List 1: Archbishops

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Institute of Historical Research

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Diana E. Greenaway

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1999

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'List 1: Archbishops', Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: Volume 6: York (1999), pp. 1-7. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=8457 Date accessed: 31 August 2014.


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Ealdred (fn. 1)

Bp. of Worcester from 1046; previously monk of Winchester and abbot of Tavistock (The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ed. in translation D. Whitelock (1961) D 1047; John of Worcester II 542-3). Presum. already cons. when occ. as bp. in 1044, prob. co-adjutor of his predecessor Lyfing (John of Worcester II 543 n. 8; Heads of Relig. Houses p. 72). Also bp. of Hereford 1056-60 (Anglo-Saxon Chron. C D 1056, D 1060). Retained Worcester when became abp. of York after 22 Dec. 1060 (ibid. D E 1060). Went to Rome for pallium 1061 (ibid. D 1061). Abp. of York alone 1062 (John of Worcester II 590-1). He anointed kg. William I at coronation 25 Dec. 1066 (Eadmer, HN p. 9). D. 11 Sept. 1069 (Anglo-Saxon Chron. D 1069; John of Worcester III 8-9).

Thomas I 'of Bayeux' (fn. 2)

Canon and treas. of Bayeux; ducal and royal chapl.; brother of Sampson bp. of Worcester; uncle of Thomas II abp. of York (Hugh the Chanter pp. 2-3). Nom. 23 May 1070 (John of Worcester III 12-13; Councils & Synods I (2) 578). Refused to make written prof. obed. to abp. Lanfranc after 29 Aug. 1070, but made verbal prof. obed. and was cons. by Lanfranc late in 1070 or early 1071 (Councils & Synods I (2) 586-607; M. T. Gibson, Lanfranc of Bec (Oxford, 1978) pp. 117-18; John of Worcester III 16-17; Hugh the Chanter pp. 3-4; Will. Malmes., GP p. 40). Went to Rome for pallium autumn 1071 (Eadmer, HN pp. 10-11; John of Worcester III 18-19; Councils & Synods I (2) 587, 590; Will. Malmes., GP pp. 65-6). Made written prof. obed. 1072, after 27 May (Cant. Profs. no. 34 = EEA V no. 1). D. at York 18 Nov. 1100 (Hugh the Chanter pp. 20-1 and n. 2; John of Worcester III 96-7; Cart. S. Petri Glos. I 12; HCY II 364, at Ripon). Said to have been 'very learned ... renowned ... for his learning' (Hugh the Chanter pp. 2-3); writer of poetry (Henry, archdeacon of Huntingdon: Historia Anglorum, ed. D. Greenway (OMT, 1996) p. 448, 'uir ingenii florentis et musarum a secretis'; and see Sharpe, Handlist no. 1699).

Gerard (fn. 3)

Royal chanc. under William I and William II (Hugh the Chanter pp. 20-1 and n. 3; see Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum (1066-1087), ed. D. Bates (Oxford, 1998) pp. 101-2). Bp. of Hereford, cons. and prof. obed. 15 June 1096 (Cant. Profs. no. 53). Transl. to York Jan. 1101 (Hugh the Chanter pp. 20-1). Went to Rome for pallium 1102 and returned before Michaelmas (ibid. pp. 22-3). D. at Southwell 21 May 1108 (Will. Malmes., GP pp. 259-60; Hugh the Chanter pp. 24-5 and n. 5; William of Newburgh p. 28; HCY II 522, 366). Nephew of Walkelin, bp. of Winchester (1070-98) (Hugh the Chanter p. 21 n. 3), and thus of Simeon, abbot of Ely (1082-94) (Heads of Relig. Houses p. 45). Writer of poetry (Sharpe, Handlist no. 351).

