St. Martin Pomary 95/6-7

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'St. Martin Pomary 95/6-7', Historical gazetteer of London before the Great Fire: Cheapside; parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane (1987), pp. 150-159. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=8322 Date accessed: 21 August 2014.


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Introduction

Before the late 13th century these may have been part of the same property as 95/5. First 7, and then 6 were separated from 5. 6 and 7 were then in the same ownership until 1335-6, but belonged to separate owners between then and 1415. 6 was bounded by 5 on the S. and by 7 on the N. and W. 7 was bounded by 5 and 6 on the S. and E., Ironmonger Lane on the E. and tenements in St. Lawrence Jewry parish to the N. and W.

In 1858 the property was nos. 16-19 Ironmonger Lane.

Thirteenth to early fifteenth century

In the late 13th century 5, 6, and 7 belonged to John le Cofrer. The tenement formerly belonging to a Jew, which in 1284-5 adjoined the N. side of John's houses in Ironmonger Lane (see 5), may thus have represented a property in St. Lawrence Jewry parish rather than 6 and 7, although this is not certain. By 1292 7 was in the possession of Walter de Lindeseye, cofferer, who seems to have been identical with the Walter de Bardeneye who later stated that he had acquired 7 by the grant of John le Cofrer, his former master. In 1292 Walter came to an agreement with John de Buterle, who seems to have been the owner of properties (probably in St. Lawrence parish) to the N. and W. of 7 and had suffered joists and other timber to be enclosed in the walls of his houses extending to Ironmonger Lane on the E. and in his great chamber towards the W.; Walter now agreed not to put any more timber in the walls and not to make any claim should John demolish the walls; Walter further agreed to make the shaft of his chimney, which rested on the wall of John's chamber, high enough so that John would not be bothered by the smoke. John de Buterle's great chamber was probably identical with the chamber in the corner in the S. part of his tenement, beneath which in 1292 John le Coffrer had a pentice. This pentice may have been part of 5 leaning against the S. wall of de Buterle's property where there was a chamber at first floor level. Le Cofrer agreed that he would bear the cost of repairing the pentice should de Buterle wish to rebuild the chamber or the wall. This case gives a valuable indication of the degree to which the rear parts of properties facing on to Ironmonger Lane and Catte Street (now Gresham Street) were built up in the late 13th century. Walter de Bardeneye enlarged his property after 1305 by acquiring 6, later described as a shop with a kitchen annexed, from John le Coffrer's nephew, Salamon le Coffrer. This shop was perhaps the northernmost of the 4 shops which had adjoined the N. side of John le Coffrer's capital messuage (see 5C). By his will, enrolled in 1324, Walter left to his son John his tenement with houses built on it which he had had by the gift of John le Coffrer (i.e. 7). (fn. 1)

