Introduction

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

William A. Shaw (editor)

Year published

1952

Pages

5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Introduction', Calendar of Treasury Books, Volume 25: 1711 (1952), pp. V-LIII. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=85798 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

Introduction.

The Parliamentary elections of the autumn of 1710 delivered Great Britain and the European war into the hands of Robert Harley. The political results unfolded themselves only gradually, but in the domain of finance the immediate effect was a fall in public credit and in the funds. Neither the assurances of the new ministers nor the pen of Defoe or Swift or Davenant could arrest the fall and when Parliament met it was momentarily under the shadow of a minor monetary crisis. The steadying effect of that crisis impressed upon the Queen and the new Government the political expediency of facing the incubus of floating debt hanging over the Services and prominent place was accordingly given to it in the Queen's Speech at the opening of the Session. After calling upon the House of Commons to provide the necessary Supplies for the coming year's service "with unanimity and despatch" the Queen added:
"I cannot without great concern mention to you that the Navy and other Offices are burthened with heavy debts which so far affect the public service that I most earnestly desire you to find some way to answer those demands and to prevent the like for the time to come; the justice of Parliament in satisfying former engagements being the certain way of preserving and establishing national credit." (fn. 1)
The reply of the Commons to this appeal was in effect twofold. In the first place the Speaker Elect informed the Queen that the nation "have chosen such persons to represent them in Parliament as will effectively support her Majesty against all her enemies and will soon defeat all artifices to destroy or distress the public credit." (fn. 2) In the second place, in the formal Address which the House adopted as a reply to the Queen's speech, the House mingled formal assurance with an unusual style of advice:
"The burthen of those heavy debts which presses your people with so sensible a weight is in some measure alleviated by your princely compassion. We shall endeavour to trace the source of this great evil and to apply a remedy suitable to it. The honour and justice of Parliament shall by us be inviolably maintained and all such other measures pursued by which the public credit may be preserved and established ...
And we do with all humility represent to your Majesty that the most effectual way to give spirit to your friends and defeat the restless malice of your enemies will be by discountenancing all persons of such principles and avoiding all measures of such tendency as ... have lately threatened your royal crown and dignity." (fn. 3)
These unusual words and this extraordinary from of Address contained at once a threat and a promise. The threat was one of prosecution for the late Whig financial administration and in the course of the Session the threat was carried out by the appointment of a fresh Commission of Accounts—the invariable and favourite device which Harley employed to destroy and traduce his political foes. The promise was in effect the extinguishment of the floating debt and this promise also in the course of the Session was carried out by the South Sea Company scheme, a device which bears the stamp of Harley's mentality even more signally than does the revived Commission of Accounts. So that in effect in the Queen's Speech Harley adumbrated the two chief problems of the Session just as in the House of Commons Address in reply to the Queen's Speech he adumbrated the line of procedure which the House was finally to adopt. The close sequence of forecast and performance should remove any doubt as to his complete control of the Lower House.
But for the moment, at the outset, both the Queen's Speech and the Commons' Address committed Parliament to a prosecution of the war against France. Whatever secret approaches to a peace had already been made or were in contemplation war finance was still in the ascendant and could not be stayed. The Estimates were drawn as for a vigorous war, and Supply was voted and Ways and Means were debated on as large lines as when the Whigs were in power, and when peace was scouted.
Parliament met on the 25th November and on the 1st December—even before the swearing in was completed—the House of Commons came to a Resolution "that a Supply be granted." (fn. 4) On the following day the usual request was made for Estimates for the Navy, Army and Ordnance for the year 1711 and for the usual Departmental Accounts covering those services, Navy Debt, Ordnance Debt, Subsidies to the Allies, the expenditure of the year 1710.
Very briefly the Estimates were submitted to the House in the following sequence:
4 Dec. 1710, Navy Ordinary and Statement of Navy Debt: brought in by Sir John Leake (Commons Journals XVI, pp. 414–5).
5 Dec., Army in Flanders: the 40,000 men and the first 20,000 Augmentation (ibid., p. 416).
6 Dec., Guards and Garrisons (ibid., pp. 424–6).
8 Dec., Ordnance and Statement of Ordnance Debt (ibid., p. 427).
11 Dec., Transport (ibid., p. 429).
5 Feb. 1710–11, Army in Spain and Portugal.
Taking these Estimates in their normal sequence the details were as follows:
ESTIMATES 1710–11.
GUARDS AND GARRISONS.
Guards and Garrisons and Land Forces in Great Britain, Jersey, Guernsey and the Plantations and Sea Service for the year 1711 (submitted to the House on the 6th Dec. 1710. Commons Journals XVI, pp. 424–6).
Horse.£s.d.
First, Second, Third and Fourth Troop of Guards (181 men each).
First and Second Troop of Grenadier Guards (176 and 177 men).
Royal Regiment of Horse Guards (598 men). total, 1,675 for the Horse Guards120,808184
Dragoons.£s.d.
The Queen's Regiment (443 men).
Sir Richard Temple's (443 men).
Col. Kerr's (407 men).
Earl of Hyndford's (407 men).
Lieut. Gen. Echlyn's (589 men).
total, 2,289 for the Dragoons81,583118
Foot.
First Regiment of Foot Guards (2,283 men).
Second Regiment of Foot Guards (1,143 men).
Third Regiment of Foot Guards (1,467 men).
Col. Kirk's Regiment (876 men).
Maj. Gen. Livesay's (760 men).
Maj. Gen. Wightman's (876 men).
Lieut. Gen. Maitland's (834 men).
For Sea Service.
Lieut. Gen. Seymour's Regiment (876 men).
Lieut. Gen. Farrington's (876 men).
Lord Mark Kerr's (809 men).
Lieut. Gen. Mordaunt's (834 men).
Maj. Gen. Handasyd's (951 men).
Col. Jones's (834 men).
total, 13,419 Foot (viz. 8,239 for home and 5,180 for sea service)257,42576
Four Companies at New York (449 men).
One Company at Bermudas (58 men).
One Company at Newfoundland (93 men).
Three Companies in North Britain (207 men).
total, 807 men13,289100
General and Staff Officers14,41018
Contingencies: upon account13,977,155
Garrisons32,50904
Invalids [Chelsea Hospital]12,1031510
total for Guards and Garrisons, viz. 18,190 men plus Staff Officers£546,10817
THE ARMY ABROAD.£s.d.
The 40,000 men to act in conjunction with the Forces of the Allies in the Low Countries and the charge thereof for the year 1711.
British portion.
Horse.
Lieut. Gen. Lumley's Regiment (598 men).
Lieut. Gen. Wood's (400 men).
Lieut. Gen. Cadogan's (400 men).
Lieut. Gen. Palmes's (400 men).
Duke of Schonberg's (400 men).
total, 2,918 Horse122,15368
Dragoons.
Earl of Stair's Regiment (662 men).
Lieut. Gen. Ross's (662 men).
total, 1,324 Dragoons46,23368
Foot.
Royal Regiment of Foot (1,876 men).
Duke of Argyll's (938 men).
Lieut. Gen. Webb's (938 men).
Lord North and Grey's (938 men).
Earl of Hertford's (938 men).
Brig. Godfrey's (938 men).
Lieut. Gen. Ingoldsby's (938 men).
Lieut. Gen. Meredyth's (938 men).
Maj. Gen' Sabine's (938 men).
Maj. Gen. Primrose's (938 men).
Col. Preston's (938 men).
Col. Newton's (938 men).
Col. Windresse's (938 men).
Lieut. Gen. Erle's (938 men).
Maj. Gen. Evans's (867 men).
total, 14,937 men258,514510
426,900192
General [or Staff] Officers36,195010
Contingencies: upon account10,00000
Forage and waggon money, on account21,68000
total for the British part of the 40,000 men.494,78600
Foreign part of the 40,000 men in British pay:
Danes (6,000 men)116,282150
Prussians (2,532 men)43,018186
Hessians (3,080 men)53,68500
Hanover and Zelle (10,000 men)171,329100
384,31636
total foreign contingent of the 40,000 men, 21,612 men: making with the British a total of 40,071 men879,09236
bread waggons for the 40,000 men20,00000
forage, waggon money and recruits for the foreign contingent of the 40,000 men, pursuant to the respective Treaties: on account20,00000
total estimate for the 40,000 men£919,09236
First Augmentation.
Estimate for the 20,000 men, Troops of Augmentation, being the first Augmentation anno 1703, and the charge thereof for the year 1711 [one moiety or 10,000 men thereof being at the charge of her Majesty Queen Anne].
Guilders.Stivers.
English Foot.
Brig. Hill's Regiment (876 men).
Earl of Orrery's (876 men).
Brig. Honywood's (876 men).
Lieut. Gen. Macartney's (876 men),
total, 3,504 men667,03710
Holstein Gottorp.
two Regiments of Dragoons (1,116 men).
two Regiments of Foot (1,766 men).
total, 2,882 men578,9815
Saxe Gotha.
two Regiments of Dragoons (892 men).
two Regiments of Foot (1,708 men).
total, 2,600 men488,26010
Bishop of Munster.
three Regiments of Foot (2,442 men)352,7545
Hesse Cassel.
one Regiment of Foot (885 men)122,62115
[Bishop of] Osnaburg.
one Regiment of Foot (807 men)110,62618
Oost Frieze.
one Regiment of Foot (797 men)113,40510
[Bishop of] Liege.
one Regiment of Dragoons (581 men).
two Regiments of Foot (1,596 men).
one Regiment of Foot more (797 men).
total, 2,974 men497,5135
Palatines.
four Regiment of Foot (2,600 men)322,3215
Danes.
surplus of the Danes, part of the Establishment of the 40,000 men, transferred to the Establishment of the 20,000 Troops of Augmentation (520 men)174,75217
total of 20,011 men3,428,2750
whereof one moiety at her Majesty's charge, viz. 10,005 men1,714,13710
£s.d.
which at 10 gilders 10 stivers to the £ sterling makes163,25136
bread waggons for the 10,000 men5,00000
forage, waggon money and recruits for the foreigner part of the said 10,005 men: on account9,26000
total for her Majesty's share of the 20,000 Troops of Augmentation£177,51136
Other Additional Forces.
[The second Augmentation of anno 1706.]
Charge per an.
Palatines.£s.d.
Her Majesty's share, being two thirds, of the charge of 3,000 Palatines, viz. for 2,000 men34,251134
Saxons.
Her Majesty's share, being a moiety, of the charge of 4,639 Saxons, consisting of one Regiment of Horse, two of Dragoons, four of Foot: viz. for 2,319 men.43,251126
Her Majesty's share, being a moiety, of the charge of a Regiment of Dragoons of 800 men: viz. for 400 men9,169166
total for 2,719 men86,67324
[Third Augmentation of 1709.]
Her Majesty's proportion of the charge of the Troops of Augmentation allowed by Parliament and taken into service in the year 1709: viz. for 10,000 men220,00000
total for [the three Augmentations amounting in all to] 24,724 men at her Majesty's charge£484,284510
ESTIMATE FOR SUBSIDLES.
Account of her Majesty's proportion of Subsidies payable to the Allies for the year 1711 pursuant to the Treaties. (fn. 5)
Crowns, per an.£s.d.
to the King of Denmark in Bank money at Hamburg150,00037,50000
to the King of Portugal, for defraying her Majesty's proportion of the charge of 13,000 men: being 666,666 patacons 33 stivers at 4s. 6d. each600,000150,00000
to the Duke of Savoy, at the rate of 53,333⅓ [Crowns] per month640,000160,00000
to the Landgrave of Hesse Cassel25,0005,95276
to the Elector of Treves25,0005,95276
to the Elector Palatine20,0004,761186
to the Landgrave of Hesse, for her Majesty's quota (being two thirds) of his additional Subsidy of 100,000 Crowns per an. on account of two Regiments of Horse of his Troops which were in Italy66,6662/316,666134
to the King of Prussia, for her Majesty's proportion of the charge of 8,000 men sent to the assistance of the Duke of Savoy200,00050,00000
guilders.stivers.£s.d.
more to the King of Prussia by virtue of the Treaties of 1701 and 1706 on account of the 12,000 men sent to serve in the Netherlands, viz.:
for her Majesty's share of the agio or difference of the money current in the Empire and the rates the same money is current at in the territories where his Troops are employed109,66610
more for her Majesty's share for bread153,09716
more for her Majesty's share for forage125,8650
388,629637,01276
More to enable her Majesty to satisfy her share of the pretensions of the King of Prussia to a further allowance for the extra charge he has been at in recruiting the body of his Troops in Italy, his Majesty consenting thereupon to the continuance of those Troops in Italy466,6662/3Crowns11,11123
total for Subsidies to Allies£478,956167
ESTIMATE FOR THE WAR IN SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. (fn. 6)
Estimate of the charge of her Majesty's Forces upon the Establishment of Spain and Portugal as the same was allowed by Parliament for the year 1710 [ut supra, Vol. XXIV, Introduction, p. xv, as to figures and sums but with the names of Regimental Commanders brought up to date as for the year 1711], to which is added an accompt of the Augmentation of that charge for the year 1711 by the alterations and additions that have since [the said 1710 Estimate] been made for carrying on the war in those parts; as also of the Exceedings which have accrued for that service in former years not hitherto provided for. This Estimate is not entered in the Journals. It occurs in Treasury Board Papers CXXXI, No. 1 (B).
