Spain
January 1526, 1-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Pascual de Gayangos (editor)

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1873

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551-561

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'Spain: January 1526, 1-31', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1: 1525-1526 (1873), pp. 551-561. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=87485 Date accessed: 29 August 2014.


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January 1526, 1-31

1526.
6 Jan.
316. Antoniotto Adorno, Doge of Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 2.
Has written to his ambassador at Court, ordering him to show the letter to His Imperial Majesty and read it over in his presence. Has not written direct to the Emperor, owing to his having to use on this occasion his own private cipher, in preference to that in which he generally communicates with the Imperial court. This he has done as a precaution, and from fear of his enemies. Begs His Imperial Majesty to take into consideration the contents of his letter [to the ambassador], as they are very important to his own honour and reputation, and will acquaint the Emperor with the true state of affairs.—Genoa, 6th January 1526.
Signed: "Antoniotto Adorno."
Addressed: "To the Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Genoa, From the Doge, 6th January."
Italian. Original. p. 1.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 2.
317. Chancellor Gattinara to the Doge of Genoa (Antoniotto Adorno).
That His Majesty has duly received his letter, seen and understood everything he (the Doge) wrote to his ambassador [in Spain], Thanks him for the news, and also for his good offices to the Imperial cause. Must not imagine the Emperor has listened, or could ever listen, to any misrepresentations about his fidelity or that of the city of Genoa, since he has had plenty of opportunities to judge of his good intentions by his deeds, which he appreciates at their full value, and will be able to reward on his next visit to Italy, which he hopes will be soon, as the fleet which is to take him is getting ready.
Spanish. Original minute in Gattinara's own hand, written under the Doge's letter. No date. p. 1.
8 Jan.318. Chevalier Billia's Affidavit respecting Pedro Garcia, the Emperor's Secretary.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 4.
I, the undersigned, Cavalier Billia, ambassador of the Duke of Milan near the person of the Emperor, do hereby declare that at the time I came to this city [Toledo] I brought with me a warrant from my master, the Duke, assigning and ordering to be paid to Pedro Garcia, Secretary and Councillor (fn. 1) of His Imperial Majesty, out of the moneys of the Ducal treasury, 200 gold cr. yearly until his great and many services in the recovery and defence of the estate of Milan should be rewarded in a more suitable manner. That having delivered the Ducal warrant into the hands of the said Secretary, he (Garcia) refused to accept it, saying that what His Imperial Majesty had requested the Duke of Milan to do was to bestow on him (Garcia), out of the property confiscated to the rebels, a fitting sum for once, not an annual pension, as that he would never accept from any Prince except the Emperor, his natural Lord. And although the undersigned did everything in his power to make him (the Secretary) accept the said pension, promising that the Duke, his master, would attend besides to the Emperor's recommendation, he persisted in his refusal, and I was, in consequence, obliged to send back the said warrant.—Signed by me at Toledo on the 8th of January 1526. "Io Cavalero Bilia."
Italian. Original. p. 1.
8 Jan.319. Camillo Giuilino's Affidavit respecting one of the Emperor's Secretaries.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 5.
I, the undersigned, Camillo Giulino, Secretary to his Excellency the Duke of Milan (Francesco Sforza), do hereby declare that at the time Cavalier Billia came to this Imperial court [Toledo] as ambassador from the said Duke, he delivered into the hands of Secretary Pedro Garcia a schedule or warrant granting him 200 cr. annual pension, &c. That the said Secretary would not accept it, and that in consequence thereof, on my return to Milan, I (Giulino) took back with me the said warrant. Having again visited Toledo for certain affairs of the Duke, my master, I was ordered to take a letter from the Duke to Garcia, wherein he promised, instead of the 200 cr. pension which the Secretary would not accept, 4,000 gold ducats on the first vacant offices.—Toledo, 8 Jan. 1526.
Signed: "Camillo Gilino (sic)."
Italian. Original. p. 1.