John de Bardeneye, son of Walter, was subsequently in possession of both 6 and 7. In 1324 he leased a messuage representing the whole or part of 7 to John de Writele for a term of 10 years and by December 1327 had granted the whole of 7 to William Cotoun, citizen and pepperer, who allowed de Writele to contine to enjoy his term of years. In 1330 Salamon le Coffrer attempted to recover possession from William Cotoun of a shop and solar which probably represented 6; they had formerly quitclaimed in this property to John de Bardeney, but argued that the quitclaim had no force since at the time they were imprisoned (inprisonati) by William Cotun in the church of St. Thomas of Acre and had acted under duress. By October 1331 Salamon was dead and so William's right was unchallenged. By his will, drawn up and enrolled in 1335, John de Bardeneye left the shop with kitchen annexed representing 6 to William and William's wife Rose, together with the custody of his daughter Alice until she was of age. The shop was bounded by William's own tenement (7) on the N. and W. and by Salamon le Coffrer's tenement (5) on the S. William Cotoun disposed of 6 almost immediately, but retained 7 until his death in January 1349. He left his tenements in Ironmonger Lane and outside Aldgate to be sold and the money distributed among his 7 children; Alice de Bardeneye, a nun of Mallyng and presumably the daughter of John de Bardeneye, was to have 10s. rent for life from the tenements. Cotoun's executors immediately sold 7, a tenement with shops which Cotoun was said to have acquired from John de Bardeneye and which was charged with the rent of 10s. to Alice, to William de Welde, draper, and John Deynes, ironmonger. The property was said to be bounded by a former tenement of Nicholas Edmond on the N. and W. (probably in St. Lawrence parish), by a former tenement of Thomas le Fourbour (probably 5C) on the S., and by a tenement of Salamon le Coffrer (probably in St. Lawrence parish) on the W. John Deynes was later in sole possession and in 1365 granted the lands and shops with houses representing 7 to Richard de Storteford, citizen and fellmonger. This property was bounded on the N. by Nicholas Edmond's former tenement (probably in St. Lawrence parish), on the S. by 6, and on the W. by tenements of Robert de Cayton and his wife Reyne (probably in St. Lawrence parish) which at about this time were also said to adjoin the N. side of 5. In 1366 William de Stoke and his wife Margery, the owners of the property to the N. (probably in St. Lawrence parish) complained of intrusion and sought the assize of nuisance against Richard de Storteford and his wife Alesia. De Storteford died in 1394, when he was described as a leatherseller, and resided in this parish, probably in 7. He left this property to be sold by his executors, among whom Thomas Fauconer, mercer, was to have it if he wished. (fn. 2)

7 then came into the possession of John Pounde, citizen and pouch-maker, and was probably among the lands and tenements in the parishes of St. Martin Pomary and St. Swithun which at his death in 1412 Pounde left to his wife Katharine for life and then to be sold by his executors. In 1413 Katharine granted her life interest in this estate to William Berkyng and John Bailly, citizens, and then, acting as her husband's executrix, sold the reversion after her death to Drew Barantyn, goldsmith, Henry Halton, grocer, and William Mynikan, fishmonger, all citizens. Soon after this Pounde's other executor, Richard Anable, citizen and pewterer, sold the reversion to Henry Halton, to whom Barantyn and Mynikan quitclaimed in March 1413. By 1415, when Katharine had presumably died, 7 was a tenement of Henry Halton. (fn. 3)

In 1336 6 was a shop with solars built above which John atte Welhous, ironmonger and citizen, and his wife Agnes granted to Henry atte Roche, citizen and chandler (unctarius). In 1358 atte Roche's former tenement here belonged to William Gregori and his wife Idonia, who in 1365 were named as owners of the little shop here. The property appears to have descended with others in various parts of the city from Henry atte Roche to his daughter Marion and from her to her son, Henry atte Mersh. Henry atte Mersh granted properties in several parishes, including St. Martin Pomary, to Richard Fohoun and Henry Yeveley, citizen(s), who in 1361 granted them in free marriage to Henry atte Mersh and his wife Idonia and their legitimate heirs, with remainder to Henry's right heirs. There was probably a family relationship between Henry and/or his wife and William Gregori and/or his wife, but this cannot be determined. There were other interests in this group of properties, including 6, which had once belonged to Henry atte Roche and concerning which several trusts appear to have been set up. Thus Robert atte Broke, a smith of Lemynton (Suffolk), granted the properties to John Gullay and his wife Andrina, daughter and heir of Thomas Hendeman of Grene (Kent), who in 1368 quitclaimed in them to John Creyndon, fishmonger, Henry Yevele, mason, and Thomas de Mildenhale, all citizens. By 1380, when Maud Holbech was in possession of 6, Creyndon, Yevele, and de Mildenhale sold the properties to Maud and her then husband, Hugh Southern. Maud was later described as the widow of William Holbech, who died in 1365-7, and it is probable that Hugh was her second husband. In 1386 Idonia, widow of Henry atte Mersh and now widow of William de Croydon, quitclaimed to Maud Holbech in the properties which had once belonged to Henry atte Mersh. Soon after this quitclaim Henry Yevele bound himself to Maud Holbech and Stephen Spelman to the effect that neither he nor his brother, Richard Foun, would cause her any loss concerning the properties by suing on a recognisance made to them in Chancery by Henry atte Mersh. Maud died in 1392-3 and left these properties to Thomas son of William Occlyf, formerly citizen and draper, for the term of his life and then to be sold. In 1408 Thomas surrendered the properties to Maud's executors, who included Stephen Speleman and in 1415 sold 6 to Henry Halton, citizen and grocer. 6 was now described as a shop with solar(s) over measuring 10 1/2 ft. (3.2 m.) next to the street, 10 ft. (3.05 m.) at its W. end, 14 ft. 3 in. (4.34 m.) on its S. side and 14 ft. 2 in. (4.32 m.) on its N. side. (fn. 4)