Forces in Spain.£s.d.
Horse: Lieut. Gen. Harvey's Regiment (418 men)23,1071010
Dragoons: Royal Regiment (589 men; Maj. Gen. Pepper's (589 men); Lieut. Gen. Stanhope's (589 men); Brig. Lepell's (407 men): in all 2,174 men76,698134
Foot: Col. Harrison's (876 men); Brig. Wade's (876 men); Col. Du Bourgay's (845 men); Royal Fuziliers (845 men); Maj. Gen. Whetham's (845 men); Col. Dormer's (845 men); Col. Bowles's (845 men); Col. Munden's (845 men); Col. Richards's (725 men); Col. Stanhope's (725 men); Col. Gore's (725 men); Maj. Gen. Elliott's (834 men); Sir Robert Rich's (834 men); Col. Windsor's (876 men); Sir Charles Hotham's (845 men): in all 12,386 men219,07300
Forces in Portugal.
Dragoons: Col. Bouchetier's (589 men); Señor Anto. Luis de Tavera's (323 men); Don Luis de Gamia's (323 men); Señor Manuel de Mello's (323 men); Señsor Geo. de Suza Meneze's (323 men); Don Diego de Norhanhas's (323 men); Brig. Withers's (323 men): in all 2,527 men94,25534
Foot. Maj. Gen. Pearce's (725 men); Maj. Gen. Newton's (725 men); Earl of Barrymore's (876 men); Lord Paston's (834 men); Lieut. Gen. Sankey's (725 men); Brig. Stanwix's (725 men); Col. Vesees's [Vezey's] (785 men); a Spanish Regiment (785 men); Brig. Hamilton's (876 men); Brig. Sutton's (876 men); Col. Pocock's (834 men); Col. Grant's (834 men); Maj. Gen. Wynne's (785 men); Brig. Bretton's (834 men); Lord Hay's (834 men); Marquis de Montandre's (876 men): total, 12,929 men229,995126
total [for the British Establishment], 30,434 men643,13000
3,000 Imperialists and 1,200 Italian Foot62,41170
4,000 Imperial Foot and 1,000 Horse87,41542
4,000 Imperial Foot more60,00000
209,826112
towards paying the Troops of his Catholic Majesty [in Spain] and the Extraordinaries of the war: upon accompt210,00000
1,062,956112
General and Staff Officers in Spain9,465134
Contingencies of the Army and Hospitals9,817100
£s.d.£s.d.
Forage for the Forces, Waggon and Baggage money for the Officers10,00000
Garrison of Gibraltar1,952150
31,235184
General and Staff Officers in Portugal14,84368
Contingencies for the Army and Hospitals8,00000
Forage and Waggon money upon accompt9,00000
31,84368
total for war in Spain and Portugal£1,126,035162
An accompt of the Augmentation of the charge of the war in Spain and Portugal for the year 1711.
For Spain.£s.d.
by the addition of a Lieut. Gen., Maj. Gen. and Brigadier, their aides de camp and Major of Brigade3,467100
by nine men and a Serjeant added to each of the 12 Companies of the Foot Regiments of Col. Richards, Col. Stanhope and Col. Gore in the year 1710 by order of Lieut. Gen. Stanhope, to make them of equal numbers to the other English Regiments of 845 men each serving with him in Spain (360 men in all)4,927100
by two Regiments of Foot formed of Portuguese by Lieut.-Gen. Stanhope in Spain upon the same foot with the English Regiments and consisting of 845 men each: in all 1,690 men29,64418
by the late Count Nassau's Regiment to be raised again (725 men)13,1791010
by five additional Regiments now ordered for Spain, viz. Col. Molesworth's (834 men); Maj. Gen. Rooke's (725 men); Brig. Price's (725 men); Col. Jones's (725 men); Lord Slane's (725 men)67,23918
by five Regiments of Horse and two Regiments of Foot of Portuguese Troops and the General and Staff Officers serving with them who marched with the Earl of Galway into Spain in 1706, where they have continued and been borne at her Majesty's charge for the years 1709 and 1710, the King of Portugal having represented by his Minister here that since they marched into Spain he has been obliged to make a much greater augmentation of his Forces in Portugal at his own expense: in all 3,879 men103,100165
by Count D'Eck's and Baron Brown's Imperial Regiments of Foot taken into the service in the year 1710 (3,000 men)44,103178
by the Garrison of Port Mahon provided for last year by Parliament in the Extraordinaries of the war1,6451010
by the increase in the Extraordinaries of the war, viz. for mule carriage, transport of ships [Troops] from Italy and fortification of Port Mahon which by the accompts received from Spain made up to the 10th Oct. 1710 appears to have exceeded the 60,000l. given for that service by the amount of 100,753l. 15s. 10d. exclusive of the 150,000l. allowed to his Catholic Majesty: so that it is reckoned that less cannot be demanded upon account than the further sum of140,00000
total, 13,388 men407,307191
towards which there is saved as follows:
by the alterations made by order of Lieut. Gen. Stanhope in Col. Harrison's and Brig. Wade's Regiments of Foot in 1710 by reducing one Company in each of the said Regiments and adding three men to each of the remaining 12 Companies to make them of equal numbers to the other English Regiments serving with him in Spain1,380184
by nine men and a Serjeant reduced in each of the 12 Companies of Sir Charles Hotham's Regiment1,642100
by one Company reduced in Col. Windsor's Regiment and six men and a Serjeant from each of the remaining 12 Companies2,332192
by 13,020 Germans and Italians whose pay in the Estimate for the year 1710 was calculated to amount to 209,826l. 11s. 2d., but by the Establishment since formed only comes to 205,787l. 14s. 2d. the difference being4,038170
9,39546
these four reductions being for 513 men bring the total increase to 12,875 and leaves a net augmentation [for Spain] for the year 1711 of£397,912147
Augmentation for Portugal for the year 1711.
£s.d.£s.d.
by the addition of a 9th Troop to Col. Bouchetier's (late Earl of Galway's) Regiment of Dragoons: raised (73 men)2,463150
by the Marquis de Assa's and Maj. Gen. Hogan's Regiments of Dragoons formed out of Spanish and Irish deserters in the year 1710 by the Earl of Galway pursuant to her Majesty's Orders in Council signified by Lord Dartmouth (980 men)36,28718
by six men and a Serjeant added to each of the 13 Companies of Col. Vesey's and Maj. Gen. Wynne's Regiments of Foot (182 men)2,609150
by a Company and 11 Serjeants added to Col. Grant's Regiment, 1710 (81 men)1,46618
total Augmentation for Portugal (1,316 men)42,826134
towards which there is saved
by breaking the Regiment called the Spanish Regiment in Portugal and incorporating them into other Regiments14,207126
by one Company reduced in the Marquis de Montandre's Regiment and 12 Serjeants and 72 men from the other Companies [of that Regiment]: as also one Serjeant and 108 men from the Earl of Ilay's Regiment: in all (1,045 men)3,67468
17,881192
leaving a net Augmentation of 271 men for Portugal at a cost of£24,944142
£s.d.
Total combined Augmentation for Spain and Portugal, 13,146 men, at a cost of422,85789
to which add the Estimate for Spain and Portugal as above1,126,035162
gives in all for the year 1711 for Spain and Portugal£1,548,893411
Memorandum: The Earl of Portmore having represented that the Cavalry in the service in Portugal, which are established only upon the pay of Dragoons, cannot by reason of the excessive dearness of bread and forage subsist upon their pay, it has been found absolutely necessary that out of the allowance of 14d. a day (which is the subsistence of a Dragoon) there be deducted only 6d. a day towards bread and forage and that what shall happen to exceed the said 6d. a day on that accompt be charged to the head of Exceedings to be borne by her Majesty, of which an accompt will be hereafter transmitted over: the remaining 8d. being the least that a Trooper can be subsisted upon, shoe his horse and make good his accoutrements and [is] what the King of Portugal allows to those in his own service.
Memorandum: There have been a great many supernumerary Officers, occasioned by the Earl of Galway's turning four Regiments of Foot raised of Portuguese soldiers and English and French Officers into five Regiments of Dragoons; which supernumerary Officers have been placed on half pay and serve as Officers en second in the said Regiments to be provided for as vacancies shall happen. There will a further charge accrue to the publique on that head for the year 1711, of which no exact calculation can be made till the end of the year by reason of the lessening the charge daily by the Officers that shall be provided for.
An Estimate of the charge of the Royal Hospital of Chelsea for the year 1711. (fn. 7)
£s.d.
salaries to the officers of the House2,64390
allowances to the military Officers1,2611710
provisions7,124168
coals53000
clothing1,1781211
Exchequer fees and allowance to the Treasurer and Paymaster for himself and the expense of his Office7,52418
the Commissary General of the Musters15000
several pensioners at 12d. a day40000
necessaries and several contingent expenses relating to the House8681410
repairs and works60000
subsistence of the Invalid Outpensioners for whom there is no room in the Hospital who are quartered in the villages about the town: as per estimation and according to what it amounted to the last year; the said charge daily increasing by the many wounded and disabled men sent from the service abroad30,00000
£52,28210
TRANSPORT DEBT.
Debt for the Transport Service at 30 Sept. 1710 and the growing charge thereof. (This statement is to be compared with that infra, p. 50, compiled by the House of Commons Committee.) (fn. 8)
£s.d.£s.d.
for freight of shipping, hired by the month, to transport her Majesty's Forces to Spain and Portugal402,18868
for hay, oats, bread, beer, cheese, cask, bedding, cabins, cradles, stabling and other necessaries18,00932
for freight of ships which transported her Majesty's Forces to Holland this year3,68909
423,886107
for interest of the above Transport Bills to 30 Sept. 171038,53530
over and above which there is remaining, for which no Transport Bills have yet been numbered or issued out:
for nine ships hired in Ireland which have transported her Majesty's Forces to Portugal and Spain and are discharged the service, whose accounts are not yet adjusted3,466113
for 123 ships hired at London, Portsmouth and Lisbon by the month to transport her Majesty's Forces to Portugal and Spain, 87 of which were remaining in pay on the 30th Sept. 171088,38466
total Debt for the Transport Service on 30 Sept. 1710554,272114
towards which there is remaining in the hands of the Receiver and Paymaster for Transport Services the following [tallies], viz.:
on Land Tax 170812,4218
on Half Subsidies 170829,68710
on the General Mortgage anno 170910,00000
on Malt 171017,13982
69,2487
leaving unprovided for£485,024311¾
TRANSPORT SERVICE anno 1711.
The growing charge for the Transport.
Upon the 30th Sept. 1710 there were in her Majesty's Transport running in monthly pay 87 ships the growing charge whereof is 11,403l. 13s. 0d. per month.
An Estimate of the charge of the Office of Ordnance for the year 1711: for Land Service. (fn. 9)
£s.d.
the charge of the Flanders train45,00000
the Ordinary of the Office, comprising salaries, rents, repairs at storehouses, barracks, platforms, carriages and likewise the expense of several stores for several garrisons; and incident charges28,273139
for 200 tons of saltpetre for supply of the Stores10,60000
the yearly charge of Jamaica45650
the yearly charge of Portugal for powder according to the Treaty [with Portugal]10,97450
the yearly charge of an engineer at New York; and of an engineer, bombardiers &c. at New England2,34526
the charge of stores sent with Col. Vetch and Col. Nicholson8,929611¼
the charge of the designed Expedition with Maj. Gen. Macartney2,8951711¾
the charge of the designed Expedition with my Lord Shannon2,95013
the yearly charge of the Officers, fireworkers, bombardiers, artificers, gunners and matrosses belonging to the Train in Catalonia12,22026
the yearly charge of the Officers at Port Mahon4,54450
the charge of the stores for the Train in Spain10,37872
the yearly charge of the Officers, engineers, fireworkers, bombardiers, gunners and artificers at Gibraltar3,631150
the charge of the Officers, bombardiers, gunners and others belonging to the artillery in the north part of Great Britain1,475189
£144,675010
ORDNANCE OFFICE DEBT.
