the ratification should be delivered, and if we protested Skepperus should protest to the contrary. Skepperus protested after the form of Grandvela's letters written upon consultation with the Emperor and Queen; and, because we liked it not, I, Winchester, retaining the copy and "making a note of misliking" returned it to Skepperus with a letter which might be shown to Grandvela (copies of protestation and letter herewith). On Monday Skepperus, after much communication, thought good to write again to Grandvela and requested us to tarry the answer; which came on Wednesday the 10th, and was that, the Emperor and Queen being gone to Zutphania, he could make no other answer than he made before. Skepperus again desired us to pass over the hasty words of Grandvela and he would deliver the Emperor's ratification and take yours. Describe how, being unwilling to pass it over and yet desirous of fulfilling their commission by receiving the ratification, and having no time to consult the King, who might perhaps lose more by the deferring of this conclusion than the aid amounted to, &c, they concluded that their protestation could not be altered by words spoken to the contrary at the delivery of the Emperor's ratification, and so determined to deliver the King's ratification with the protestation, and let Skepperus say what he would. Collated the ratifications with Skepperus, and were about to make delivery when Skepperus stopped at the expression in their protestation that they had "no mandatum to remit this aid," and thereupon desired to consult De Prate; who would not advise him to pass it so, and therefore he decided to go to the Emperor and meet the writers again at Bulduke on the Saturday following, the last day of the month within which the ratification should be delivered.
This Saturday (fn. 3) came Skepperus with the Emperor's ratification and was content to receive ours with our protestation, saying only that the Emperor's Council had always said that the aid is not due, but he had no commandment but to deliver the Emperor's ratification and take ours. These words imply, not that the aid is not due, but, that the Council said so and that he had no commandment so to say; nevertheless we replied that the first part of them was untrue but was, however, impertinent to the matter. And so we exchanged ratifications, and send the Emperor's by Francisco the courier. Skepperus told me, Winchester, apart, that we would find the Emperor good enough, who was content to have the aid "friendly talked on," as appears by the capita of a letter from Grandvela to De Prate and Skepperus, which we beg your Highness to keep secret, for we cannot avow the having of them. Skepperus told me, Winchester, that he repairs to you to bid farewell on the Emperor's behalf, and with commission for the marriage, and to direct one that shall be sent for the merchants' matters. He told us together that although the French bruit that this assembly of ambassadors at Cambray is at the Emperor's desire it is not so, and they are only there for questions of limits and restitutions and are like to do more hurt than good. Skepperus told me, Winchester, that it is written out of France that the French practise with you for peace. It would serve to learn what the Emperor intends if it were signified to him that you are indeed in communication (reserving your amity to him) and desire him not to credit bruits sounding to suspicion towards him. Seeing these men so loth to speak, it seems well to press them. The Emperor will be on Friday (fn. 4) at Mastryk, tarry there 6 or 7 days, and then go straight into Germany. Bulduke, 14 Feb. Signed.
In Gardiner's hand, pp. 22. Add.
14 Feb.213. Gardiner, Thirlby and Carne to Paget.
R. O.Signify to the King the manner of delivery of the ratification, but think it good to signify their words more precisely, to remain in testimony. Skepperus has nothing of our writing to prove what he said. We have copies of their writings to us, showing how we refused to deliver the ratification, except upon the understanding that the aid was not remitted. "Since the fond word spoken by Grandvela cum tarn impudenti mendatio, they have sued to us, who have persisted in the truth"; and, as the words of the bargain do not indeed imply the remission, we thought it not requisite to protest in writing whereby to give them a testimony. "And being by chance the answer of me, the bishop of Winchester, noted with Skepperes hand, which ye shall receive herewith, that shall ever bind Skepperus to confess the truth what we said, and yet in him we have no mistrust to report that was said between us, for he cannot have an excuse of 'I sat lowest' or 'heard not thoroughly,' and if he would we might by divers writings in that case confirm it, which nevertheless would not be seen again but in that extremity." We have always, by consultation among us, avoided yielding to the remission; and albeit the confirmation may seem to remit all, Grandvela has, "with his dexterity, so penned it in his prohem" that nothing is remitted, but all hangs upon the observation of what is "underwritten." In these letters to Skepperus we wrote "Damus et tradimus confirmatorias literas serenissimi Regis et Domini nostri, dicentes et significantes, atque etiam protestamur, quod non habuimus mandatum ut remitteremus subsidium neque quicquam egimus iis pactis quo remitteretur, sed habuimus mandatum ut peteremus, et petivimus atque etiam petimus." Whereunto Skepperus wrote "Dicit Skepperus quod semper cum peteretur subsidium responsum est a consiliariis Cesaris non deberi, et in eo resideo, quum tamen non aliud habeam in mandatis quam tradere ratificationem Cesaris et recipere vestram." We told him that the first part thereof contained an evident untruth and the second part implied that he had no commission so to say. He answered that he must say as was written. If the King's affairs permit, "we shall easily declare the gravity of this saying to the Emperor, for as they now confess they answered Master Wotton otherwise, with whom the Emperor's Council, as they confess, took a deliberation (in margin 'this appeareth in the capita'); and we may think the Emperor will give some credit to us three conjointly in that hath been said here." The matter has been "sinistreusly handled" by them, and we desire it to remain "testified conjointly and commonly by us all three." Buldwyke, 14 Feb. Signed.