Halton died in 1415-16 and directed that he be buried in the church of St. Antonin. He left his properties in various parishes, including St. Martin Pomary, to his wife Margery for life. On her death the Ironmonger Lane property (6 and 7) was to remain in 3 separate parts, identified here as 6-7, A-C. B was a bakehouse (domus pistrina) which was to remain to Halton's daughter Elizabeth in tail; A was 3 shops with solars over (probably including 6) on the S. side of the bakehouse which were to remain to Halton's son Richard in tail, and towards the renovation of which Halton left £66. 13s. 4d.; and C was a house with a cellar beneath it on the N. side of the bakehouse, which was to remain to Halton's daughter Blanche in tail. The tenant of 6-7A at this time was probably John Sell, grocer. In 1416-17 he was carrying out some building there, on account of which 5H and 5I (q.v.) were vacant and in ruins. It seems probable that Sell or his landlord was using Halton's legacy of the preceding year to rebuild part of 6-7A, perhaps a part lying back from the street, and that 5H and 5I were used as a means of access to the site. Shortly afterwards, 5H and 5I were themselves rebuilt. In 1434, when Halton's children were dead, his widow Margery, her then husband, John Welles, citizen and grocer, and her co-executor, Richard Osbarn granted Margery's life interest in Halton's former properties to William Estfeld, citizen and mercer, Thomas Knolles junior, citizen and grocer, Alexander Anne, William Clyve, clerk, and Richard Rowe, vintner and citizen. Shortly after this they granted the reversion of the properties to John Reynewell and John Hatherley. In 1442, after Margery's death, Reynewell and Hatherley granted the 3 parts of 6 and 7, as described in Halton's will, to Thomas Knolles, citizen and grocer, Robert Knolles, esquire, William Oliver, citizen and mercer, and Robert Newman, clerk. (fn. 5)

Fifteenth century

After Thomas Knolles and Robert Newman had died, Robert Knolles and William Oliver granted the property to Ralph Say, citizen and grocer, and his heirs. By his will, dated 1447, Say left the bakehouse with a garden adjacent (6-7B), the 3 shops with solars (6-7A), and the house with a cellar below and solar(s) above (6-7C) to the Grocers' Company as the endowment for a chantry and obit in the church of St. Antonin. The manner of celebrating the chantry and obit was to change in 1472, 25 years after the date of the will. Should the company fail to appoint a chaplain after a 6 months vacancy or should the revenue from the property, by reason of failure to carry out new building or repairs, be insufficient to meet the necessary expenditure, the property was to remain to the rector and churchwardens of St. Antonin, who were to keep up the chantry and obit. In addition, Say charged the property with a rent of 1 lb. of pepper payable to St. Bartholomew's Priory. The accounts of the Grocers' Company show that it was in possession of 6 and 7, between 1448 and 1470. The property probably then remained to the parish church of St. Antonin, which is known to have been in possession by 1542 and retained the property until the chantries were dissolved in 1547. (fn. 6)

The Grocers' accounts record rent receipts from and expenditure on properties in Ironmonger Lane and Candlewick Street, where they held tenements as the endowment of another chantry established by Ralph Say. It is possible to identify references to the bakehouse (6-7B) and the house with a cellar (6-7C), and to determine that there were 3 other tenancies in Ironmonger Lane which corresponded to the 3 shops (6-7A). Each of these 3 tenancies brought in £1 rent and so it is possible that the successions of tenants as given here are not always the correct ones for each part of 6-7A. The tenants for this group of properties as a whole have probably been identified correctly, except in one instance where there may be some confusion with a tenancy in Candlewick Street. (fn. 7)