Account of the Debt of the Office of Ordnance for stores delivered and services performed to 30 Sept. 1710. (fn. 10)
£s.d.£s.d.
due to the artificers and others for stores delivered and services performed to 30 Sept. 1710281,31400
due to the Holland Train for ditto8,726191
due to the Train in Spain and at Port Mahon8,8816
due to the Officers at Gibraltar2,491152
due to Engineers and storekeepers at New York, Jamaica, Barbados and Lord Shannon's Expedition3,920186
due to fireworkers &c. attending the burnt vessels in the Mediterranean890150
due for freight of ships attending at Lisbon, Port Mahon &c.5,74810
due for salaries and rents of storehouses10,7367
322,7101110¾
Tallies and Exchequer Bills in the hands of the Treasurer of the Ordnance224,33010
less tallies appropriated for buying lands for fortifications, 42,000l., and for carrying on the present fortifications, 13,944l. 14s. 0d.55,914140
168,38516
Ordnance debt outstanding at 30 Sept. 1710£154,32415
Report on the petition of Adam Brown et al. for payment of an Ordnance Office debt of 97,722l. 19s. 8¼d. owing to them from 1679 in the time of Charles II, for satisfying which no provision was ever made. (fn. 11)
The Committee cannot find that any notice of this debt hath been taken by Parliament: and that for a great many years this debt hath not been stated in the Estimates delivered to Parliament.
EXTRAORDINARIES OF THE WAR [anno 1710]
An account of some Extraordinary charges of the war not yet provided for by Parliament: so far as they have been hitherto adjusted (presented to Parliament by Mr. Granville). (fn. 12)
£s.d.
for the extraordinary allowance of forage for five Regiments of Dragoons in North Britain from 23 Feb. 1709–10 to 22 Dec. 1710, pursuant to her Majesty's warrant5,68031
for the pay of Lord Shannon and the General and Staff Officers ordered for the intended Expedition under his command, from 1 May 1710 to 6 Nov. 1710, pursuant to her Majesty's Establishment3,51500
for the pay of Maj. Gen. Whetham and the Officers appointed to attend the Forces embarked for the service abroad from 7 Nov. 1710 to 22 Dec. 1710, pursuant to her Majesty's Establishment23000
for the pay of Col. Nicholson and the Officers ordered to attend the Expedition under his command, from 1 April 1710 to 22 Dec. 17102,93088
for the pay of Col. Vetch as Adjutant General and Capt. Moody as Aide de Camp at New York in the year 1709, pursuant to her Majesty's warrant262100
to satisfy several bills of exchange drawn by Col. Vetch and Col. Nicholson for the service of the Forces upon the Expedition to New England3,284165
for the support of the Royal Hospital near Chelsea and the Invalid Outpensioners thereto belonging over and above the [Army deduction of] Poundage and Day's Pay of the Guards and Garrisons to 22 Dec. 1710 and the Day's Pay already deducted from the Forces Abroad15,392171
for the extraordinary charge of forage in the winter quarters 1709–1710 and at the siege of Douay, with the extraordinary charge for bread and bread waggons on account of the Forces in the Low Countries to the end of the 1710 Campaign, over and above what has been allowed upon the respective Establishments or otherwise provided for the said services15,14818
for forage delivered to the Forces in the Low Countries the last campaign by Monsieur Pangaret [Pangaert], 165,128 guilders 1 stiver 15 deniers6,202136
for 19 horses of Lieut. Gen. Ross's Regiment lost in the action the last Campaign at 15l. each28500
for seven horses more of the Earl of Stair's Regiment at the same rate10500
for her Majesty's proportion of the extraordinary charge of forage to the Troops in winter quarters 1710–11: upon account50,00000
for her Majesty's proportion of what has been already paid for the Douceurs and other extraordinaries of the Foreign Troops in the Low Countries exceeding the sums allowed for the same upon the Establishment or otherwise provided for to the end of the year 171027,340124
for forage, waggon money, recruits, douceurs and other extraordinaries to the Foreign Troops in the Low Countries in the service of her Majesty and the States General; upon account; to be distributed as the same shall appear to be due to them; and is an exceeding of the sum of 29,260l. granted for that service for the year 1711; 50,000 having been lately remitted for the said extraordinaries to enable the Foreign Troops to raise their recruits and come early into the field20,74000
for 123,008 guilders 1 stiver due to the Hanover Troops for men and horses lost in action in the Campaign in 1709; and to the Prussian Augmentation Troops in the Campaign 1709 and 171011,71510
for levy money for 2,500 recruits for the Imperial Troops in Spain which by estimation was computed might be sufficient to complete them for the year 1711 at the rate of 20 Crowns a man, pursuant to a Treaty11,904153
for levy money to enable her Majesty to make good the proportion (being two third) of 70,000 Crowns to the King of Prussia in the year 1710 in consideration of the charge he has been at in recruiting the body of his Troops in Italy and of his Prussian Majesty's consenting thereupon to the continuance of those Troops in that country in the year 171011,11123
for her Majesty's proportion (being a moiety) of 60,000 Crowns to be paid the Elector Palatine in consideration of the expense in sending his Troops into the Low Countries in the 1710 Campaign7,142172
for the pay of several Second Officers serving in Portugal under the Earl of Portmore, according to a list lately transmitted from thence for the year 1711: upon account10,00000
for the pay of several Second Officers, some in Britain and others on service in Spain and Flanders, for the year 1711: upon account10,00000
for the pay of 30 Serjeants to be employed on a particular service abroad to whom her Majesty has been pleased to give Lieutenants' commissions and to place them upon an Establishment of Ensigns' pay from 1 Jan. last to 22 Dec. 17111,60200
for her Majesty's bounty to Volunteers and impressed men raised and to be raised for the service of the current year pursuant to the Recruiting Act, being 40s. a man over and above the levy money chargeable upon the several Regiments: being computed at 8,000 men16,00000
to the [Recruiting] Commissioners' clerks at 5s. a man for the said impressed men and volunteers2,00000
towards the extraordinary charge of recruiting five Battalions of Foot of her Majesty's Subject Troops employed at the siege of Aire, where their loss of men happened so late in the year that the subsistence of the non-effectives could not answer the charge of recruits1,95000
for the extraordinary charge of dry forage at the beginning of the last Campaign to the Regiments of Dragoons of Ross and Stair in the Low Countries, occasioned by their taking the field before there was forage upon the ground for their subsistence1,20511
235,7489
towards which there may be saved, upon the sum of 220,000l. granted by Parliament for the [last] Augmentation Troops for the year 1711 (being an exceeding of what the pay and extraordinaries of the said Troops may amount to) the sum of43,37974
remains192,3692
[add: due] to the Duke of Savoy for extraordinaries of the war over and above the Subsidy allowed him pursuant to the Treaty, the same having been omitted in the Estimate of Subsidies [for this year 1711]100,00000
total to be provided for£292,3692
Memorandum: There is a further sum demanded by the General Officers serving in Flanders, to make up the pay they received equal to their commissions and the qualities in which they served, to the 31 December 1707: but as the same is not yet exactly adjusted it is desired that in the appropriating clause there may be a power given for paying what shall appear to be due on that head.
EXTRAORDINARIES IN SPAIN AND PORTUGAL, 1705–1710.
An accompt of some extraordinary charges of the war in Spain and Portugal from the year 1705 to the end of the year 1710 not provided for by Parliament: according to accompts and Estimates thereof returned from those parts. (fn. 13)
£s.d.
for the full pay of two Regiments of Dragoons raised by the Earl of Peterborough in Catalonia in 1706 from the respective days of raising to 20 Dec. 1706, viz. Maj. Gen. Edward Pearce's from 3 Feb. 1705–6 and the late Count Nassau's from 12 July 1706, pursuant to their muster rolls26,135134
paid for horses bought to mount the said Regiments6,52500
paid upon two bills of exchange drawn by the Earl of Peterborough from Spain for hire of transports in 17063,15616
paid for several extraordinaries of the war in Catalonia in 1705, 1706 and 1707 according to particulars in the annexed paper16,13617
paid for forage and mule money for the Regiments and General Officers sent under the command of Earl Rivers in 1707 and for an exceeding of the waggon money for the Forces under the command of the Earl of Peterborough in 1706: according to particulars in the annexed paper9,29706
paid for the extraordinary charge of mule carriages for the Army in 1707: as by particulars in the annexed paper13,589180
paid in Spain for hand mills and other materials for the use of the Army2,67358
for levy money of 1,700 recruits sent to Spain in 1710 to recruit the Imperial Troops there at 20 Crowns a man, pursuant to the Treaty with the Emperor8,2524
for the pay of Col. Molesworth's Regiment taken from the Establishment of Ireland from 27 Aug. 1709 to 22 Dec. 171017,44066
for the pay of an additional Troop to the Regiment of Dragoons lately under the command of the Earl of Galway from 23 Dec. 1708 to 22 Dec. 17104,927100
for the pay of the additional men to Col. Vesey's (late Blunden's) Regiment in Portugal from 1 Aug. 1708 to 22 Dec. 17103,09584
for pay upon accompt for two Regiments of Horse forming in Portugal of deserters from the Duke of Anjou's Army to 22 Dec. 1710 by estimation12,00000
for the pay of several Officers en second serving in Portugal to 22 Dec. 1710 according to a list thereof returned from thence: as in the papers enclosed8,55334
for the pay and extra charge by estimation of the two Regiments of Imperial Foot of Brown and D'Eck to 22 Dec. 1710, being sent from Italy to Spain in 171045,00000
for the full pay of two Regiments of Portuguese Foot formed by Lieut. Gen. Stanhope for her Majesty's service in Spain for the year 1710, one commanded by Col. Dalzeel, the other by _, each Regiment consisting of 845 men, including Officers, upon the same foot of pay with her Majesty's subjects29,64418
paid a body of Portuguese Troops, part of the Army that marched with the Earl of Galway through Spain in 1706 and not returning to Portugal were taken into her Majesty's service and pay in Catalonia for the years 1709 and 1710 and (as the King of Portugal's minister here [in England] represents) were more than supplied by new levies raised in Portugal since the battle of Almanza 183,100l. 16s. 5½d.: towards which there was a saving upon the moneys granted for the Imperial Auxiliary Troops for the year 1709 of 19,684l. 17s. 5½d.: leaving163,415190
There will be likewise some saving upon the pay of the said Imperial Troops for the year 1710, as likewise by a reform made in some of the English Regiments. But it does not yet appear by the accompts from abroad when those savings commenced: so a perfect state cannot as yet be formed here. But by estimation the same may go near to be balanced by the additions in Spain in 1710 and included in the augmentation for the year 1711.
paid for the extraordinary charge of fresh provisions, fortifications and other expenses relating to the Garrison and works of Gibraltar to the end of Sept. 1710 according to the accompt of particulars in the annexed paper51,54903
paid for the extraordinary charge of mule carriages, transportation of Troops, supporting and supplying the works and Garrison at Port Mahon for the year ending 22 Dec. 1709 over and above 60,000l. included for the same in the sum of 210,000l. granted for the King of Spain and extraordinary for the service of the year 1709: according to the particulars in the annexed paper63,83012
for the charge of the mule carriage, supporting and supplying the fortifications and Garrison at Port Mahon, transporting of Troops and some other extraordinaries of the war in Spain in the year 1710 over and above 60,000l., part of 210,000l. granted last Sessions of Parliament as above: according to accompts and Estimates brought from Spain in the abovesaid paper179,6031310
for an extraordinary charge arising upon bread and forage in the year 1709 and 1710 occasioned by the extreme dearness of corn and forage, whereby the Troops could not bear the whole expense of it out of their subsistence84,443117
£749,2690
Besides the foregoing articles of extraordinaries there have been several payments made for services to be accompted for: but the accompts for the same not being yet adjusted it does not appear how much of them will become an extraordinary charge of the war, and therefore are not included nor demanded in this state.
Memorandum. There is nothing demanded in this Estimate for the extraordinary charge of prisoners, though the same does considerably exceed what was granted for it by Parliament, by reason [that] the exact charge thereof cannot as yet be made appear, the accompts of the persons appointed by the Government for payment of the said prisoners lying before the Auditors of her Majesty's Imprests. And the Agents of the several Regiments to which those prisoners belonged not having been able yet to adjust with their respective Paymasters abroad the accompts of their Regiments whereby it might appear how much of the said charge is to be borne by the said Regiments: the accompts of which said Regiments are now under the examination of the Comptrollers of the Army Accounts.
Memorandum: There is nothing demanded in this Estimate for the growing charge of Extraordinaries for the Garrisons and fortifications of Gibraltar from 30 Sept. 1710, the accompts of the said extraordinary charges being come from abroad only to that time: so that whatever accrues under the said head of expense from the said 30 Sept. 1710 will be an Exceeding of the war to be laid before Parliament at the end of next year.
On the Estimates detailed as above the following Votes of Supply were adopted by the House of Commons on report from Grand Committee:
For the Navy.
£s.d.
Navy and Victualling (5 Dec. 1710, Commons Journals XVI, p. 416)2,080,00000
Ordinary (ibid.)120,00000
For the Army.
Guards and Garrisons (4 Jan. 1710–11. Ibid., p. 448)546,10817
Army in Flanders:
the 40,000 men (23 Dec. 1710. Ibid., p. 444)919,09236
First Augmentation of 10,000 men (4 Jan. 1710–11. Ibid., p. 448)177,51156
Second Augmentation, viz.:
Palatine Troops (ibid.)34,251134
Saxon Troops (ibid.)43,251126
Bothmar's Dragoons (ibid.)9,369166
Third Augmentation of 1609 (ibid.)220,00000
several Extraordinaries (20 March 1710–11. Ibid., p. 563)292,36924
Army in Spain and Portugal (15 Feb. 1710–11. Ibid., p. 498)1,500,00000
Subsidies to the Allies (8 Jan. 1710–11. Ibid., p. 450)478,956167
Transport (8 Jan. 1710–11. Ibid., p. 450)144,00000
For the Ordnance:
Land Service of the Ordnance (4 Jan. 1710–11. Ibid., p. 448)130,00000
Sea Service of the Ordnance (included in the Navy vote).