14 Jan.320. Summary of the Treaty of Madrid.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 224. No. 3.
The French King gives up Naples, Milan and Genoa, as well as Tournay and Arras. Allows the resort (ressort) and sovereignty of Flanders, Artois and other countries of the Emperor within France. Will restore the whole of the duchy of Burgundy, as held by the late Duke Charles, the country of Charolois and Hesdin. Will reinstate M. de Bourbon in all his property and pay him the revenues thereof during his absence. Will set at liberty, without any ransom, the Prince of Orange. All prisoners on both sides to be equally set free. All confiscations to be revoked, and everyone to return to the enjoyment of his property, except in Italy, where judicial proceedings will be instituted. The King of France to withdraw from the Duke of Wurtemberg, and deprive Robert de la Marche of his commission. The Duke of Gueldres will be allowed to remain Duke during his lifetime on condition that after his death the Duchy shall be put into the Emperor's hands, or else that the French King will help to the conquest of the same. Should the former plan be adopted, and were the Duke to leave legitimate succession, the Emperor to provide elsewhere a suitable pension for them. The King of France to lend the Emperor his navy, and furnish him with 600 men-at-arms and 6,000 foot, with half a year's pay, for his intended journey to Italy or elsewhere. The marriage between the King and Madame Eleonora, Dowager Queen of Portugal, who, in consideration of her renouncing the crown [of Portugal] and any other inheritance, is to have 200,000 cr. of gold, besides the counties of Masconnoys (Macon), Auxerroys (Auxerre), and Bar sur Seine, which are to be hers and for the heirs of her body. Should the King be unable to restore Burgundy [to the Emperor] or carry out other parts of the treaty, he pledges his word again to return to captivity, leaving as hostages the Dauphin of France (Henry, Duke of Orleans) and his second son [Charles, Count of Angouleme], or else the Dauphin and 12 more of the Princes of the blood and great nobility of France.
French. Contemporary copy. pp. 2.
15 Jan.321. The Emperor to Margaret of Austria.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 224. No. 5.
Has received her last letter by the Portuguese courier. Since then his ministers have so far succeeded with the French King that on the 13th instant peace was concluded, and on the same day the King took his oath to observe the treaty and signed it. Encloses a summary of the articles. (fn. 2) As it is agreed that the treaty is to be proclaimed on the 15th of February next by both parties, he, the Emperor, sends the bearer to order the solemn proclamation of the same [in Flanders], as likewise the release of the Sieur de Fleurenges and all such prisoners without ransom.
Madame Margaret is to convoke the Estates General for the 22d day of May next, not for the purpose of asking for aid [in money], but merely to inform them of what has been achieved for their safety and quietness by means of this peace just concluded between the French King and himself.—Toledo, 15 Jan. 1526.
Addressed: "A Madame Marguerite, notre Tante, &c."
French. Original. p. 1½.
19 Jan.322. News from Toledo.
M. N. L. Madrid.During the Emperor's residence at Toledo the treaty between him and the King of France, dated 14 Jan. 1526, was concluded, as likewise the marriage of the King [of France] to Madame Eleonor, Queen Dowager of Portugal, the Emperor's sister. The witnesses on both sides were: Charles de Lannoy, Viceroy of Naples; Don Ugo de Moncada, Knight of Rhodes, and Grand Prior [of Messina]; Messire Nicolas Perrenot, Sieur de Granvelle, Maistre des Requêtes; and Messire Jehan Lallemand, Secretary of State and Sieur de Bouclains. On the King's part: The Archbishop of Ambrun (François de Tournon); Messire Anne de Montmorency, Sieur de Chantilly; the Seigneur de Brion (Philippe de Chabot); Messire Jean de Selve, first President of Paris; and the Esleu Bayard, (fn. 3) with commission of the Regent (Louise de Savoie) and Estates General of the kingdom of France. About the same time the Duke of Bourbon came to Toledo; also Queen Germaine of Foix, who had recently lost her husband, the Marquis de Brandembourg. (fn. 4) And afterwards the said Queen Dowager, who was then at Talavera, was betrothed, as above stated, to the King of France; she then returned to Toledo and ceased wearing mourning. The Emperor and the Duke of Bourbon went out [of Toledo] to receive her.