6-7A

John Curteys, point-maker, held one of these tenancies for £1 rent between 1448 and 1450, William Curteys, point-maker, paid the rent between 1450 and 1454. This was probably the property for which John Madys paid £1 rent between 1455 and 1460 and for which Thomas Swetynge, founder, paid the rent between 1461 and 1465. A pair of garnets (probably hooks) was purchased in 1461-2 for Swetynge's house, which was vacant in 1465-6. John Mawnfred, surgeon, paid the rent for Swetynge's former house between 1466 and 1469, when he was succeeded by John Sayer, girdler, who still held it in 1470. A new jamb for the oven mouth and new stone for the hearth were used at this house in 1466-7, when 9s. was spent on repairs. 5s. 6d. were spent on carpenter's and dauber's work in 1468-9.

Thomas Yorke held another one of these tenancies for £1 rent between 1448 and 1452. John Yorke then held it until 1454, when he was succeeded by John Parker, tailor, who seems to have held it for only a part of that year. William Grase, founder, paid 15s. for a tenancy of 3 terms in 1453-4 which may have concerned this property. Between 1455 and 1457 Thomas Byfotte held for £1 rent property which may have been this one, but it seems more likely that the tenant was John Colman, who paid the same rent for the same period. William Ryse probably held it for this rent between 1458 and 1460, John Wante held it between 1461 and 1462, John Wante's wife between 1463 and 1465, John Caveison in 1466-7, Thomas Morell, purser, in 1467-8, and William Morell, bead-maker (bedmaker), between 1468 and 1470.

The third tenancy was held by John Gronde, shearman, for £1 rent between 1448 and 1450. Thomas Gronde, shearman, held it between 1450 and 1452, John Chesham for part of 1452, Thomas Gronde in 1453-4, Thomas Chesham in 1455-6, and 'Gronde', shearman in 1457-8, when a dauber worked there. This may have been the property for which Nicholas Tiler paid 5s. rent for a term in 1462-3. It was probably the house in Ironmonger Lane which was nominally let to William Cowche, cutler, for £1 rent between 1463 and 1466, but which seems to have been vacant for most of that period; loam was taken to this house in 1463-5. Between 1465 and 1470 John Greyrigge, founder, held the property for £1 rent.

6-7B

Richard Herne, capper, held the bakehouse for £5. 6s. 8d. rent between 1448 and 1450, and may have been identical with the Richard Heround who held it in 1450-1. John Pecok held it at the same rent for half the period 1452-4, when £3. 7s. 7 1/2d. were spent on tiling, daubing, carpentry, ironwork, and carting away rubbish; at this time the house included a long screen, a hall paved with sand, a pentice, and a shed. John Pytte, baker, held it for £5. 6s. 8d. rent in 1453-4 and Nicholas Herte, baker, held it for £4. 13s. 4d. rent between 1455 and 1457. In 1455-6 £1. 10s. 4d. were spent on repairing 2 ovens in the bakehouse: the floors of the ovens were broken up and removed, 42 ft. (12.8 m.) of freestone were laid in one oven; the same mason repaired 2 oven mouths; 500 bricks were used to secure the sides of the ovens, 3 loads of clay were laid over the ovens, and a candle was used to light the work inside them. Thomas Herte, baker, held the property for £4. 13s. 4d. rent between 1458 and 1470.

The period of Herte's tenancy was one of relatively heavy expenditure on repairs. £1. 12s. 4d. were spent on tiling and carpentry work in 1457, including blocking 'a sege mouth'. £1. 2s. 9d. were spent in 1459-60: a mason using freestone made a 'coole pytt', perhaps used for storing dough, which was deep enough for it to be necessary to use candles to light the work; a mason mended the mouth of the great oven and laid freestone on the floor of another oven; a carpenter made an oven lid and repaired the latrine, for which a lead cistern was supplied, and a tiler worked for 2 days. In 1460-1 a well in the bakehouse was repaired and the back wall between the bakehouse and 'the shearman's house' (part of 5A) was repaired with brick on account of the danger of fire from the oven. A new oven lid was supplied in 1461-2, a plumber worked there in 1465-6, and a gutter was repaired in 1467-8.