Thomas II (fn. 4)

Royal chapl.; first provost of Beverley, appd. 1092 (Beverley Fasti p. 3), nephew of abp. Thomas I, nom. at request of dean and chapter 27 May 1108 (Hugh the Chanter pp. 24-7). Prof. obed. 27 June 1109 during vacancy at Canterbury following abp. Anselm's d. on 21 Apr. 1109 (Cant. Profs. no. 62, cal. EEA V no. 12; see also Eadmer, HN p. 210). Cons. by bp. of London 27 June 1109 in St Paul's (Hugh the Chanter pp. 48-9; Eadmer, HN p. 210; John of Worcester III 118-19). Received pallium at York 1 Aug. (John of Worcester III 118-19). D. Feb. 1114; sources differ over date: 19 Feb. (Hugh the Chanter pp. 54-5 and n. 2, 'xi. kal. Mar.' perhaps an error for 'vi. kal. Mar.' = 24 Feb.), Tuesday 24 Feb. (John of Worcester III 134-5), at Beverley 16 Feb. (Richard of Hexham p. 247). Possibly writer of poetry (Sharpe, Handlist no. 1687).

Thurstan (fn. 5)

Royal chapl., can. of London (1 Fasti I 43), nom. 15 Aug. 1114 (John of Worcester III 134-5) or 16 Aug. (Hugh the Chanter pp. 56-7 and n. 3). Ord. dcn. Dec. by bp. of Winchester and enthroned at York by bp. of Chester (ibid. pp. 58-9). Ord. pr. 6 June 1115 (ibid. pp. 60-3). Refused to make prof. obed. to Canterbury (ibid.). Cons. by pope 19 Oct. 1119 at Reims (ibid. pp. 120-1, cf. pp. 118-19 and 119 n. 2; John of Worcester III 146-7). Res. to become Cluniac monk at Pontefract 21 Jan. 1140, d. 5 Feb. (John of Worcester III 282-3), res. 25 Jan., d. 6 Feb. 1140 (John of Hexham p. 305; William of Newburgh p. 49). Writer of account of foundation of Cist. abbey of Fountains (W.R.) (Sharpe, Handlist no. 1869).

[Waltheof

Prior of Kirkham (Aug., E.R.) (Heads of Relig. Houses p. 168). El. 1140, but rejected by kg. because of his kinship to kg. David of Scotland (fn. 6) (Jocelin of Furness, 'Vita S. Waltheni (sic)', Acta Sanctorum Aug. I 248-77, at p. 256C).]

[Henry de Sully

Abbot of Fécamp. El. 1140, but rejected by pope because refused to resign abbacy (John of Hexham pp. 306-7, where, however, he is incorrectly called abbot of Caen). Nephew of kg. Stephen and Henry of Blois (see references usefully gathered in GFL p. 109 n. 2; also I Fasti IV 2 on his career and his earlier el. at Salisbury; cf. Sharpe, Handlist no. 478).]

William Fitz Herbert (fn. 7)

Treas. of York from before Feb. 1114 (list 5). El. by majority of cans. Jan. 1141, conf. by kg. at Lincoln before 2 Feb. (John of Hexham p. 307). His el. opposed by archdcn. Walter of London (list 9) and other unnamed archdcns. and by William of Eu, prec. (list 3) (John of Hexham p. 307). Appeal against his el., on grounds of simony, unchaste living and intrusion, supported by St Bernard of Clairvaux, heard at Rome 7 March 1143 and referred to judges-delegate, Henry bp. of Winchester and Robert bp. of Hereford (ibid.; PUE II no. 32; on the whole subject, see D. Knowles, 'The case of St William of York', in The Historian and Character (Cambridge, 1963) 76-97). Case heard at Winchester Sept. 1143, and William cons. there by bp. of Winchester 26 Sept. 1143 (John of Hexham p. 315). Opposition continued, supported by St Bernard; William deposed by pope early 1147 (ibid. p. 318; cf. PUE II no. 50, III no. 62); deposition conf. at council of Reims 21 March 1148 (Gerv. Cant. I 134).

[M. Hilary

Clerk of Henry, bp. of Winchester; canon lawyer (see references given in 1 Fasti V 2 and n. 5). El. by minority of cans. at Richmond 24 July 1147 (John of Hexham p. 320). Bp. of Chichester, cons. 3 Aug. 1147 (ibid. p. 321; 1 Fasti V 2-3).]