In Gardiner's hand, pp. 4. Add. Kndd.: 1545.
14 Feb.214. Gardiner to Paget.
R. O.I thank you "for your Parliament answers" and think myself happy to have somewhat of pleasure to temper the displeasures that I suffer here. At last you shall receive the Emperor's ratification, but not passed after the best fashion. After foul weather in the passing of it there should be fair weather in the keeping; and, after the superstition of the Chaldees, "that noted days," it may be noted that last treaty was passed in light on Sunday morning, 14 Feb., as ' a token of business (as there followed indeed, I am sorry for it)' and this on Saturday 13 Feb., "being the sabbate" and towards night, as signifying rest. "But superstition is nought, and so hath been this handling, and also gross. The Egyptians would punish their children because they could not steal craftily and carry clean; and an elegant deceit with some pretty point of wit is wont to be laughed at, and hath sometime commendation as a juggler hath, but a plain rude denial of that was said and done by three, and in the presence of others, is so fat and gross as it can savour to no man's appetite, but be loathsome to all that hear of it." Skepperus and Skore professed to have quite forgotten Grandvela's promise to speak with the Emperor; and when shown that the words of the "proheme" should not take away the aid already due, Grandvela said "it was conditional in Germany"; but Gardiner charged him with his promise at Bruges, when Skore said that it should not extend to much. In case Grandvela has boasted before the Emperor of his proheme being so clerkly conceived as to deceive three lawyers, Gardiner has written him an answer which Skepperus thinks too sharp, and so says that he has not copied it: but he had it as may be seen by his receipt. Desires that no man save the King may see these letters, lest Skepperus, who is "to his master as he should be, and to us of a good sincere honesty," should take hurt thereby. "I am clearly out with Grandvele, not that I have spoken anything to him, for therein I have forborne a comitiis, but this is summa contumelia quam non possum dissimulare, unless the King's Majesty command me and the affairs so require. I have told Skepperus at large, which were expedient he told again, and it may be that this fault shall cause them to do the better, and will if the time serve, i.e., if either the Frenchmen be froward or we in some towardness of peace with France; but, as we be, they think we have always need. I have had a wonderful conflict in myself for this matter, whether by delaying and sending home I should have disappointed this matter or no; but, rather than they should have pressed that we had remitted it, all had gone loose, for I will not adventure the King's Majesty's displeasure for anything. But now these men say it was ever answered that the aid was not due, help us whose faith is in strife here with that hath been confessed at home by th'ambassador. If the King's Majesty thinketh no time now to speak further in it, this business may resolve in silence, and other things due by the fresh eclarishment demanded, as victuals, etc."
For Courtpenyng I will speak to the Queen, to whom it is referred; and Skeppere says that no doubt men may come through by 40, 50 and 30 in a company. I send the discourse of the Duke of Savoy's ambassador, because I used it to induce the Emperor to the war; also "the name of a captain which Bochold delivered me," who will deliver the King a frontier town of France. The Emperor will not tarry at Mastryke past 5 or 6 days; wherefore pray help my despatch. "These men properant in Germaniam and the matter of entry into the war they dissemble till they know how they find things there. The obligations ye see how they put them off by delay. The aid hath without fruit encumbered us a good season, and the matter of marriage shall be sent thither by as good a minister as can be. Thus, desiring you to make my commendations to all, I bid you heartily fare well. At one of the clock in the morning, the xiiij. of Februarii."