Other Services.
Interest on Army and Transport Debentures (8 Jan. 1710–11. Ibid., p. 450)49,357172
Bank of England for Exchequer Bill interest and cancellation (16 Jan. 1710–11. Ibid., p. 457)45,00000
sufferers at Nevis and St. Christopher (20 March 1710–11. Ibid., p. 563)103,003114
total of voted Supply for the year 1711£6,892,17216
(The total vote for the Army, including Transport, Subsidies and Extraordinaries, amounts to 4,364,591l. 7s. 11¾d.)
As in previous years the House made no provision whatever for interest on unfunded loans guaranteed by Parliament. It also made no provision for the shortage in the Civil List Revenue although that head was also guaranteed by Parliament. Finally it ignored the long schedules of Extraordinaries of the war detailed, pp. xix–xxii, supra.
In Committee of Ways and Means the House evolved the following series of Finance Acts to cover the Supply which it had voted as above:
9 Anne, c. 1. A 4s. Land Tax, styled the Fourteenth 4s. Aid. This Act was intended to yield 1,995,851l. 0s. 5½d. in England and 47,954l. 1s. 0d. in Scotland, or 2,043,805l. 1s. 5½d. altogether. The Treasury was authorised to borrow 1,880,000l. on credit of the Act.
9 Anne, c. 3. Act for continuing the Duties on Malt, Mum &c. The yield of this tax was not specified by way of forecast, but clauses 7 and 8 of the Act authorised a total loan of 650,000l. at 6 per cent. upon credit of the Duties, the said total sum of loan being to include transfers of unsatisfied loans on the Act 7 Anne, c. 3.
9 Anne, c. 6. Act for reviving and appropriating the Duty on Coals &c. and for granting further Duties on Candles: all for 32 years from 8 March 1710–11 as the fund for the service of a Lottery to raise 1,500,000l.
9 Anne, c. 11. Act for a General Post Office, imposing increased postal rates in order to cover or to provide 700l. a week for public services, "to raise a present Supply for carrying on the war," out of the revenue of the Post Office and to reserve for the public use one third of the produce of the said Revenue beyond or over and above the sum of 111,461l. 17s. 10d. per an. and the said 700l. per week. Ignoring the fact that the Post Office was a Crown institution or property and was further devoted and appropriated to the Civil List by Act of Parliament, this Act took 700l. a week or 36,400l. per an. of its revenue away from the Civil List and devoted it as a fund for raising Public Supply for public purposes, and further devoted to the public one third of any increase above the said 111,461l. 17s. 10d. per an. This figure was adopted as the ascertained revenue of the preceding year ended 29 Sept. 1710.
9 Anne, c. 11. An Act for laying certain Duties on hides and skins and upon vellum and parchment for 32 years from 24 June 1711 appropriated by clause 54 of the Act 9 Anne, c. 16, to be part of the fond for the 2,000,000l. Classes Lottery.
9 Anne, c. 12. An Act for laying a Duty on hops for four years from 1 June 1711: with a clause for a loan of 180,000l. thereon at 6 per cent. interest.
9 Anne, c. 16. The Act for the Classes Lottery for 2,000,000l., styled an Act for licensing and regulating Hackney Coaches &c.
To the above list should be added the Act for the South Sea Company (9 Anne, c. 15). Although that Act was a Deficiencies Act and was not intended to produce revenue for the Services, it was decided at the last moment to take 500,000l. out of its proceeds to be used for the payment of interest for the first year on the intended Capital issue. This application practically operated as a Revenue Supply.
On the assumption that these various Acts of Supply produced the sums as budgetted and as expected the result or the Revenue yield would be as follows:
£s.d.
Land Tax anticipated yield (loan authorised)1,880,00000
Malt Duties (loan authorised)650,00000
Coals and Candles Duties1,500,00000
Post Office, 700l. per week36,40000
Duty on hops180,00000
Classes Lottery2,000,00000
South Sea Act500,00000
total expected revenue from new taxes and issues£6,680,00000
The amount actually raised from all the above heads or sources within the financial year Michaelmas 1710 to Michaelmas 1711 was as follows:
£s.d.
loans on the Fourteenth 4s. Aid or Land Tax (in money, 441,006l. 16s. 8d.; in tallies, 1,302,107l. 13s. 6½d.)1,743,11410
loans on Malt (in money, 6,520l.; in tallies, 412,581l. 9s. 8d.)419,10198
loans on Hops (in money, 80,000l.; in tallies, 100,000l.)180,00000
Exchequer Bills issued under the Act 9 Anne, c. 7137,70000
Lotteries:
9 Anne, c. 6, for 1,500,000l.1,451,00000
9 Anne, c. 16, for 2,000,000l.1,571,93744
£5,502,8534
This represents a shortage of 1,177,146l. 15s. 9½d. of revenue actually realised as against revenue forecasted. In this table of actually realised yield it is very significant that the loans in money should have been so small. On absolutely first class securities, viz. Land Tax and Malt, the money market took up less than half a million, not even a fifth of the total short-term loan authorised and guaranteed by Parliament. This was not an engineered slump. It was the natural market response to the advent of a discredited gambler as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
It will thus be seen that both in its intention or forecast and in its realisation the Supply granted by the House of Commons in the first year of Harley's Government was insufficient to meet the Supply voted by the House and still more insufficient to meet the demands of the services.
The total Votes of Supply amounted to 6,892,172l. 16s. 5¾d., whereas the total Ways and Means found by the House only came to 6,680,000l., representing an initial Ways and Means shortage of 212,172l. 16s. 5¾d., as against votes and further representing an actual final shortage of 1,177,146l. 15s. 9½d. in the actual revenue receipts from the Ways and Means grants.
Under such inadequate provision how did the services fare? The sums actually paid to them during the financial year Michaelmas 1710 to Michaelmas 1711 were as follows:
Issues for the Navy
(to Robert Walpole and then to his successor, Julius Cæsar).
£s.d.
for the arrears of the year 1702104,27429
for the arrears of the year 17062,19000
for the arrears of the year 1709213,77316
for the arrears of the year 1710129,25012
for the service of 1711:
(Walpole)560,158139
(Cæsar)482,82973
total issues to the Navy£1,490,1851710¾
Issues for the Army.
Guards and Garrisons:£s.d.
for the arrears of 1703800
for the arrears of 170461835
for the arrears of 170561108
for the arrears of 17061,4751511½
for the arrears of 171091,74111
for the service of 1711287,29816
total for Guards and Garrisons£650,83510
Army Abroad:£s.d.
for the arrears of 170920,9413
for the arrears of 171078,44514
for the service of 17113,173,135138
total for the Forces Abroad£3,272,5221110½
Issues for the Transport.
for the service of 1711£12,5218
Issues for the Ordnance.£s.d.
for the arrears of 1710122,532011½
for the service of 1711132,50000
total for the Ordnance£255,032011½
Summary of issues to the following services:£s.d.
Navy1,490,1851710¾
Army3,923,358111¼
Transport12,5218
Ordnance255,032011½
£5,681,09792
total voted Supply for the fighting services6,674,811711¾
actual issues as above to same5,681,09792
shortage of issues as against voted Supply£993,71318
The remainder of this year's Exchequer issues can be briefly summarised as follows:
Issues for the Civil List.£s.d.
Civil List arrears of Wm. III12716
Civil List of Scotland anno 171122,85316
Civil List of Queen Anne anno 1711630,931138
£653,9136
Out of the issue for the Queen's Civil List there should be deducted 139,350l. paid for repayment of loans on tin and 13,800l. issued for Public Services not falling under the head of Civil List. The deduction of these sums reduce the actual issue to the English Civil List services to 477,781l. 13s. 1d., which is nearly a quarter of a million short of the Parliamentary covenanted and guaranteed 700,000l. for the English Civil List.
Miscellaneous issues.
to the Bank of England, the East India Company, Annuities, Lotteries &c.£708,08210
For interest on loans guaranteed by Parliament.£s.d.
out of the First and Second Acts for Deficiencies6,67619
out of the Third General Mortgage64,411116
out of the Fourth General Mortgage anno 170813,527191
out of the Fifth General Mortgage anno 17096,22583
out of the Sixth General Mortgage anno 17102,61011
out of the Exchequer454,37118
£537,82289
net repayment of loan money (total loans taken in at the Exchequer, 2,597,516l. 8s. 8d.; total repayments of ditto, 3,048,238l. 16s. 11d.; excess of repayments over the loans taken in)£450,72283
Exchequer Cash in Hand Account.
£s.d.£s.d.
Exchequer Remains at Michaelmas 1711:
in cash1,233,340167
in tallies406,76913
1,640,11010
Exchequer Remains at Michaelmas 1710:
in cash561,99613
in tallies987,8848
1,549,8812
betterment of cash position representing an increase of cash in hand by the withholding of payments to the services to the extent of£90,2298
The shortage of issues to the services is covered by and explained by the shortage of revenue yield. This is the nett and outstanding result of Robert Harley's administration of the national finance for the first year of his office. At the opening of the Session the House, as his mouthpiece, had assured the Queen that it would not only support her Majesty against all her enemies but would also endeavour to trace the source of the great evil of national debt and apply a suitable remedy. The commentary on this high sounding promise is here to our hands. In the first year of his government Harley had added a million to the floating debt of the Forces by leaving it underpaid by so much. At the same time he had shirked and evaded the debt claims for War Extraordinaries and at the same time he had filched money from the Civil List by his Act concerning the Postal revenue and had reduced the Civil List income from its appointed 900,000l. for the year to 477,781l. 13s. 1d., the lowest point to which the Civil List revenue had yet fallen in Anne's reign. This Act alone illuminates the dark recesses of his tortuous mind. He had been in public life long enough to know that the term Civil List was a popular misnomer or misconception and that it was in reality simply a Civil Service provision, a yearly fund for the payment of the Civil as distinct from the military services. But he preferred to think of it or pretended to think of it as a provision for the Crown and to his scheming mind the underhand reduction of the Civil List provision made the Crown more dependent on the ministry. No thought of gratitude to the Queen who had made him entered his mind. When he made the preliminary Surveys of Deficiencies the subject of the Civil List was not even mooted and when later still he was driven to face the Civil List Deficiency he insulted his Sovereign by merely giving the Queen permission to mortgage the Civil List revenues. Under his leadership the House of Commons never voted one penny to make up the Civil List Deficiency. On the contrary, whether they realised it or not, the House connived at the robbery of the Civil List by 700l. a week out of the Post Office just as it had done previously by conniving at the robbery of the Hereditary Excise by 3,700l. a week under Wm. III: and at that, the House knew quite well that the Hereditary Excise was the private, inalienable, hereditary property of the Crown not granted by Parliament but the agreed purchase price of the surrendered feudal rights of the Crown in the matter of Wardships &c. at the Restoration.
During the reign of Anne the accumulated shortage of the Civil List Revenue was as follows, meaning by shortage the amount by which the actual receipts from the Civil List Revenue fell short of the 700,000l. per an. which was guaranteed to the Crown by the Act of 9 Wm. III, c. 23, for the Civil List:
Civil List
actual income.
£s.d.
9 March 1701–2 to Michaelmas 1702250,69011
Michaelmas 1702 to Michaelmas 1703601,083125
Michaelmas 1703 to Michaelmas 1704676,8265
Michaelmas 1704 to Michaelmas 1705609,1517
Michaelmas 1705 to Michaelmas 1706576,63160
Michaelmas 1706 to Michaelmas 1707649,62515
Michaelmas 1707 to Michaelmas 1708623,24410
Michaelmas 1708 to Michaelmas 1709591,82510
Michaelmas 1709 to Michaelmas 1710578,1272
Michaelmas 1710 to Michaelmas 1711522,27915
9½ years£5,679,4856
In 9½ years the Queen should have received 6,650,000l. at the rate of 700,000l. per an to enable her to carry on the complete circle of the Civil Administration of the country. Instead of receiving that sum the Civil List had received only 5,679,485l. 6s. 7¼d., that is to say there was a shortage of 970,514l. 13s. 4¾d. To state this figure is to put the most favourable construction on the situation. It is equivalent to agreeing that 700,000l. a year was a sufficient sum to carry on the ordinary Civil Service of the country—the Civil Service, the Judicial Service, the pensions lists, the Ambassadorial Service, the Public Works and the state and dignity of the Crown of England. Every page of this Calendar bears witness to the fact that 700,000l. per an. was not sufficient for the whole ambit of these services even if that amount had been received in full.