Henry Murdac (fn. 8)

Abbot of Fountains (Cist., W.R.) from 1143 or 1144; previously monk of Clairvaux and abbot of Vauclair (Heads of Relig. Houses p. 132). El. by majority of cans. at Richmond 24 July 1147 (John of Hexham p. 320). Cons. by pope 7 Dec. 1147 at Trier (ibid. p. 321). Retained abbacy of Fountains, appointing suffragan abbots (Heads of Relig. Houses p. 132). Arrived at York 25 Jan. 1151 (John of Hexham p. 325). D. at Beverley 14 Oct. 1153 (ibid. pp. 331-2; Memorials of Fountains I 102-3).

William Fitz Herbert

Restored to abpric. by pope at Rome 20 Dec. 1153 (William of Newburgh p. 79). Arrived York c. 1 June 1154 (ibid. p. 80; Houedene I 213). Appeal against him to abp. Theobald, papal legate, made by Robert [de Gant] dean (list 2) and Osbert [of Bayeux] archdcn. (list 13) (William of Newburgh p. 80). D. 8 June 1154, allegedly poisoned by Osbert the archdcn. (ibid. pp. 80-1; Houedene I 213). Pope orders enquiry into his miracles 5 Apr. 1223 (CPL I 90-1 = Reg. Hon. III no. 4282); comm. to take witnesses' depositions 11 Apr. 1224 (CPL I 96 = Reg. Hon. III no. 4935). Canonized 18 March 1226 (CPL I 109 = Reg. Hon. III no. 5867).

Roger of Pont l'Evêque (fn. 9)

Archdcn. of Canterbury from March 1148 × Jan. 1149, and previously clerk of abp. Theobald (1 Fasti II 13). El. at instigation of Robert [de Gant] dean (list 2) and Osbert [of Bayeux] archdcn. (list 13) (William of Newburgh pp. 81-2). Prof. obed. and cons. 10 Oct. 1154 at Westminster (Gerv. Cant. I 158-9; Diceto I 298; William of Newburgh p. 95). Appd. papal legate Feb. 1164, but person of abp. Thomas and city of Canterbury exempted (Materials for Becket V nos. 50, 53, 60; PUE III no. 151; cf. Houedene I 223); legation for Scotland (JS Epp. II no. 184; see EEA XX introduction). Crowned Henry II's son Henry at Westminster 14 June 1170 against orders of abp. Thomas (for sources and date, see A. Heslin, 'The coronation of the Young King in 1170', Studies in Church History ii (1965) 165-78, at p. 165 n. 1). Suspended by pope 16 Sept. 1170 for implication in Becket's murder (Houedene II 6-9); absolved 6 Dec. 1171 at Aumale (Diceto I 348; JS Epp. II no. 306 = EEA XX no. 139). Date of d. uncertain, but most likely 22 Nov. 1181 (at Cawood), given by the northern chronicler Roger of Howden (Houedene II 264, following Gesta Hen. II I 283), although a later York tradition gives 26 Nov. 1181 at Sherburn (T. Stubbs p. 400) and the London-based Ralph of Diceto has 20 Nov. 1181 (Diceto II 10). Evidently had a son called William who occ. 1174 × 89 (ULL Fuller Collection 35/8). Writer of poetry (Sharpe, Handlist no. 1582).

Geoffrey Plantagenet (fn. 10)

Treas. of York, prob. from 1182 (list 5). El. by cans. 1189; opposed by dean Hubert Walter and Hugh du Puiset bp. of Durham who had been absent from el. (Houedene III 7). Royal conf. 15 Sept. 1189 (ibid. pp. 15-16). Ord. pr. at Southwell 23 Sept. 1189 (ibid. p. 17; Diceto II 78). Conf. by papal legate John of Anagni at Canterbury early Dec. 1189 (Houedene III 27); conf. by pope and pallium sent 7 March 1190 (Diceto II 79). Cons. by abp. of Tours at Tours, pallium 18 Aug. 1191 (Houedene I 138 (no date); Diceto II 96). Captured on return to England by William Longchamp, but released (Ann. Waverley pp. 247-8). Enthroned at York 1 Nov. 1191 ('Vita Galfridi', in Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, ed. J. S. Brewer et al. (RS xxi, 1861-91) IV 355-431, at p. 410). Refused kg.'s demand for subsidy 1207, went into exile, d. abroad 1212 (T. Stubbs p. 401), at Grandmont 18 Dec. (F. Godwin, De Praesulibus Angliae, ed. W. Richardson (Cambridge, 1743) p. 677 n.; cf. T. Stapleton, Magni Rotuli Scaccarii Normanniae (2 vols., 1840-4) II pp. clxix- clxx). Buried at Notre-Dame de Grandmont (A. C. Ducarel, Anglo-Norman Antiquities (1767) pp. 37-8, quoting epitaph on tomb). Illegitimate son of kg. Henry II (cf. EYC VIII no. 60, where Geoffrey refers to his father kg. Henry, and his grandfather Geoffey of Anjou); prob. born before Henry's marriage to Eleanor in 1152 (W. L. Warren, Henry II (1973) p. 78 n., 119).