6-7C

This was a house with a cellar. Cristian Casse apparently held the house alone for £1. 10s. rent between 1448 and 1451-2. The cellar was vacant for this period, except for one term between 1448 and 1450 when a barber paid 2s. 6d. rent. In 1451-2 the house and cellar were vacant. In 1453-4 Cristian Casse held the house for £1. 10s. rent and Thomas Bakere, girdler, held the cellar for 10s. rent. The property seems then to have been vacant until 1455, when Margaret Hyfeld, silkwoman, began a tenancy at £1. 13s. 4d. rent which lasted until 1460. A mason paved her kitchen with stone in 1457. Richard Awnson was tenant at the same rent in 1460-1, when a dauber, a tiler, and a carpenter worked there, and for 3 terms in 1461-2, when hasps, staples, and a pair of great garnets were fitted, and boards were purchased for the buttery floor and the trap-door. 'My Lady Galyen' (fn. 8) was tenant between 1463 and 1465 at the same rent. Locks and keys were supplied for her house, stairs in the cellar were repaired, and 2 new doors were supplied for the cellar and the 'overmost cellar' in 1462-3. Roger Mercer held the house between 1465 and 1467 for £1. 6s. 8d. rent, and a dauber worked there in 1465. Between 1467 and 1469 Richard Cook, mercer, held the house for the same rent.

Sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

In 1548 6-7, belonging to a chantry in St. Antonin's church, was described as a brewery (pandoxatorium; a bakehouse was presumably intended) with shops, cellar, and solar(s), and 3 tenements belonging to it, which had been let for a term of years to David Johns, baker, for £7. 8s. rent. This rent was 71% of the total rent due in 1470 (£9) and 62% of the total rent which would have been received if the whole property had been let in 1448 (£10. 6s. 8d.). Johns probably inhabited 6-7 in 1541 and 1544. In 1549 the Crown sold the property to Henry Coddenham of London, gentleman, and William Pendred, citizen and founder, for £103. 12s. (14 years purchase). (fn. 9)

6-7 later belonged to John Buntinge, citizen and whitebaker, who at his death in 1586 left the property to his wife Elizabeth during her widowhood. The legacy was described as a messuage called the Ball with shops, cellars, solars and a bakehouse (probably 6-7B and C), where Buntinge lived, together with 3 tenements (6-7A) adjoining. Out of the rent from the property Buntinge's widow and heirs were to pay an annuity of £2 to his sister, Margaret Browhill of Beverley (Yorks.). 6-7 later passed to John's son Robert, who as Robert Buntinge, gentleman, was said to own it in 1604. At this time 6-7B, lying to the W. of 5M and to the W. and N. of 5L was held by Edward Carter, citizen and whitebaker (he is also described as cordwainer) and the southernmost part of 6-7A was occupied by Elizabeth Brookbancke, widow. In the late 16th or early 17th century the 2 more southerly tenements in 6-7A were put together to make one. This had probably taken place by 1621, when Robert Buntinge, citizen and whitebaker, drew up a will which was proved in 1622 but not enrolled in Husting until 1630. By this will he left 6-7A, represented by a tenement occupied by Ley and a tenement occupied by Harbert, together with 6-7C, a tenement inhabited by widow Lockwood, to his wife Philippa and her heirs and assigns on condition that she made payments of £100 each to his daughter Philippa and his son Robert when each was 21. Buntinge's wife Philippa had a jointure for life in the tenement where Buntinge then lived (6-7B), which he willed was to remain after Philippa's death to his son John and his heirs and assigns for ever. (fn. 10)