But even this is not the whole story. Queen Anne was intensely patriotic, and even with the knowledge that the Civil List revenue was failing and that it was being further filched from her by underhand means by Robert Harley, she still consented willingly to the allocation of sums of money out of her revenue for the use and benefit of the public—which meant of course for the purposes of the war. In the first year of the war she gave a donation of 100,000l. to the war, a gift which could only possibly come from her Privy Purse. In addition she surrendered her share in the Prizes and her husband, Prince George, surrendered his title to the Admiralty Droits. More than this, at certain times when delicate political issues were involved she stepped in and saved the situation by drawing on her own purse. She lent 40,000l. to the Emperor, she advanced over 20,000l. to the Circle of Swabia and in the interim period immediately after the Union, when the Scottish Army was being left unpaid because it had not been taken immediately on the English Establishment, she advanced over 30,000l. out of the Civil List and transmitted it post haste to Scotland to pay the soldiers. The British Parliament was in honour bound to repay this money to the Queen, but it never did repay it. The full account of the Queen's contributions out of the Civil List towards the war services and other public services is set out in the following account:
An account of what her Majesty has given out of the Civil List for the service of the public since her Majesty's accession to the Crown: distinguishing the services. (fn. 14)
Between 8 March 1701–2 and Michaelmas 1702.£s.d.£s.d.
paid Sir Thomas Littleton, then Treasurer of the Navy, in aid of the sum granted for Marine services anno 1702; and to be applied to the service of Sick and Wounded seamen and prisoners at war by the hands of the Treasurer for that service7,432128
paid ditto towards 21,102l. 14s. 2¼d. allowed by the House of Commons anno 1702 to discharge the debt for Sick and Wounded in the last war6,0831410½
paid the Earl of Ranelagh, then Paymaster General of the Forces, towards 145,017l. 9s. 0d. granted anno 1702 for making good the Treaties with the Crown of Denmark20,54782
paid ditto towards 44,500l. granted anno 1702 for making good the Treaties with the Crown of Sweden20,30526
paid ditto for Prince Lewis of Baden9,2161110
paid ditto for the Court of Wolfenbuttel2,00000
paid ditto for the Elector of Treves on his subsidy1,40650
66,99115
Between Michaelmas 1702 and Michaelmas 1703.
paid Charles Fox, then Paymaster of the Forces, upon account for the Circle of Swabia to enable them to prosecute the war in Germany23,92300
paid the Earl of Ranelagh in aid of the sum of 352,000l. granted for Guards and Garrisons anno 17024,99581
paid ditto in aid of 700,000l. granted for the 40,000 men anno 170228,0121610½
paid the Treasurer of the Ordnance for services in that office426159
57,3580
Between Michaelmas 1703 and Michaelnmas 1704.
paid the Earl of Ranelagh towards making good losses by exchange in anno 17027,302110½
paid ditto in aid of the sum of 700,000l. granted for the 40,000 men anno 17022,31658
paid Charles Fox in aid of the sum of 833,825l. 19s. 2d. granted for the 40,000 men anno 170312,713116
paid ditto on account of alliances with Portugal and the preparations to be made by that Crown towards the first year, to wit anno 170315,401100
paid ditto for the King of Spain by way of a loan from her Majesty40,00000
paid ditto towards the charge of the Elector Palatine's journey to Vienna for the good of the common cause71270
paid ditto towards the charge of making good the alliances, with the Duke of Savoy pursuant to an Address of the House of Commons and brought to account as part of the public expenses of the war anno 17046,96118
85,4075
Between Michaelmas 1704 and Michaelmas 1705.
by [paid for] the Navy for the value of timber delivered per the Surveyor of her Majesty's Woods for the service thereof and brought to account as part of the Quota for Wear and Tear of the Navy anno 170513,351110
paid Charles Fox for the Marquis de Miremont and his men sent to the assistance of the Duke of Savoy1,60000
paid ditto for Monsieur Machado to recompense for the loss of horses, waggons &c. in the Campaign anno 17044,00000
paid ditto for the Garrison of Gibraltar6,00000
paid ditto towards arrears of Subsidy to the King of Denmark before Xmas 17049,50000
paid ditto for Monsieur Darzillier, then residing at Genoa, for special service relating to the war1,680111
36,13221
Between Michaelmas 1705 and Michaelmas 1706.
paid James Brydges, Paymaster of the Forces [Abroad], for the Earl of Galway as her Majesty's Bounty1,00000
paid ditto for the Marquis de Montandre for the like50000
paid ditto for Col. Edmund Revett in consideration of his good services in the defence of Gibraltar20000
paid ditto for Capt. Bennett for the like20000
paid ditto for Jezreel Jones for charges and disbursements by him for account of Gibraltar56576
paid ditto for Monsieur Flotard for his services towards assisting the Duke of Savoy50000
paid ditto for remittances to Monsieur Darzilier, then residing at Geneva, for account of services relating to the war in Italy16,180110
paid ditto for the States General, being the balance of an account relating to the Cevennois1,380511
paid ditto for the King of Denmark towards arrears of Subsidy [due] before Xmas 17047,50000
28,02645
Between Michaelmas 1706 and Michaelmas 1707.
by [paid for] the Navy for the value of timber delivered per the Surveyor [General] of her Majesty's Woods for the service thereof, whereof 3,154l. 1s. 6d. is brought to account as part of the Quota for Wear and Tear anno 1706 and 7,152l. 9s. 0d. as part of the Quota for ditto anno 170710,306106
by ditto for Mitford Crow, Esq., for the charge of his passage to Barbados, where he was going Governor36700
paid James Brydges, Esq., for Monsieur Flotard for particular service relating to the war in Italy30000
paid ditto for the Marquis de Miremont for the like40000
paid Henry Mordaunt, Treasurer of the Ordnance, for John Orlebar et al., to encourage an invention for ejecting liquid fire20000
paid Peter Hume for services relating to the war3,547100
paid Sir David Nairne upon account for the pay of the Forces in Scotland to Xmas 170712,00000
27,12106
Between Michaelmas 1707 and Michaelmas 1708.
by [paid for] the Navy for the value of timber delivered by the Surveyor General of Woods for the service thereof and [is] brought to account as part of the Quota for Wear and Tear of the Navy anno 17085,978811
by ditto for Lord Lovelace, going Governor to New York, for the charge of his passage thither39000
paid Sir David Nairne upon account of the pay of the Forces in Scotland to Xmas 170718,80000
paid Prince Charles of Denmark on a grant from her Majesty of 4,000l. per an., clear of all charge, for quitting his pretensions to the bishopric of Eutin for the good of the common cause8,422100
33,5901811
Between Michaelmas 1708 and Michaelmas 1709.
by [paid for] the Navy for the value of timber delivered by the Surveyor General of Woods for the service thereof, and [is] brought to account as part of the Quota for Wear and Tear of the Navy anno 17094,110410
paid Prince Charles of Denmark on a grant from her Majesty of 4,000l. per an., clear of all charges, for quitting his pretensions to the Bishopric of Eutin for the good of the common cause4,100176
8,21124
Between Michaelmas 1709 and Michaelmas 1710.
by [paid for] the Navy for the value of timber delivered by the Surveyor [General] of her Majesty's Woods for the service thereof, and [is] brought to account as part of the Quota for Wear and Tear anno 17103,95422
paid Prince Charles of Denmark on his grant as above2,100176
6,054198
total£348,893811¾
Memorandum: Her Majesty has also contributed out of her Civil List the sum of 32,679l. 11s. 9d. to aid the Deficiency of the Fond for Annuities purchased anno 1707, but because the Parliament have provided by a clause in an Act passed last Sessions that the sums so supplied shall be made good again out of the surplus (when it arises) of the said Fond, the said sum of 32,679l. 11s. 9d. is not brought to account as a sum absolutely given to the public out of the Civil List as all the rest of the aforegoing sums are.
17 January 1710–11.
In spite of the boastful and extravagant promises which the House had made to the Queen at the opening of the Session with regard to providing for the accumulation of debt on the services, the whole of this subject of the growing debt on the Civil List was ignored by Parliament. So also was the question of investigating the adequacy of the Civil List provision for the proper carrying on the Civil Administration generally. So also was the question of at last honouring the Civil List debt of Wm. III. It was in the August of this year 1711 that the Report was made on the Civil List debt owing at the time of Wm. III's decease. But as far as the House of Commons was concerned the Report might as well never have been made. The subject was not even noticed in the proceedings and the fair fame of our country was besmirched by complete disregard for the Civil List debt of over 800,000l. which had accumulated during Wm.'s reign as a result pure and simply of the insufficient Parliamentary provision for the Civil Government of England. But Harley was not content with ignoring the debt. On ever possible occasion which offered he turned round to traduce and malign William's memory just as he traduced and maligned the administration of Godolphin in the words of the Address to the Queen already quoted (see supra, p. VI). William III saw through Harley and never trusted him, and the memory of his Sovereign's disdain rankled in Harley's mind like an acid poison. But it is quite clear that there was more than this personal spite in Harley's mentality. At the outset Queen Anne did not distrust him. He owed his advancement to her, but all through his period of office as Lord Treasurer he treated Queen Anne just as scurvily and trickily in the matter of the Civil List revenue as he had done William III. If one can speak of him as having any political philosophy at all or any political principle at all, his one obsession was to reduce the Crown to dependence on the House, tacitly assuming the while that he could trick the House into dependence on himself. He was incapable of gratitude and it made no difference to him whether the Sovereign whom he was disobliging was Wm. III, who despised him, or Queen Anne, who unhappily for England placed full trust in him.
THE SOUTH SEA COMPANY ACT.
By its own declaration in the Address at the opening of the Session the House of Commons was committed to the consideration of the floating debt on the services. The outcome of the deliberations on this subject was the Act 9 Anne, c. 15, for making good [certain] Deficiencies and for satisfying the public debts and for erecting a Corporation to carry on a trade to the South Seas.
The subject of Parliamentary Deficiencies has been treated again and again in these Introductions. One and all they were due to insufficiency of voted Parliamentary Supply or deficiency of yield of taxes granted for Supply. The honour of Parliament was involved simply because it had given its guarantee for loans borrowed on such Acts of Supply. The method which the House of Commons usually followed in carrying out its guarantee was to let the various deficiencies or deficits accumulate until they became an intolerable clog on the services, then lump them all in one bill and then vote a tax fund sufficient to pay off in such and such a period the total accumulation of debt plus accrued and accruing interest. A Deficiencies Act therefore was merely a short term Sinking Fund and its purpose was not to fund an accumulation of debt but to pay it off, principal and interest, by yearly payments up to the point of complete extinction and within a comparatively short period. The first Deficiencies Act of 8–9 Wm. III, c. 20, had granted a mixed fund of revenue to sink an accumulation of Deficiencies amounting to 5,164,459l. 14s. 9¼d. The liquidation was intended to be complete within 10 years. The second Deficiencies Act, that of 1 Anne, c. 7, similarly provided or granted a fund of revenue to sink or liquidate a second accumulation of Deficiencies amounting to 2,338,628l. 15s. 5¾d. In its turn this liquidation was complete within or nearly within the appointed four years. Subsequently, after this second Deficiencies Act, the Treasury tried for a time to provide currently for fresh Deficiencies as they happened to incur. A fund (the Half Subsidies for a two year period) was appointed or granted for the purpose and was renewed annually. Each of these annual Acts or the fund annually renewed by them were styled a General Mortgage, the first Act immediately following the second Deficiencies Act of 1 Anne, c. 7, being styled "the Third General Mortgage." In this way the whole series of Sinking Fund Acts prior to the South Sea Company Act comprised the following:
1697. First Deficiencies Act or First General Mortgage, 8–9 Wm. III, c. 20, granting a fund up to Aug. 1706.
1701. Second Deficiencies Act or Second General Mortgage, 1 Anne, c. 7, granting or renewing the fund up to Aug. 1710.
1706. Third General Mortgage, 6 Anne, c. 27, renewing the 1701 Sinking Fund to August 1712.
1707. Fourth General Mortgage, 6 Anne, c. 73, renewing the same fund to August 1714.
1708. Fifth General Mortgage, 7 Anne, c. 31, renewing the same fund to August 1716.
1709. Sixth General Mortgage, 8 Anne, c. 14, renewing the same fund to Aug. 1720.
From the Third General Mortgage onwards the procedure or the technique of the Sinking Fund was different from that of the First and Second Deficiencies Acts. There was no attempt made to compile a specific list of debts or deficiencies so as to bring the work of debt liquidation up to date. Each of the renewal Acts or continuing Acts as they were styled contained a loan clause authorising so much to be borrowed on credit of the fund so continued and the primary purpose of the fund was to meet or to pay that particular loan. But in front of that loan, in each successive renewal Act, the unliquidated balance of prior debts and deficiencies was posted as a prior debt or claim to be liquidated out of renewed fund in the first place; and after the complete discharge of these preferential State creditors then the remainder income from the fund was to meet and to pay off the new loan authorised in each renewal Act. So that in each of these four General Mortgage Acts there was a double process going on, firstly of discharge of old preferential debt and secondly of new growing debt, namely the particular guaranteed loan authorised by each successive Mortgage Act.