Spanish. Contemporary copy. pp. 2.
20 Jan.323. Julio Colonna to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 6.
Came some time ago to Sienna with a view to maintain the city in obedience to the Emperor and defend the same from the outlaws (forausciti) and others who wished to attack it. Knows the importance of a city situated like this (Sienna) is in the very centre of Italy, in a territory abounding with all articles of food, well provided by nature with ports of refuge and other defences requisite in warfare, and, above all, more strongly attached to the Imperial service than any other Italian city. Begs the Emperor to take the said city under his protection and defend it against the forausciti and others who are close upon the frontier watching an opportunity for attack. The citizens will at any time risk their lives and fortunes, as well as their children and families, for the Emperor's service.
At present, moved by his own unalterable fidelity and his constant love of the Imperial service, he (Colonna) begs leave to call the Emperor's attention to two most important points. The Venetians, perceiving that the estate of Milan is almost ruined, that provisions are completely exhausted, and that the two castles (Milan and Cremona) still resist the Emperor's authority; believing that the common people, generally fond of novelty, may feel inclined to make some fresh disturbance whereby they themselves may profit, have lately been trying to enlist and take into their pay the best soldiers that could be procured throughout Italy, for in their own native men they place no confidence whatever. In this manner they have collected nearly 12,000 foot, and appointed to the command of this infantry Signor Federico di Bozolo. (fn. 5) Of men-at-arms they have already between 800 and 900, and the report is that the Switzers have also engaged to serve under the Pope and the Venetians, and are about to come down in great numbers. It is but prudent, therefore, to take such military measures as must ensure success in case of war. Although the Imperial army [in Italy] is commanded by most able captains—and, indeed, such is the experience and training of the men themselves that they might all be looked upon as captains—yet if His Imperial Majesty would appoint a general-in-chief over them, it would in his (Colonna's) opinion, have a most beneficial effect. Considers it highly necessary also that the kingdom of Naples should not be without a viceroy, for the experience of the past shows how dangerous an experiment that is. When, just before the battle of Pavia, the Duke of Albany attempted the invasion of Naples, that kingdom was so weak from the absence of its Viceroy [Charles de Lannoy] and from other causes, that had the Duke pushed his enterprise further, the most serious consequences were to be apprehended. Even now at the present moment, when the whole of Italy is waking up; when the Venetians are making preparations for war; when the Florentines, their allies and confederates, have upwards of 700 lances in their service, the kingdom of Naples is in danger unless a viceroy is appointed.—Sienna, 20 Jan. 1526.
Signed: "Julio Colonna."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To His Majesty. 1526. Julio Colonna, 20 Jan. Answered."
Italian. Original. pp. 2½.
22 Jan.324. Lope Hurtado to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 8.
(Cipher:) Has frequently and by various messengers apprized His Imperial Majesty of the wants of the army. Does it now more earnestly than ever. Things have come to such a pass that unless the remedy come soon the Imperial army is irretrievably lost. Credit there is none, neither here [at Milan] nor at Venice, not even at Genoa, owing to the last bills of exchange having been protested at Naples. The Marquis and Antonio de Leyva, finding they had no money to pay the Spaniards, have sent them away to be quartered in the best districts of this Estate; that is to say, in that part of the Duchy which has not yet been completely destroyed. There are now only Germans in front of this castle [of Milan], the two above-mentioned captains having preferred to weaken and diminish the Imperial forces on the outposts and trenches to remaining in continual danger of a mutiny, as would have been the case had the Spaniards remained at Milan. The soldiers in general have nothing to eat; neither have the country people anything to give them; and no wonder, for it is a long time since 15,000 horse and 20,000 foot have been living upon them. Beseeches the Emperor to remedy the present evil, or decide at once for war, for it is far preferable to wage it upon the enemy than thus destroy and waste, in time of peace, what may be called our own.—Milan, 22 Jan. 1526.
Signed: "Lope Hurtado."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty of the Emperor, our Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Milan. Lope Hurtado 22d Jan."
Spanish. Original wholly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, p. 1½.