Hol., pp. 6. Add. Sealed. Endd.
*** Beneath the address Gardiner writes "They seale here ther perpetuites wt red waxe, de hoc dubitavimus et ita fuit responsum."
215. Scepperus to Gardiner.
R. O.
St. P., xi. 50.
I send the form of our protestation for your consideration this night. I have underlined two lines to be added to or diminished at your judgment. Tomorrow early I will come to you. Meanwhile, Good-night!
Lat. Hol., p. 1.
R. O.
St. P., xi. 50
2. Protestation by Scepperus (upon Gardiner's protestation that the aid has not been remitted, but is still due) that the Emperor is not bound to give the said aid, as well for the reasons he gave the English ambassador, at Worms, and wrote on 17 July to his ambassador in England, as also by virtue of a certain treaty alleged by Gardiner in his protestation, but nevertheless the Emperor is content that it be discussed. But if Gardiner still persists that it is due, the Emperor offers, apart from the said treaty, and upon the conditions stated at Worms, that the amount of it shall be examined, not doubting but that it will be found a matter of small moment.
In the margin is a note by Gardiner that this protestation is not altogether satisfactory, that the clause underlined renders his own protestation futile, and that, as was intimated on 1 Jan., the aid is not remitted by this new treaty (pactis istis novis).—This apostyle is headed in Gardiner's own hand: "This I, the Bishop of Winchester, wrote in the margin."
Lat. Copy pp. 2. Endd. by Gardiner: Copie of the minute of a protestation sent by Skepperus.
216. Gardiner to Scepperus.
R. O.
St. P. xi. 50.
1. The more attentively he considers what Scepperus has sent, the less he likes it; nor does he see why Granvelle wishes them to obscure an open matter with these protestations. This treaty (ista pacta) does not affect the aid. Said so on the 1st Jan. and Granvelle promised to report to the Emperor. Enlarges on this.
Lat. Copy, pp. 2. Endd. by Gardiner: A copie of the l'res of me the bishop of Winchestre to Skepperus.
217. The Emperor's Aid.
R. O.
St. P., xi. 54.
Substance of the Emperor's answer made to the King of England's ambassador at Worms and written to the Emperor's ambassador in England 17 July 1545, detailing conditions upon which the Emperor will aid the King of England in case of invasion.
ii. Reasons why the Emperor thinks that he is not bound to contribute the aid required by the King of England, viz., fifteen articles, most of them with English annotations by Gardiner in the margin. The note to the 14th article is "This is worth the noting, for it was written not to be so told me" (the article being that Winchester's proposed aid of soldiers for garrison work is not expedient, as the Emperor is yet in treaty with the French and is going into Germany). Written by Grandvella, 6 Feb., from Arnhem.
Lat., pp. 4. Headed: "1546. Stilo Romano, Trajecto Veteri, viia Februarii."
R. O.2. Gardiner's answer to the allegations of the Emperor's Council headed "Ad ea quae allegant Cesaree Majestatis consiliarii cur auxiliaria subsidia non debeantur ita respondet Wintoniensis."
Latin. Copy, pp. 7. Endd. by Gardiner. Docketed in Skepperus's hand: 1546 ab Incarnatione. Recept. decima Februarii horam inter primam et secundam a me[ridie?].
Galba. B. x.,
B. M.
3. Copy of § 1.
Lat., pp. 2. With marginal note also copied.
Lansd. MS.
171, f. 76b.
4. Later copy of § 3.
Lat. Pp. 3.