From August 1712 onwards the fund was cut in half. By the Act 6 Anne, c. 73, the Customs granted as the nucleus of the Sinking Fund were reduced to half the figure at which they had been originally granted for the Second Deficiencies Act of 1 Anne, c. 7, but subsequently the fund was assisted by appropriating to it such surpluses as were at last emerging from previous Supply grants.
From this hasty survey it will be seen that the four General Mortgage Acts were not Deficiency Acts in the strict sense. They were ordinary Supply Acts each with a loan clause, but charged with a preferential charge of old or prior unliquidated debt remains. In this sense therefore the South Sea Company Act differed from the General Mortgage group of Sinking Fund operations. The South Sea Company Act was retrospective and independent. It was not linked up to any prior Deficiencies Acts or General Mortgage Acts. A list of floating Departmental Debts was compiled and to this list was added such further debts as were Deficiencies in the strict sense of being unliquidated loan debt and then the Act dealt with this total corpus of debt in such and such a way. In precise language the South Sea Company Act was the third true Deficiencies Act of the time of William and Anne. But there are two marked features in which the South Sea Company Act differed from its predecessors. The Acts of 8–9 Wm. III, c. 20, and of 1 Anne, c. 7, dealt purely with Deficiencies, with Parliamentary debt which had arisen from failure or deficiency of Parliamentary Supply; whereas the South Sea Company Act dealt mainly with floating debt, Departmental debt, preponderatingly the Navy Debt. In the second place the prior Acts of 8–9 Wm. III and 1 Anne were true Sinking Fund operations. They were intended to extinguish the total corpus of Deficiencies debt then outstanding and they carried out that intention. The Deficiencies with all accrued and accruing interest were paid off and the debt was completely wiped out. As against this the South Sea Company Act was a funding operation, not a Sinking Fund operation. It provided a fund for the payment of interest on a particular schedule of floating debts hitherto unprovided for by Parliament. But it made no provision whatever for the extinction of that debt. In essence the operation was on all fours with the operations which provided a fund for the Bank of England or the East India Company to pay interest on their advances to the State. The only difference lay in the class of creditors provided for. Instead of subscribers to a market flotation as in the case of the Bank of England or the East India Company, the subscribers were creditors of the State whose subscribed share in the participation was the debt already owing to them by the State.
As a funding operation the South Sea Company scheme was a sensible measure and one long overdue, for the simple reason that floating Departmental debt was not merely a clog to the fighting services but was also an intolerable hardship to the individual. If the scheme had remained true to its original function and character the South Sea Company would have been simply a Government Office for the payment of interest on a particular block of funded debt and the individual Navy creditor could have sold his debt on the open market instead of having to knock in vain at the door of the Navy Office year after year.
On the 3rd January 1710–11 on the occasion of the presentation of the Navy Debt Statement the House of Commons formally resolved "that it will take care effectually to discharge the public debts". (fn. 15) A Committee was accordingly appointed on the 10th January "to consider that part of her Majesty's Speech which relates to the public debts." (fn. 16) It was not until the 12th February that this Committee brought in its report to the House. This Report was as follows. The portions relating to the Navy Debt should be compared with the three previous returns from the Navy Office of the state of that debt for the years 1701–10 as printed in the Journals (Commons Journals XVI, pp. 219, 238, 443).
Report of the Committee appointed to examine and state the public debt of the Navy and other public offices for which no provision is made by Parliament. (fn. 17)
£s.d.£s.d.
at Michaelmas 1710 there was due by computation on Bills in the Second Book, viz. Pursers' Balance Bills and for Extraordinary Necessary Money, pensions, half pays, Surgeons, free gifts and other services incurred before the late [King William's] reign14,582108
On this item there is no interest running.
On the head of Wear and Tear.
There is due at Michaelmas 1710 on the present Register Books for Bills numbered in course, under the head of Wear and Tear 1,631,648l. for principal and 101,186l. 8s. 0d. for interest thereon: making1,732,83480
for freight of Hospital ships, tenders, debt at outports, and stores delivered upon contracts for which no bills were made out46,674111
for wages due to her Majesty's Yards and Rope Yards385,13400
2,164,642191
Towards this there was in the hands of Sir Thomas Littleton's executrix 866l. 0s. 3d. and in the hands of Mr. Robert Walpole as Navy Treasurer 37,553l. 2s. 9d.38,41930
leaving net debt on this head of Wear and Tear2,126,223161
There is interest running on this head only on Bills numbered in Course.
On the head of Seamen's Wages.
There is due for wages to several men remaining unpaid on the Books of ships paid off since this reign [began]205,29688
by a computation, to satisfy such as may call for wages due on ships paid off in the last regin [of Wm. III]57,824135
for wages due to all her Majesty's ships now in pay, computed to Michaelmas 17101,483,47300
to pay off all the Bills entered in Course for Pilotage, Surgeons' necessaries, Bounty to windows and orphans and other services on this head for principal 26,316l. 5s. 0d.; for interest 41l.26,35750
1,772,95171
On this head there was in the hands of Sir Thos. Littleton's executrix 7,896l. 10s. 0d. and in the hands of Mr. Walpole 29,178l. 2s. 3d.37,074123
leaving net debt on this head1,735,8761410
[On the above heads] the Committee observe that in 1702, 1703 and 1704 the sum of 84,515l. 12s. 8d. was paid to the Transports Commissioners out of this head and that the 8,000 Marines (supposing the Regiments to have been full) have been an extra expense of 119,675l. 8s. 3d.: and that the public will probably save a great sum on this head, especially on the first three articles, the sums on the first two being due to men discharged and dead, great part of which will not be claimed: and the computation which the [Navy] Commissioners have made on the second article is about one third of what is in their Books.
The third article is computed at the full complement of the ships.
On the head of Victualling.£s.d.
due on Bills numbered in Course from 3 Dec. 1707 to 30 Sept. 1710, 1,501,798l. 6s. 2d. for principal and 68,315l. for interest, computed1,570,11362
for the bills of exchange from foreign parts for supply of her Majesty's ships, necessary money and extra necessary money29,090311
to the officers, labourers &c. at several ports21,6341411
for extraordinary freights, demurrages to victualling ships sent to Port Mahon and into the Mediterranean with provisions for the Fleet, for which Bills are not yet made out9,159100
for short allowance money to ships at sea33,45000
ditto on Recalls45,80497
1,709,25247
Towards this there was at Michaelmas 1710 in the hands of Sir Thomas Littleton's executrix 844l. 2s. 3¾d.; in Mr. Walpole's hands 14,435l. 15s. 11d.; in the hands of Mr. Knox, late Agent of Gibraltar, 103l. 5s. 9¼d.; in the hands of the Paymaster for Guards and Garrisons (being stopped from the pay of the Company at Newfoundland for provisions supplied to them by the Victualling Commissioners for the years 1705 and 1708) the sum of 1,679l.17,06242
leaving neat debt on this head1,692,19007
There is interest running on this head only on the Bills numbered in Course.
The Committee observe that a great sum on this head doth not properly belong to this account. The [Victualling] Commissioners charge 608,485l. 7s. 7d. as paid on account of the Land Forces out of which deducting the above 1,679l. there remains 606,806l. 7s. 7d. charged by them on account of Land Forces for which they received no money [from the Paymaster of the Forces]. This sum is charged for provisions and victualling Land Forces on board for the Garrison of Newfoundland, for the English Garrison at Gibraltar, for Marines, Spanish and Dutch Forces, the inhabitants and fortifications of that Garrison, part of which sum is by computation at 10d. a man a day from 30 June 1707 to 30 Sept. 1710 and at 12d. a man a day from 1 Oct. 1709 to 30 Sept. 1710 for 2,500 men when we have but two English Regiments in that Garrison which the Committee were informed by Officers belonging to those Regiments were about 1,000 effective men:
that the [Victualling] Commissioners own they have had no regular accounts from any of their Agents at Gibraltar:
that Mr. Knox, their first Agent's account is not yet passed. They have no account at all from Mr. Bowles, who succeeded Mr. Knox in June 1707, nor any account from Mr. Vere, who succeeded Mr. Bowles.
The Committee find there have been deductions made from the Garrison at Newfoundland to the year 1709; but upon examination of Mr. Sloper [and of] some of the Officers belonging to the English Regiments in Gibraltar and of several Agents [the Committee] cannot find that any deductions have yet been made from any of the Forces sent to Spain and Portugal for provisions supplied to them by the Victualling Commissioners; but in case it shall be thought reasonable to make any deductions from the Regiments sent to Spain and Portugal for those provisions or that the Dutch [should] repay what hath been furnished their Troops, or that an allowance be made for what hath been supplied to the Spanish soldiers and inhabitants at Gibraltar, or that any of the money given by Parliament for the Extraordinaries of the war in Spain and Portugal be applied to this service, whatever those sums shall be, will lessen the debt on this head; and when the deductions are made from the Garrison at Newfoundland for the last two years those will also so much lessen this debt.
Mr Sloper also acquainted the Committee that over and above the provisions which the Garrison of Gibraltar have had from the Victualling Commissioners, above 30,000l. hath been paid [by the Paymaster General of the Forces] for soft bread and other extraordinaries for that Garrison and that there is a demand of 50,000l. more on that account.
The Committee further observe that in an account delivered in to the House the 5th Jan. last, and referred to this Committee, of the particulars which have chiefly occasioned the debt of the Victualling the Victualling Commissioners make a note in the last page thereof that between the 30th of Sept. 1701 and the 30th Sept. 1710 there hath been received short of the 19s. a man a month allotted for the service of the Victualling 172,184l. 19s. 1¾d., which remark they owned to be a mistake, and acknowledged that they have received in that time over and above the 19s. a month the sum of 258,328l. 18s. 5¼d.
The Committee further observed that the Victualling Commissioners paid very high rates for bills of exchange to Lisbon and to Jamaica: that they made a contract with Sir Gilbert Heathcote which they continued (though not obliged to it) from April 1702 to Feb. 1706–7 by which he was to pay 108l. at Jamaica and receive here 100l. at 30 days' sight; that in that time there was only 587l. 10s. 0d. returned [forwarded by bills of exchange] by other persons; that at that rate Sir Gilbert Heathcote returned 67,105l. 14s. 7d.
The Committee examined Mr. Milner, Mr. Drake and Mr. Kent, West India merchants, who acquainted them that they never knew the exchange at Jamaica since 1701 to be under 20l. per cent. [discount], that they generally received there 130l. and sometimes 135l. for 100l. to be paid at 30 days' sight here.
The Committee find that from Feb. 1706–7 the Victualling Commissioners employed other merchants [for exchange remittances] and from that time have had 18 per cent. allowed from Jamaica till lately and that now they have 20l. per cent. allowed: and that the debt of the [Victualling] Office was much greater when they had 18l. and 20l. per cent. allowed than when they had but 8l. per cent.
Sick and Wounded.
There is due for the service of Sick and Wounded and for subsistence of French prisoners the neat sum of54,2840
The Committee observe on this head that the Navy Commissioners in their Estimate made their debt on this head 84,880l. 10s. 10d.; but the Committee upon examination of the Commissioners of Sick and Wounded find that 30,596l. 10s. 9½d. is a provisional account for the current year and therefore have deducted it, which reduces the Debt to the above 54,284l. 0s. 0½d.
total£5,623,1572
It appeared to the Committee, by Mr. Hawes, that at Michaelmas 1710 there was in the hands of Sir Thomas Littleton's executrix on reversions on Annuities the sum of 46,483l. and in the hands of Mr. Walpole tallies to a total of 446,134l. 16s. 9½d. as follows:
£s.d.
on the 12th 4s. Aid13,00000
on the 12th 4s. Aid55,49714
on Subsidies anno 1710129,25012
on Candles931911¾
on Malt anno 171029,93000
on Half Subsidies anno 1709183,76314
on the General Mortgage 17072,371810
on the General Mortgage 170714,56312
on the General Mortgage 170810,93602
on the General Mortgage 17096,72855
£492,61716
leaving the neat Debt of the Navy exclusive of the Register Office£5,130,53955
The Navy Commissioners charge the debt for the Register Office at£410,88902
They acquainted the Committee that this [Register Office] debt arises from the 40s. a man granted by the Act [7–8 Wm. III, c. 21] to such seamen as shall register themselves: of which sum no part hath been paid: and that as that Act is drawn they do not know any advantage it hath been to the Publick. The Committee do not find that any provision was ever made by Parliament for the same.
Ordnance Office Debt.