[M. Simon of Langton (fn. 11)

Preb. Strensall by 20 Nov. 1214 (list 42). El. ? June 1215 (Roger of Wendover, Flores Historiarum, ed. H. O. Coxe (5 vols., 1841-4) III 338, 339, 340). Chapter forbidden by kg. to el. S., dean of York, June 1215 (Rot. Chart. p. 207b; see list 2). Qua. by pope 20 Aug. 1215 (Letters of Innocent III no. 1017). Archdcn. of Canterbury 1227-48 (see 1 Fasti II 14). Brother of M. Stephen of Langton, unident. preb. (list 51), abp. of Canterbury (1 Fasti II 6; and see Sharpe, Handlist no. 1641).]

Walter de Grey (fn. 12)

Bp. of Worcester, cons. 5 Oct. 1214 (1 Fasti II 101). Pope orders chapter to send representative cans. to Lateran council to el. or postulate an abp., letter dated 20 Aug. 1215 (Letters of Innocent III no. 1017). Papal conf. of transl. to York 10 Nov. 1215 (Reg. Gray p. xxxvii). Temps. 19 Feb. 1216 (Rot. Litt. Claus. I 248b). D. at Fulham 1 May 1255 (Chron. Maj. V 495; Ann. Burton p. 336). Buried in Minster (H. G. Ramm et al. 'The tombs of archbishops Walter de Gray and Godfrey de Ludham in York Minster and their contents', Archaeologia ciii (1971) 101-47, at pp. 102-31, 140-6). Commem. at Durham 6 May (Liber Vitae Dunelm. p. 150). Nephew of John de Grey, bp. of Norwich (1200-14) (Cart. of Oseney Abbey IV, ed. H. E. Salter (Oxfords. Hist. Soc. xcvii) p. 332). For his nephews William de Langeton (alias of Rotherfield), dean, and Walter le Breton and Walter de Grey, cans. of York, see lists 2, 51.

M. Sewal de Boville (fn. 13)

Dean of York (list 2). Royal lic. to el. 28 May 1255 (CPR 1247-58 p. 411). See vacant 1 Oct. 1255 (CPR 1247-58 p. 427). El. c. Oct. 1255 (Chron. Maj. V 516). Papal disp. for illegitimacy, as abp.-el. and former dean, 11 March 1256 (Reg. Alex. IV no. 1218, cal. CPL I 328). Temps. 4 May 1256 (CPR 1247-58 p. 471). Cons. Sunday 25 July 1256 (Ann. Oseney p. 110; Ann. Wint. p. 95, giving 23 July). Excomm. by pope 1257 (Chron. Maj. V 653). D. 1 May 1258 (Ann. Oseney p. 118; cf. Chron. Maj. V 691-3), buried in Minster (T. Stubbs p. 405).

M. Godfrey of Ludham (fn. 14)

Dean of York (list 2). El. 1258 (Chron. Maj. V 701), before 25 July, when royal assent given (CPR 1258-66 p. 643). Cons. by pope Alexander IV 22 Sept. at Viterbo (Chron. Maj. V 718). Temps. 1 Dec. (CPR 1258-66 p. 6). D. 12 Jan. 1265 (T. Stubbs p. 406). Buried in Minster (ibid.; see H. G. Ramm et al. 'The tombs of archbishops Walter de Gray and Godfrey de Ludham in York Minster and their contents', Archaeologia ciii (1971) 101-47, at pp. 131-46). Brother of Thomas of Ludham, preb. Wetwang (list 47).