Buntinge's widow Philippa had married Benjamin Paule by 1633, and this marriage had probably taken place by 1627, when Paule, a whitebaker, occupied 6-7B. In 1633 Paule, then described as citizen and vintner, and his wife Philippa sold 6-7A and 6-7C to Philippa's aunt, Alice Hayward, widow, and Philippa's brother, Edmund Edlyn, citizen and salter, for 5s. and in consideration that the purchasers should reconvey the property to the vendors for their use during their lives so that the £100 could be paid to Robert Buntinge's son Robert, with successive remainders to the heirs of Benjamin and Philippa and then to Benjamin's right heirs. At this time the S. part of 6-7A, a tenement which had once been 2 tenements, was said to have been occupied by William Mayden, glasier, and then by John Serle, gentleman, and was now occupied by James Serieant; the tenement representing the N. part of 6-7A had been occupied by the widow of Lawrence Ley; the tenement representing 6-7C had been occupied by Sara Lockwood, widow, and Christopher Lockwood, both now dead, and was now occupied by Richard Jenney. In 1634 Benjamin Paule, his wife Philippa, Philippa's son, John Buntinge, citizen and whitebaker, and John's wife Areana granted the capital messuage and bakehouse with shops, cellars, solars, rooms, etc. representing 6-7B, and then or late in Paule's occupation, to Alice Hayward and Edmund Edlyn for 5s. to the intent that the grantees would suffer a common recovery. The intent of the gift was accomplished later that year when George Johnson and Anthony Bailey recovered possession against Alice Hayward and Edmund Edlyn. (fn. 11)

The property appears to be represented by 5 houses in the tithe assessment list of 1638. From S. to N. these were the houses of Mr. Serjeant (S. part of 6-7A) valued at £12 a year, of Mr. Bunting (probably John Bunting, 6- 7B) valued at £20 a year, of Mr. Palfrey (perhaps the N. part of 6-7A) valued at £10 a year, of Mr. Dawson (perhaps part of 6-7C) valued at £6 a year, and of Mr. Poole (perhaps part of 6-7C) valued at £4 a year. (fn. 12)

Benjamin Paule died before his wife Philippa, who herself died in 1641 leaving a sum of money to the children of her son John Bunting on condition that he did not challenge the right of her son Benjamin Paull to her tenement (presumably 6-7A and C) in Ironmonger Lane. 6-7A and 6-7C then passed to the son and heir of Benjamin and Philippa, Benjamin Paull, merchant, who in 1648 granted the property to William Harvey, citizen and grocer, for a term of 99 years in return of a payment of £250 and a peppercorn rent. This grant was to be void if Paull paid Harvey £310 at an agreed time and place. The money was not repaid and in 1656, with Paull's assent, Harvey assigned his term of years to William Justice, citizen and haberdasher, who was to hold by the nomination of John Benbow, citizen and grocer. With Benbow's assent Justice then assigned the tenement which apparently represented 6- 7C. Theophilus Birkenhead of Highgate, gentleman, purchased the other 2 tenements (6-7A) and in 1658 Benbowe and Justice assigned their term of years in them to Thomas Gowre of London, esquire, who was to hold in trust for Birkenhead. The occupants of the 3 tenements with their shops, cellars, solars, rooms, etc. in 1648 were named as John Vize (6-7C), Philip Burges (part of 6-7A), and James Sergeant (part of 6-7A). (fn. 13)

In 1646 John Bunting and his wife Areana granted the capital messuage and bakehouse with its outhouses, chambers, rooms, cellars, solars, etc. (6-7B), which John then occupied, to William Harvey, citizen and grocer, for a term of 99 years for a payment of £300 and a peppercorn rent. This grant apparently became void when George May of London, gentleman, paid £300 to Harvey on Bunting's behalf. In 1651 Bunting and Areana bargained and sold the capital messuage and bakehouse to May for a payment of £100, and in 1654, Areana being dead, Bunting granted, released, and confirmed the property to May in return for a payment of £100. Between 1651 and 1654 6-7B was divided into 2 messuages. (fn. 14)

In the late 1650s 6-7A and 6-7C were thus held by Theophilus Birkenhead for a term of years due to end in 1747 and 6-7B was in the possession of George May. May probably held the property on behalf of members of the Bunting family or the successors to Philippa, successively widow of Robert Bunting and Benjamin Paule, and his interest later passed to John Hammerton, citizen and vintner (see below). Hammerton was probably a relative of Philippa, who in her will mentioned her niece Philippa Hammerton.