14 Feb.218. City of Dantzic to Henry VIII.
R. O.The King knows how willing they are to do him service; and, as to his last letters in favour of his servant William Watsson, they will readily favour the said William, who shall have facility to export ropes and cables and other rigging for the King's ships; but, as to corn, none being yet brought hither because of the ice, they know not what, in so great a scarcity, to promise. If any comes which may be spared they will serve the King before others. "Non enim R. Cels. V. obscurum esse putamus nos quicquam earum rerum omnium minime negligere solere quae ad R. Cels. V. dignitatem vel beneplacitum, sive etiam regni sui relevandi rationem pertinere cognoverimus, quin in offitio persistentes gratificandi studio subinde ducti, has atque illas res sive merces omnes R. Cels. V. contemplacione dignissima libere, nullo inde vectigali exacto, in illius gratiam abduci pertnitere (qu. permittere?) consuevimus; verum non pauci cives nostri, nescimus quid, muscitant quosdam, sub R. Cels. V. illiusque regni necessitatis pretextu, propriis commodis consulere, nosque interim gabella reipublicæ nostræ, nempe pro portus nostri conservatione ex aequo pendi solitam (sic), defraudare. Quod cum non minus R. Cels. V. quam no[s] nolle, imo illi vehementer dis[p]licere certum nobis persuademus, nullum dubio locum concedimus quin illius regio jussu cautum (?) subinde (?) fore cre[did]erimus quo minus id amplius a quopiam tentatum deprehendatur." Ex Gedano, 14 Feb. 1546. Subscribed: Proconsul ac Consules regiae civitatis Gedanen' in Prussia sitae.
Latin. Hol., large paper, p. 1. Add. Endd.
15 Feb.219. Deputy and Council of Ireland to the Council.
R. O.
St. P., iii. 548.
On 10 Feb. arrived here certain of the persons sent by Lenoux to the Isles of Scotland bringing letters from one Jamez McConel, who now declares himself lord of the Isles by the consent of the nobility of the "insulans," with a credence for bearer to declare to the King and Council. Divers of the same Isles, as the bishop elect and Patrick McLane and seven or eight others, lie here at the King's charge, and the writers have no warrant to disburse money for them and for their transport. It were better to despatch the said gentlemen (who remain here by Lenoux's appointment) with a reward than retain them as hostages; lest when they come home they forget the King's noble entertainment, and rather malign at their restraint than use their liberty to do the King service. Enclose the letters from the Isles. (fn. 5) Dublin, 15 Feb. 1545. Signed by St. Leger, Alen, Dublin, Ormond, Brabazon, Lutrell, Cusake, Bathe, Travers and Lokwod.
P. 1. Add. Endd.
15 Feb.220. Scepperus to Schore.
viii. No. 192.
The verbatim Latin report which he has sent to Granvelle will declare what passed with the English ambassadors respecting the ratification. Has written to Granvelle that he agrees with Schore's advice to send a gentleman of the long robe to England. The two points upon which the writer goes thither have no connection with merchants' disputes, and the Emperor agreed to send someone to co-operate with the resident ambassador therein. The difficulty is the choice of a jurist. Has already mentioned Dr. Hermes, as having been present at the Bourbourg Conference, and has since thought of Master Adolf van Pamele, but knows not whether either of these can be spared from the Privy Council; nor does he know any of the Council at Malines fit for the task, or even whether Schore thinks the time ripe for the merchants' redress. Describes Master Leonard Casimbrot, eschevin of Bruges, as a very suitable man if it were decided to employ one who is not an ordinary Councillor. He has had experience of English people in going backwards and forwards to Scotland. Expected to deliver the King of England's ratification on Sunday evening, the day after he received it; but, as Schore had left, he will forward it. Mr. Joos Bave has the copy of the treaty, and the corrected minute remains with the German Secretary Christophe who made the fair copy. Will send with the ratification the letter, signed and sealed by the English ambassadors, promising it. Our letters have been sent to England, as I have seen by a letter from the Council there. I should have liked to have had them back, but the ambassadors assured me they no longer had them and we might retain theirs in exchange. Commends Secretary Christophe, who desires to be treated like the other secretaries. Begs Schore to provide for regular payment of the ambassador Van der Delft. Will await his despatch here or in Zeeland as passage is less dangerous by Flushing than by Calais. In the suit commenced against Von Reiffenberg, Doctor Viglius, in the absence of Vicechancellor Naves, might draw up the case, for which Secretary Christophe has the documents. Bruges, 15 Feb. 1546.
15 Feb.221. William Damesell to Paget.
R. O.Instantly desires that the King may know of his arrival at Andwarpe, where he has made search for the munition and other things required, and trusts to provide all save "the poldaves and oldernes sayles for shipes." Will depart in a day or two into Zelond to search for these; "and also for the making of certain anchors for ships according to his Majesty's commandment." Andwerpe, 16 s 1545.
Hol., p. 1. Add. Endd.


1 Cancelled.
2 Stasino and Crexia. See No. 90.
3 The 13th.
4 Feb. 19th.
5 No. 114.