[William de Langeton alias of Rotherfield (fn. 15)

Dean of York by c. 16 March 1261/2 (list 2). El. abp., as William of Rotherfield dean of York, 12 or 13 March 1264/5 (Chron. Wykes p. 161; T. Stubbs p. 406). Royal assent 1 Apr. 1265 (CPR 1258-66 p. 417). Went to Rome, where el. qua. by pope summer or autumn 1265; returned to York c. 6 Dec. 1265 (Chron. Wykes p. 184).]

[Bonaventura

Friar Minor, prov. 24 Nov. 1265. Res. before 15 Oct. 1266 (cf. Chron. Wykes p. 184.]

Walter Giffard (fn. 16)

Bp. of Bath and Wells, cons. 4 Jan. 1265 (Cant. Profs. no. 205) and royal chanc. 1265-6. Prov. to York 15 Oct. 1266 (T. Stubbs p. 406, giving 15 Oct. 1265). Temps. 26 Dec. 1266 (CPR 1266-72 p. 19). Enthroned 1 Nov. 1267 (Chron. Wykes p. 214; T. Stubbs p. 406). D. 25 (or 29) Apr. 1279, buried in Minster (T. Stubbs p. 406; CPR 1268-81 p. 310). Elder brother of Godfrey Giffard, bp. of Worcester (1268-1302) (Reg. G. Giffard (Worc.) II 57).

M. William de Wickwane (fn. 17)

Chanc. of York by 12 Feb. 1264 (list 4). Lic. to el. gr. by kg.; el. 22 June 1279 (T. Stubbs p. 407), by 18 of 21 electors (Reg. Nic. III no. 559, cal. CPL I 459). Royal assent 4 July (CPR 1272-81 p. 318). El. qua. by pope; Wickwane prov.; cons. by pope before 19 Sept., prob. Sunday 17 Sept., at Viterbo (Reg. Nic. III no. 559, cal. CPL I 459; T. Stubbs p. 407 gives 19 Sept.; see Reg. Wickwane p. vi on dating of documents in reg. which suggest cons. on 17 Sept., pp. 76, 124). Arrived in England c. Michaelmas (Ann. Oseney and Chron. Wykes p. 281). Temps. 28 Oct. (CPR 1272-81 p. 329). Enthroned 25 Dec. 1279 (Reg. Wickwane pp. 17, 210, 255). D. at Pontigny 26 or 27 Aug. 1285 (T. Stubbs p. 408).

M. John le Romeyn the younger (fn. 18)

Prec. of Lincoln from before 29 Sept. 1278; previously chanc. of Lincoln (1 Fasti III 15, 17-18, 90, 93). Can. of York, coll. to preb. Warthill 7 Dec. 1279 (list 45). El. abp., not unanimously, 29 Oct. 1285 (T. Stubbs p. 408). Res. at Curia, where el. by 10 cans. appd. as electors by pope, conf. by pope 17 Feb. 1286 (Reg. Hon. IV no. 278, cal. CPL I 483). Cons. by bp. of Ostia 10 Feb. and pallium (T. Stubbs pp. 408-9; cf. Reg. Hon. IV no. 278). Temps. 12 Apr. (CPR 1272-81 p. 230). D. at Burton near Beverley 11 March 1296, buried in York Minster 17 March (T. Stubbs p. 410). Son of John le Romeyn the elder, treas. of York (ibid. p. 409; list 5).

M. Henry of Newark (fn. 19)

Dean of York (list 2). Lic. to el. gr. 26 March 1296 (CPR 1292-1301 p. 185). El. 7 May 1296 (T. Stubbs p. 410). Royal assent 5 June (CPR 1292-1301 p. 190). Failed to go to pope and therefore depr., but prov. to please kg. 4 March 1297 (Reg. Bon. VIII no. 1725, cal. CPL I 569). Temps. 21 June 1297 (Reg. Newark p. 290; cf. CPR 1291-1301 p. 254). Papal mandate for his cons. by bps. of Durham and Carlisle, and gr. of pallium, 9 Feb. 1298 (CPL I 574 = Reg. Bon. VIII nos. 2262, 2403). Cons. and pallium 15 June 1298 (Reg. Newark pp. 307-8). D. at York 15 Aug. 1299, buried in Minster (T. Stubbs p. 410). His executors applied for probate 22 Aug. (Misc. Reg. fo. 9r).