All the occupants of 6-7 can be identified in the Hearth Tax assessment of 1666 and some of them in the assessment of 1662-3. At both dates 6-7A was represented by a house with 5 hearths occupied by Richard Ray, armourer. 6-7B had been divided into 2 houses: one, with 5 hearths, was occupied in 1662-3 by Richard Glover, and in 1666 by John Snow, baker, who had 2 hearths and 2 common ovens; the other, with 8 hearths, was occupied in 1666 by Thomas Lampew (cf. below). 6-7C was represented by a house with 2 hearths in 1662-3 and 3 hearths in 1666 occupied at both dates by William Thornton, tailor, and by a house of 3 hearths occupied in 1662-3 by Elizabeth Vize (presumably widow of John Vize) and in 1666 by John Hussey, joiner. (fn. 15)

After the great fire

After the Fire the greater part of 6-7, apparently representing 6-7B, was in the possession of John Hammerton, the infant son and heir of John Hammerton, citizen and vintner. He was unable to undertake rebuilding and so his guardians let the property under several leases. Hammerton's property was much intermixed with the neighbouring parts of 6-7. There are some detailed records of arrangements concerning the removal of the intermixtures of the grounds leased by Hammerton's guardians, and of some of the foundations laid out on the site, but it is not possible to work out from these records the precise arrangement of the parts of 6-7 before the Fire.

6-7A

There was an intermixture in Ironmonger Lane between Theophilus Birkenhead and John Hammerton, and in December 1670 viewers decided that Birkenhead should have land measuring 20 ft. (6.1 m.) N./S. from the middle of a party wall on the S. and 26 ft. (7.92 m.) W./E. 'from the range of the street westward', while Hammerton was to have the remainder. Birkenhead's land, the exact location of which cannot be determined, was presumably part of 6-7A and it seems likely that he had ceded part of his pre-Fire property to Hammerton. (fn. 16)

6-7B

After the Fire this appears to have been let in 3 parts: the W. end of the property, which now formed a site fronting on to King Street; the middle part of the property, which included the site of the bakehouse and a narrow frontage on Ironmonger Lane, and another part of the property next to Ironmonger Lane.

The middle part of the property was in the possession of John Snow, citizen and baker, by January 1671, when a foundation at its W. end was surveyed for him. The probable position of this foundation is shown on the reconstruction plan for the area after the Fire, and the S. part of it on the E. side was bounded by Birkenhead's property (cf. 6-7A). In February 1671 Snow was having a bakehouse built on this site, where a bakehouse had stood before the Fire. Snow's neighbours regarded the new bakehouse as a fire risk, but he was permitted by the city authorities to continue with the building. In November Snow obtained from Hammerton's guardians a lease for 51 years at £10 rent of a toft and other pieces of ground where Snow had built 2 messuages and which probably included the bakehouse. The toft measured 11 ft. (3.35 m.) next to the lane by 22 ft. (6.71 m.) in depth; there was also a piece of ground intended to be a yard measuring 10 ft. (3.05 m.) E./W. by 28 ft. (8.53 m.) N./S., another piece of ground measuring 17 ft. (5.18 m.) by 50 ft. (15.24 m.), and a backyard measuring 10 ft. (3.05 m.). by 16 ft. (4.88 m.). (fn. 17)

The remaining part of Hammerton's property on the Ironmonger Lane frontage was a toft with a frontage of 25 ft. (7.62 m.). In November 1671 Hammerton's guardians agreed to let it to Thomas Hall, who was to build a substantial messuage there, for a term of 51 years at £12 rent. The location of this toft within 6-7 is not certain. (fn. 18)