The Committee have examined the debt of the Office of Ordnance referred to them and have heard the persons of that Office: upon which it appeared that at Michaelmas 1710 the debt of that Office stood as follows:£s.d.£s.d.
due on debentures passed to artificers for goods delivered for Land and Sea Service of the Ordnance; on Bills in the Office; [sums] to be allowed to artificers for stores received upon warrants not completed; for stores and freight at Plymouth and Portsmouth; for works performed at Tilbury, Sheerness, Chatham and the other forts and castles on the river Medway; and for what is due on account of the fortifications in South and North Britain and what is due to Portugal281,31400
due to the Holland Train; the Trains in Spain and at Port Mahon; the officers at Gibraltar; engineers and storekeepers at New York, Jamaica, Barbados and Lord Shannon's Expedition; fireworkers attending the bomb vessels in the Mediterranean; freight of ships attending at Lisbon, Port Mahon and other ports; salaries; and rents of storehouses41,3961110¼
322,7101110¾
They [the Principal Officers of the Ordnance] owned that there was in the hands of the Treasurer of the Ordnance at Michaelmas 1710 the following tallies:
on Low Wines28,5928
on Subsidies 170941,50000
on Subsidies 171061,46014
on Malt 171027,2061010
on Malt 171020,00000
on Malt 171020,00000
on Candles15,33214
and in Exchequer Bills10,2381
224,33010
But the [Ordnance] Officers say there ought to be deducted out of the above tallies 42,000l. for buying lands at Portsmouth and 13,944l. 14s. 0d. for carrying on the present fortifications: in all55,944140
168,38516
which being deducted the neat debt of the Office of Ordnance is£154,32415
The Committee observe that part of this debt is by estimation.
Transport Service Debt.
(This statement is to be compared with that supra, p. 15, presented to the House by the Transport Commissioners.)
The Committee have examined the estimate of the debt of the Transport Service referred to them and have heard the [Transport] Commissioners and other persons: upon which it appeared that there was due by the [Bill] Register for Transport Bills issued out and numbered to be paid in course, for freight of shipping, provision and other necessaries from 5 Jan. 1707–8 to 30 Sept. 1710 as follows:
for freight of shipping to transport Forces to Portugal and Spain402,18868
for hay, oats, bread, beer, cheese, cask, bedding, cabins, cradles, stabling and other necessaries18,00932
for freight of ships which transported Forces to Holland this year3,68909
423,886107
for interest of the above Bills at Michaelmas 171038,53530
The [Transport] Commissioners further charge for ships hired in Ireland, at London, Portsmouth and Lisbon by the month to transport Forces to Portugal and Spain whose accounts are not yet adjusted and for which no Bills have yet been numbered or issued, great part of which ships were running in pay at Michaelmas 171091,850179
554,272114
It appeared to the Committee that at Michaelmas 1710 there was in the hands of the Treasurer and Paymaster of Transports tallies as follows, viz.:
on the Land Tax 170812,4218
on the Half Subsidies 170829,68710
on the General Mortgage 170910,00000
on Malt 171017,13982
69,2487
Over and above this sum in tallies, which the Transport Commissioners delivered in to the House in their Estimate, the Committee upon examination found by an account signed by Samuel Atkinson and John Henley that there was in their hands as Commissioners for Transportation in the late war 301l. 11s. 8d. in money and 1,500l. in tallies on Coal and Culm, on which tallies the interest from 14 Jan. 1698–9 to 2 June 1710 at 7 per cent. was 1,195l. 5s. 6d.: in all2,996172
also Samuel Atkinson and Nicholas Roope owned that at Michaelmas 1700 there was in their hands in money2,93910
(on 7 Dec. last they paid 2,429l. 0s. 4¾d. thereof to Thomas Micklethwaite, the present Treasurer of the Transports and have now in their hands the remaining 510l. 10s. 5d.)
there is due from Mr. Nutin, late Treasurer of Transports, and his security2,867170
there is due from Mr. Mason, late Treasurer of Transports, and his security6,99142
there is due to the Transport Office for deductions made from the soldiers transported to Flanders by warrant from her Majesty13,22792
(which sum is almost all already stopped and in the Army Paymaster's hands: the difference between what the Paymaster's Office was to be charged with and what the Transport Office charges them with is 369l. 11s. 4d.)
at Michaelmas 1710 there was in the hands of Mr. Micklethwaite, Treasurer and Paymaster of the Transports, in money and Exchequer Bills31,2100
129,481511¼
leaving as the neat debt for the Transport service at Michaelmas 1710£424,7915
Upon examination of the Transports Commissioners the Committee cannot find that any deductions have been made from the Forces sent to Spain and Portugal. By an Estimation given in by the said Commissioners the hay, oats and water cask furnished since her Majesty's accession have cost 24,031l. 14s. 11d. If it shall be thought reasonable to make any deductions [from Army pay] on that account whatever they amount to will in so much lessen this debt. The Commissioners also produced the copy of a warrant from her Majesty to make deductions from the Forces sent to Flanders; and therefore the Committee have brought the said deductions to account.
Upon perusal of Mr. Nutin's and Mr. Mason's accounts and examining Mr. Morgan, Deputy Remembrancer, the Committee find that Mr. Nutin's security gave bond only for 2,000l., which hath not answered his [Nutin's] debt: and that Mr. Mason's security are bound for a greater sum than his debt amounts to and that they are able to pay it, but that the late Lord Treasurer [Godolphin] did by [his] warrant dated 1 Aug. 1710 stop process till the last day of Michaelmas term last.
Army and Transport Debentures.
Upon examination of Mr. Jett it appeared to the Committee that the debt, not provided for by Parliament, on Army and Transport Debentures on account of the last war was:
on Army Debentures:£s.d.£s.d.
for principal634,973311
for interest to Michaelmas 1710 over and above the provision made by Parliament25,6176
660,59010
on Debentures made out for one day's [deduction of Army] pay, for Chelsea Hospital:
for principal18,60504
for interest as above697139
19,302141
on Debentures for the [Irish] Transport service:
for principal333,578195
for interest as above5,18414
338,76313
£1,018,65617
Deficiencies.£s.d.£s.d.
Upon examination of Mr. Clayton it appeared to the Committee that there is unpaid upon the Register for an Act 9 Wm., c. 13, for laying a Duty on Coals and Culm and the Poll Act passed in the same year9,00000
and for interest thereof computed to 18 Nov. 17101,44000
and that there is unpaid upon the Register for the Act 1 Anne, St. 2, c. 4, for Continuing the Duties on Coal, Culm and Cinders1,41540
and for interest thereof computed to 15 Jan. 1710–11169170
£12,02510
The General State of the unprovided Publick Debts of the Navy and other Public Offices at Michaelmas 1710.£s.d.
the Debt of the Navy and for services performed by them on account of Land Forces, exclusive of the Register Office5,130,53955
the Debt of the Office of Ordnance154,324158
the Debt of the Transport Office424,7915
the Army [arrears] and Transport Debentures for the late [1691] war1,018,65617
on Deficient tallies, principal and interest to the time before mentioned12,02510
total£6,740,3375
The Committee endeavoured to have stated the Debt to Xmas 1710, but were informed by the Commissioners of the Navy, of Sick and Wounded and of Ordnance that they could not in any reasonable time make up that account on the head of Seamen's Wages, Sick and Wounded, or the Ordnance: but they gave the Committee the following Estimate of the increase of the Debt on the following heads between Michaelmas 1710 and 31 Dec. 1710:£s.d.
on the head of Wear and Tear, Bills numbered in Course increased between Michaelmas and Xmas, principal and interest108,67130
deduct on that head for what the Debt for Yards and Rope Yards is less at Xmas than at Michaelmas11,95100
remains, increase on this head96,72030
Bills numbered in Course for Victualling are increased in that time, principal and interest228,275125
the Transports Commissioners acquainted the Committee that the Bills made out in that time for Transport service and interest amount to41,52410
interest in that time on Army and Transport Debentures of the late war12,3399
£378,8595
Upon examination of Mr. Tilson the Committee found that her Majesty had been pleased to give of her Civil List, in aid of public services, voted or address for by Parliament in the first year of her reign100,00000
by timber delivered to the use of the Navy for the years 1705, 1706, 1707, 1708, 1709 and 171037,700175
Memorandum: Mr. Tilson values this timber at a greater price than doth Mr. Wilcox, Surveyor General of Woods.
that her Majesty hath been pleased to give more to the above [public] services since the first year of her accession to the Crown7,05213
£144,75310
Her Majesty was also pleased to contribute out of her Civil List 32,679l. 11s. 9d. to aid the Deficiency of the Fond for Annuities anno 1707: but there being a clause in an Act passed last Session of Parliament that the sums so applied in aid shall be made good again, the Committee find by that clause the above sum is given back to her Majesty, but cannot find that it was ever asked from the throne or voted in a Committee of Supply.
The Committee also found by an account delivered by Mr. Tilson that the Remains in the Exchequer at Michaelmas 1702 and what had been paid into the Exchequer between Michaelmas 1702 and Michaelmas 1710 out of Surplusage or unappropriated money amounted to 525,460l. 13s. 1¼d. of which sum 8,235l. 10s. 1½d. remained in cash at Michaelmas last, but in that account the Committee find very considerable sums paid to services neither voted nor addressed for as enacted by Parliament:
that there are several sums paid to Lord Ranelagh since he was discharged from the office of Paymaster, though there are in his hands great sums of the public money not accounted for.
There is money paid for rewards to several persons, for charity money, to pay debts of King Charles II, for repairing the Guard House at Whitehall and for several other services not voted by Parliament.
Ordered: that the said Report be referred to the consideration of the Committee of the Whole House who are to consider further of the Supply granted to her Majesty.
To this statement drawn by the House of Commons Committee on Public Debts there should be appended two other statements of account which are given in the Journals, the first statement setting out the full account of Army and Transport Debentures, the second giving the then existing Parliamentary Deficiencies pure and simple, e.g. of unrepaid loan money charged on Parliamentary funds.
Army and Transport Debentures.
Account of Public Debt not provided by Parliament in Mr. Jett's Office for payment of interest on Army and Transport Debentures. (fn. 18)
The several species of Debentures made out.The whole issued.What satisfied by the purchase of forfeited lands in Ireland.The residue is the public debt unprovided for by Parliament.
£s.d.£s.d.£s.d.
Debentures for [arrears of] pay and clothing of the Army1,127,715174492,742135634,973311
Debentures for one day's pay [deduction from the Forces] for Chelsea Hospital22,425333,8203318,60504
Debentures for the Irish Transport service made out by the late Commissioners for Transportation298,28615345,9051510252,380197
Debentures for Transport service [in the years 1693 and later] made out by the late Commissioners for the accounts of the Debts of the Army, Navy and Transport over and above the money due for that [Transport] service for which Debentures were made forth by the said late Commissioners for Transportation: viz. on such of them as had an interest upon them for nonpayment of freight within one month after discharge of the ship74,45710439,006181135,450115
on such of them made out by the said late Commissioners for Accounts, Debts of the Army &c. as were without any such interest21,0211299,6459111,37638
on Debentures made out by the said late Commissioners for Accounts of the Debts of the Army &c. for interest of the debt due for Transport service in 1693 from the time the same became due according to the charter party to the 25th March 1702 by the Act 13–14 Wm. III, c. 131,59311520,5891611,004911
on Debentures made out by the said late Commissioners for Accounts of Debts of the Army &c. for the Dutch and other foreign transport ships employed for the reduction of Ireland as by the Act 1 Anne, St. 2, c. 2423,728263617823,3661410
£1,599,228134£612,07198£987,15738
Mr. Clayton of the Exchequer presents an account of all such public debts or Parliamentary Funds as appear in the Office of the Auditor of the Receipt [to be arisen by deficiency] and are not provided for by Parliament. (fn. 19)
£s.d.
Act of 9 Wm. III, c. 13, for a Duty on Coals and Culme, and 9 Wm. III, c. 38, for a Quarterly Poll with loan clause for 500,000l. (100,000l. thereof at 7 per cent. and 400,000l. at 8 per cent.), there remains unpaid [not repaid] and unprovided for by Parliament9,00000
by an Act 1 Anne, St. 2, c. 4, for a Duty on Coals, Culme and Cinders 500,000l. was to be borrowed, 200,000l. thereof at 5 per cent. and 300,000l. at 6 per cent. On this Act there remains unpaid [not repaid] and unprovided for by Parliament1,41540
by an Act 4–5 Anne, c. 1, for the 1706 Land Tax 1,850,000l. is to be borrowed at 5 per cent. On this Act there remains unpaid [not repaid]38,9171210
by an Act [6 Anne, c. 1] for the 1707 Land Tax 1,850,000l. is to be borrowed at 5 per cent. Upon this Act there remains unpaid [not repaid]59,083126
by an Act 6 anne, c. 35. for the 1708 Land Tax 1,880,000l. is to be borrowed at 5 per cent. Upon this Act there remains unpaid [not repaid]18,7051210
by an Act 7 Anne, c. 3, for continuing the Malt Duty for the service of the year 1709; by which 650,000l. was to be borrowed by (1) transfers of unrepaid loans at 5 per cent.; (2) fresh loans at 6 per cent. Upon this Act there still remains unpaid [not repaid]230,898104
£358,020126
To these statements and accounts may be added finally the account of the distribution of the 220,000l. granted by Parliament for the third Augmentation of the Forces.