M. Thomas of Corbridge (fn. 20)

Chanc. of York by 17 Feb. 1280, res. 1290/1 (list 4). Lic. to el. gr. 5 Sept. 1299 (CPR 1292-1301 p. 435). El. 12 Nov. 1299 (T. Stubbs p. 411). Royal assent 16 Nov. (CPR 1292-1301 p. 455). Protection to go to Rome 21 Nov. (ibid. p. 480). El. qua. and see reserved 29 Jan. 1300 (Reg. Bon. VIII no. 3876). Cons. by pope 28 Feb. 1300 at Rome (T. Stubbs p. 411), pallium 9 March (CPL I 586 = Reg. Bon. VIII no. 3475). Temps. 30 Apr. (CPR 1292-1301 p. 511). D. 22 Sept. 1304 (T. Stubbs p. 412).

Footnotes

1 For an account of his career at Worcester, see V. King, 'Ealdred, archbishop of York: the Worcester years', Anglo-Norman Studies xviii (1996) 123-37. See also DNB s.n. Aldred.
2 For his family, see C. N. L. Brooke, 'Gregorian reform in action: clerical marriage in England, 1050-1200', Cambridge Historical Journal xii (1) (1956), 1-21, at pp. 12-13 and n. 39 (= C. N. L. Brooke, Medieval Church and Society (1971), p. 86 and n. 39).
3 For his career, see DNB.
4 For his career, see DNB.
5 For his career, see DNB.
6 He was son of Simon of Senlis, earl of Northampton and Huntingdon, and Matilda, who in widowhood married David, kg. of Scotland (1124-52).
7 Son of Herbert of Winchester and Emma, an illegitimate daughter of Stephen, count of Blois, and thus half-sister to kg. Stephen; see the genealogy in R. L. Poole, 'The appointment and deprivation of St. William of York', EHR xlv (1930) 273-81, at p. 275; DNB s.n. Fitzherbert.
8 For his career, see DNB.
9 Calvados, France. For a ch. relating to his personal fee in Rouen, see Cal. Docs. France no. 29 = EEA XX no. 86. For his career, see DNB s.n. Roger.
10 For his career, see DNB s.n. Geoffrey.
11 Langton-by-Wragby, Lines. For his career, see DNB.
12 He was son of John and Hawisia de Grey of Rotherfield Greys, Oxon (Pat. Rolls 1225-32 p. 454; see also Comp. Peer. VI 150-1 n.); for his career, see Biog. Ox. II 807-8; DNB.
13 D.Th. by 1244, when he was chanc. of Oxford, Biog. Ox. I 233-4; DNB s.n. Sewall.
14 Son of Richard and Eda of Ludham, Norf.; for a note on his career, see Biog. Ox. III 2192. Also known as Godfrey de Kimitone, Chron. Maj. V 701.
15 Abp. Walter de Grey, whose nephew he was, had an interest in Rotherfield Greys, Oxon, see Comp. Peer. VI 150-1 n. and notes below, list 2.
16 Son of Hugh Giffard of Boyton, Wilts.; for his career, see Biog. Ox. II 762-3, Biog. Camb. p. 257; DNB.
17 The name was derived from Childswickham, Glos. (see Reg. Wickwane pp. iii-iv). For his career, see Biog. Ox. III 2228; DNB; cf. Sharpe, Handlist no. 2216.
18 He was Oxford Master and D.Th. Paris by 1276; for his career, see Biog. Ox. II 1134-5; Reg. Romeyn II pp. iii-xxxvi; DNB s.n. Romanus.
19 Notts.; for his land in Newark, see CPR 1281-92 p. 415, ibid. 1292-1301 p. 43. He was an Oxford Master by 1270; for his career, see Biog. Ox. III 2200; also DNB.
20 Northumb.; see Reg. Corbridge II p. xi. He was D.Th., prob. Oxford; for his career, see Biog. Ox. I 485; DNB.


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