The E. frontage of King Street cut diagonally across the W. end of 6-7B, from which a triangle of ground measuring 7 ft. (2.13 m.) by 3 ft. (914 mm.) was cut off and laid into the street, and to which another triangular piece measuring 17 ft. (5.18 m.) by 6 ft. 6 in. (1.98 m.) was added in order to bring the property up to the new frontage. In November 1671 Hammerton's guardians agreed to let the site, measuring 22 ft. (6.71 m.) by King Street, 42 ft. (12.8 m.) on the N. side, and 36 ft. (10.1 m.) on the S. side, to John Oliver for a term of 51 years at £12 rent. (fn. 19)

6-7C

This property was in the possession of John Wickens by September 1671, when he was in dispute with Hammerton over an intermixture. Surveyors decided that Wickens should have the cellar and ground floor over which the back rooms of his house had formerly been built and that the party wall between them should be set 16 ft. 4 in. (4.98 m.) S. of the party wall on the N. side of Wickens's property. Hammerton ceded some ground to Wickens in return for which he was to receive £40 together with the room at ground floor level over his house of office, where Wickens had formerly had the freehold. Wickens seems to have failed to build on his property, or a part of it, which in consequence was seized by the city authorities, who in 1678 sold it for £125 to John Oliver, citizen and glazier, and Richard Oliver of St. John's College, Oxford, gentleman. The subject of this sale was reputed to be the interest of William Wickins, clerk, and consisted of a toft measuring 15 ft. (4.57 m.) by Ironmonger Lane, 15 ft. 6 in. (10.49 m.) on the N. side, together with 2 other rooms at that time part of the dwelling of Thomas Lamplough. Two messuages stood on the site, then occupied by John Hurst and William Thorneton. The toft probably occupied the northernmost part of 6-7, but was probably less extensive that 6-7C had been before the Fire. (fn. 20)

Footnotes

1 HR 15(10), 53(7), 63(83, 176); LBA, 181-2 (f. 86r-v).
2 HR 63(83), 75(193), 76(52), 93(106), 108(141); HPL 49, 52; HCP 90, m. 17d; GL, MS 25121/1766; GL, MS 9171/1, ff. 310v-311.
3 HR 140(21, 52), 141(9, 10), 143(33); GL, MS 9171/2, ff. 229v-230.
4 HR 63(176), 90(13), 93(106), 95(99), 96(209), 115(40), 122(22), 143(33); GL, MS 25121/1766; Cal SPMR 1381-1412, pp. 126-7.
5 HR 143(50), 162(59), 171(9).
6 GL, MSS: 9171/4, ff. 264-6v; GL, MS 25630/1, ff. 130v-1v; Chant C, no. 26.
7 Except where otherwise noted, the following account is based on the wardens' a/cs of the Grocers' Company in GL, MSS 11570, 11571/1-2, s.a. 1448-70.
8 She was perhaps a relative of Richard Galion, goldsmith, and/or Robert Galion, draper; cf. Cal PMR 1458-82, p. 169.
9 PRO, E318/27/1527, SC6/Ed6/293, E179/144/120, E179/251/123; Cal Pat R 1549-51, p. 144.
10 GL, MS 25630/4, ff, 209-12v; PRO, PROB11/69(33), 139(33); HR 310(20).
11 GL, MS 25630/7, ff. 123v-5v; HR 310(20), 311(10); HPL 208, m. 3.
12 Inhabitants in 1638, p. 125.
13 GL, MSS 9050/7, f. 83v, 7072/1.
14 HR 321(35), 329(51, 53).
15 PRO, E179/152/252/27 and 32/16.
16 CLRO, Viewers' Book I. 242.
17 M&O v, f. 78v; Rep 76, ff. 67, 83v, 89v; CLRO, Fire Ct. Decrees H, ff. 42v-3v; GL, MS 7072/2.
18 CLRO, Fire Ct. Decrees H, ff. 39-40v.
19 CLRO: Fire Ct. Decrees H, ff. 41-2; Comptrollers' Deeds K bundle B no. 40, K bundle H no. 74, Box 30 nos. 14-15; Rep 77, fo. 234.
20 CLRO: Rep 76, f. 244; Rep 77, ff. 18v, 68, 146, 173, 240; HR 348(37).