A Distribution of the 220,000l. granted for the Troops of [the Third or 1709] Augmentation taken into the service of her Majesty and the States General for the year 1709.
As likewise of the 50,000l. granted for her Majesty's proportion of the extraordinary forage and carriages provided for the Forces in Flanders in the service of her Majesty and the Allies in the winter of 1709. (fn. 20)
£s.d.£s.d.
for the pay of the said [10,000] Troops of Augmentation from the respective days of their entering into service to 31 Dec. 1709 N.S., together with their extraordinary expenses126,856100
her Majesty's share of the extraordinary charge of forage, carriages, bread and bread waggons to the end of the 1708 Campaign by reason of the length and lateness of the said Campaign49,28823
her Majesty's share of the extraordinary charge of forage and carriage thereof during the winter quarters 1708–953,882135
for the English Foot, in consideration of the length of the 1708 Campaign, towards providing camp equipage for the soldiers4,06786
107,23842
for the pay of several General [or Staff] Officers, Aides de Camp and Majors of Brigade of her Majesty's Subject Troops in Flanders for the years 1708 and 1709 according to their commissions and the posts wherein they served, for which they had no provision upon the Establishments or Estimates18,686100
for the horses lost by the English Horse and Dragoons in the Low Countries in 1707 and 17082,02000
£254,80142
Remains [to complete 270,000l.] towards answering the demands of the English Horse and Dragoons for horses lost in the battle near Mons and some other extraordinary charges and expenses incurred in the late Campaign not demanded of Parliament by reason that the accounts of the same have not been examined and proved15,1981510
out of the said Remains of 15,198l. 15s. 10d. there has been paid, since the delivering in the aforesaid Distribution, the following sums:
for buying horses for the Horse and Dragoons of her Majesty's Subject Troops in the Low Countries for horses lost upon service in the 1709 Campaign, pursuant to her Majesty's warrant4,51000
for the extraordinary expenses of 10 Battalions sent from Ostend upon the late invasion on Scotland with their General Officers, pursuant to her Majesty's warrant2,70000
£7,21000
thus leaving 7,988l. 15s. 0d. for some other extraordinary charges and expenses of the war incurred in the 1709 Campaign, hath been advanced abroad upon account of the demands of the Foreign Troops for horses lost in the 1709 Campaign to enable them to take the field; but the accounts thereof not being yet transmitted from abroad the exact state of the said demands cannot be yet laid before the House.£270,00000
A Distribution of the sum of 220,000l. granted for the Troops of Augmentation taken into the service of her Majesty and the States General, for the year 1710 so far as the same yet appears from the accounts thereof transmitted from abroad.
£s.d.£s.d.
for the Prussians: for 12 months' Subsidy ending 31 Dec. 1710 N.S.68,57639
for the Saxons: for their ordinary pay for the year ending 22 Dec. 171033,0251011¼
for eight months' pay to two additional Saxon Regiments to 22 Dec. 1710: by estimate20,190100
53,216011¼
for the Troops of Trèves: for a year's pay ended 22 Dec. 17109,44115
Memorandum: The accounts of the demands of the Prussians for agio, bread and forage and other extraordinaries, and the extraordinaries of the Saxon Troops and of the Regiment of Trèves not being yet transmitted from abroad, the same is not inserted in this Distribution: to which there is likewise to be added (when the accounts thereof are all transmitted over) the extra charge of forage in winter quarters and upon the Troops taking the field early in the Spring; as also for the exceedings of the bread and bread waggons not yet fully adjusted.
With the assistance of the above detailed Reports and Statements the House of Commons proceeded to the elaboration of the New Deficiencies Act with the purpose of funding the total body of debt, that is to say of settling a fund sufficient to pay the interest on the total body of it. The legislative history of the Bill in the Commons was so engineered as to make the debates on it a vehicle for the expression of condemnation of Whig finance and of Godolphin finance in particular. But for the moment I pass this by. The Bill for the South Sea Company, 9 Anne, c. 15, received the royal assent only a day or so before the prorogation and at the end of a Session which had been prolonged by more than three months beyond the normal length of a Parliamentary Session. In its final form the Act providing for the funding of the following series of debts and deficiencies:
£s.d.
5,130,53955for the debt of the Navy and for services performed by the Navy on account of the Land Forces up to 29 Sept. 1710 exclusive of the debt for the Register of Seamen.
154,32415for the debt of the Office of Ordnance to the same date.
424,7915for the [debt of the Office for] Transport service to the same date.
1,018,65617for the [old debt] represented by Army and Transport Debentures for the service of the last war, for principal and interest to the same date.
12,02510for principal and interest to the same date on deficient tallies and orders for money lent on the Act of 9 Wm. III, c. 13, and 1 Anne, St. 2, c. 4, for Duties on Coals, Culme and Cynders.
378,8595computed for debts incurred between 29 Sept. 1710 and 25 Dec. 1710 in the several Offices of the Navy, Victualling and Transport and for interest on the aforesaid Army and Transport Debentures during the same time.
9,37500to satisfy the money due upon the account of Subsidies to the Elector of Hanover and Duke of Zelle, pursuant to the Treaty of 14 May 1696.
7,128,5711011
85,00000for the interest from 25 Dec. 1710 to 25 Dec. 1711 on such of the said several debts as do carry interest.
7,213,5711011
1,371,42891representing the sum of 1,296,552l. 9s. 11¾d. principal money lent into the Exchequer on the Act of 8 Anne, c. 14, for continuing several Impositions &c. and the interest thereon, by reason that the funds settled by the said Act for payment of money so lent thereon do not yet take place, so that no interest has yet been paid on the money so lent, which interest to the 25th March 1711 is computed to be 74,875l. 19s. 1¼d., making together the above sum.
8,585,00000
386,32500for interest for 25 March 1711 to 25 Dec. 1711 on the said total sum of 8,585,000l. at 6 per cent.
8,971,32500for the sum total of said debts, sums of money and interest to 25 Dec. 1711.
500,00000for the service of this present year.
£9,471,32500total figure.
Therefore in order to the paying of an interest or annuity on the said total figure by quarterly payments amounting in the whole by computation to the sum of 568,279l. 10s. 0d., the Parliament does hereby grant and continue for ever the Impositions and Additional Impositions as in the Act of 8 Anne, c. 14; and the surpluses of former Acts relating thereto; and the Duties on Salt and Rock Salt as in the said Act of 8 Anne, c. 14, and the reversion of the Duties on Candles, Clerks and Apprentices as in the Act 8 Anne, c. 5.
Thus the yearly fund payable to the South Sea Company was to be 568,279l. 10s. 0d. to enable it to pay interest on capital or principal Debt of 9,471,325l.: and that fund was to be raised out of the said recited Duties. If the Duties so granted should prove deficient Parliament was to make good the Deficiency. If they should yield a surplus such surplus was to go towards paying off the principal.
This was the first big Funding operation in the strict sense of the term which had occurred in English financial history: and in itself the operation was unimpeachable from the point of view of principles of national finance. The element of gambling was only introduced when Harley superimposed a Trading Company scheme what was in essence a pure debt funding operation. There was of course plenty of authority for such an idea. Both the Bank of England and the East India Company were instances of such a composite institution. But in their case the trading purpose was the basis of the institution and was to prove the foundation of the credit of the concern, so that each could appeal successfully to the public for subscriptions on its own merits. But in the case of the South Sea Company the trading basis of the institution was practically non-existent. As a trading flotation the affair was a pure gamble, and faithfully reflected Harley's gambling mentality. The second objectionable feature about the scheme was the raising of 500,000l. out of it for the current service Supply of the year 1711. This was to prove a precursor to the expansion of the Company's capital in the following year and might conceivably have led to the device becoming permanent feature of the mechanism of Supply. It is fortunate for the financial probity of England that such a development was not fostered, otherwise we might have seen Supply raised by a fictitious flotation of such and such an amount intended to be instantly added on to the funded debt, instead of the true system of raising Supply by taxation. The third objection to the scheme was that the list of public debt intended to be funded was incomplete. It did not include the Civil List debt which was pressing as grievously upon the Civil Service and upon the domestic administration of the country as the Navy debt was pressing upon the Naval Service. The course of Harley's administration of the Treasury proved that this omission was deliberate and intentional.
In Harley's first year of office the question of the revision of the Equivalent payable to Scotland under the Treaty of Union was already beginning to cast its shadow before. More than half of the provisional or interim seven-year period had elapsed during which the Commissioners of the Equivalent were to calculate the effect of any change in the trend of the Customs and Excise in Scotland as compared with the purely English parallel figures. The calculation in order to be understandable involves an explanation of the financial basis on which the Union with Scotland had been agreed.

Footnotes

1 Commons Journals XVI, p. 402, 27 Nov. 1710.
2 Ibid., 27 Nov. 1710.
3 Commons Journals XVI, pp. 405–6, 30 Nov. 1710.
4 Commons Journals XVI, pp. 407, 411, Dec. 1–2.
5 Commons Journals XVI, p. 447, 4 Jan. 1710–11.
6
NOTE.—The following Estimate (Treasury Board Papers, Vol. CXXXI, 3), is manifestly only a preliminary or skeleton draft. It is of interest mainly because of the name of the Regiments of the Imperial and Italian Allied Troops engaged in the Spanish operations.
An Estimate of the charge of the war in Spain anno 1711.
[British Troops.]
Officers and Soldiers.£s.d.£s.d.
Horse, Harvey's Regiment (418 men)18,295126
Royal Dragoons (589 men)15,86876
Pepper's Dragoons (589 men)15,86876
Nassau's Dragoons (589 men)15,86876
Lord Rochford's Dragoons (589 men)15,86876
[Foot] Guards (737 men)11,08071
Harrison's [Regiment of Foot] (845 men)11,086176
Fuziliers ditto (845 men)11,086176
Whitham's ditto (845 men)11,086176
Wade's ditto (845 men)11,086176
Dormer's ditto (845 men)11,086176
Bowles's ditto (845 men)11,086176
Munden's ditto (845 men)11,086176
Du Bourgay's ditto (845 men)11,086176
Le Pell's [Lepel's] ditto (845 men)11,086176
Inchiquin's ditto (845 men)11,086176
Gore's ditto (845 men)11,086176
Dalzell's ditto (845 men)11,086176
total British Troops, 13,651 men225,801197
Imperialists, Italians and Grizons.
Staremberg's Foot (2,180 men)30,45013
Raventlau's ditto (2,180 men)30,45013
Osnaburgh's ditto (2,180 men)30,45013
Schwind's ditto (2,180 men)30,45013
Faber's ditto (1,200 men)18,8395
Taaff's ditto (1,200 men)18,8395
Grizon's ditto (780 men)17,02400
Herbevil's (Herberville's) Dragoons (1,000 men),
a Troop of Hussars (120 men)2,83058
Germans come from Italy (3,000 men)45,00000
total Imperials, Italians and Grizons 16,020 men250,787141
Portuguese.
General [Officers] and Staff3,34916
one Regiment of Horse (509 men)16,653167
four more ditto (2,036 men)66,61564
one Regiment of Foot (667 men)8,240186
another ditto (667 men)8,240186
total, 3,879 men103,10016
the pay of the Palatine Troops will by computation amount to10,00000
the King of Spain's account150,00000
the extraordinaries of the war150,00000
Contingencies upon account5,00000
Contingencies of the Hospital, already issued to the end of October 17107,51400
the pay of the General and Staff Officers16,704168
the Forage and Waggon money18,52800
the Garrison of the Castle of St. Philips, Port Mahon1,645010
the subsistence of the Officers en second, 300l. per muster1,80000
940,97277
There is humbly proposed for this year an augmentation of 2,000 Horse, which will amount to52,90464
as likewise an augmentation of 480 Hussars which are very necessary and useful in this country: amounting to9,32128
62,22590
£1,003,197167
which said additional expense of 62,225l. 9s. 5d. is humbly submitted to her Majesty and in case it be agreed by her Majesty and her Allies to send the said reinforcement what share of the said expense is to be borne by her Majesty [is to be decided].
7 Treasury Board Papers, Vol. CXXXI, No. 1E.
8 Commons Journals XVI, p. 429, 11 Dec. 1710.
9 Treasury Board Papers, Vol. CXXXI, No. 2.
10 Commons Journals XVI, p. 428, 8 Dec. 1710.
11 Commons Journals XVI, p. 483, 7 Feb. 1710–11.
12 Ibid., pp. 527–8, 28 Feb. 1710–11.
13 Treasury Board Papers, Vol. CXXXI, No. 1B.
14 Treasury Board Papers, Vol. CXXXI, No. 19.
15 Commons Journals XVI, p. 446.
16 Ibid., p. 451.
17 Commons Journals XVI, pp. 488–493, 12 Feb. 1710–11.
18 Commons Journals XVI, p. 435, 15 Dec. 1710. For the text of the Officers' petition, see ibid., p. 449, 8 Jan. 1710–11.
19 Commons Journals XVI, p. 434, 14 Dec. 1710.
20 Ibid., p. 437, 19 Dec. 1710