22 Jan.325. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist.
d. Esp. No. 53.
Wrote at length on the 23d of December, owing to which and to the circumstance of this going by a land route and almost on a chance, he (the Abbot) will be short.
On the 12th the Pope concluded with the Duke of Sessa the peace or truce according to the draft sent by. the last courier. The Nuncio, Micer Bernardino de la Barba, who resides in this city, having persistently asked for permission to enter the castle in order to notify to the Duke Francesco the articles concerning that fortress and that of Cremona, the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva allowed him to speak in their presence to one of the Duke's gentlemen sent to the trenches for that purpose, to whom the articles were notified in due form, and a copy given of the same. Since which the said Duke has, for two consecutive days, pressed hard for permission to converse with the Pope's Nuncio and have the articles explained to him, as he says he cannot understand their meaning, his name not being mentioned in them. Perceiving, however, that the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva were unwilling to grant his request, he asked to be allowed to write to the Pope, which he has since done, though the letters are still in our hands, the Imperial generals and ministers not having considered it prudent to forward them to their address. One thing, however, appears quite clear, namely, that the Duke [Francesco Sforza] tacitly disapproves of the convention proposed by the Pope, as far as he is concerned. As to the Venetians, it is not yet known whether they will accept it or not.
Has written to Naples describing the great need of this Imperial army, and begging the Collateral Council of that kingdom to make some provision in money, or at least to pay a portion of the 68,000 ducats, principal and interest, borrowed here, as well as at Venice and Genoa, on the personal security of the late Marquis de Pescara, the Marquis del Guasto, Antonio de Leyva, and himself (the Abbot). After a month's time their answer has been that they have no funds at their disposal, and even if they had they could not take any engagement without the express orders of the Emperor or of their Viceroy, Charles de Lannoy. The Genoese bankers have also been applied to, to advance money on the new bills of exchange of 60,000 ducats, but this sum being destined to the payment of former debts, they have refused, and it is with great difficulty that they have been persuaded to advance 10,000 ducats, which are now being distributed to the German infantry in this city.
(Cipher:) It is evident that our credit is entirely lost here and in Genoa, as well as in Venice, where the 6,000 ducats borrowed by Alonso Sanchez on the 15th of November last still remain unpaid. So that there is no possibility of disguising matters; nobody will lend us a farthing of money, and the next inevitable blow will be to lose all hold on the obedience and affections of the soldiers. To avoid this, orders have been issued for the seven companies of Spanish infantry to quit Milan, where they were literally starving, and distribute them over certain districts 20 miles from the capital, where they may keep flesh and bone together. The two bands of German infantry, mustering about 5,000 in all, will remain in front of the castle. The last month's pay has just been issued to them; but on the 25th inst. another one will be due, and no funds are left for it unless His Majesty sends money from Naples or Spain. Nor can any reliance be placed on the ordinary revenues of this Estate, the country being so exhausted and destroyed by the army quartered on it that it would be folly to expect any relief from that quarter. As it is, from the moment the Duke shut himself up in the castle until the present day, nearly 40,000 gold cr. have been raised upon the people. He (the Abbot feels confident, however, that if the news of the peace is confirmed, and the people persuaded that their Duke is not to be dispossessed and the Estate seized by the Emperor or given to another, 15,000 or 20,000 ducats more could be raised on the gabels and taxes (dacio de la mercantia), for which, owing to the above reason, there was no bidder the other day.
(Common writing:) Will send by sea the duplicate account of the sums collected from this Estate, as well as of the monthly revenue. The city has not yet taken the requisite oath of allegiance, owing chiefly to some of the parishes having directed their delegates to ask for certain conditions that were inadmissible. New powers are now being drawn out authorising their delegates to swear unconditionally, but they have resolved to send two ambassadors to Spain, one a doctor and another a gentleman of this city, to beg of His Imperial Majesty the confirmation of certain privileges of their own and the grant of new ones. Such, however, is the insecurity of the roads at present, that it is not likely the ambassadors will leave for some time; if they should, he (the Abbot) will not fail to give his own opinion and that of the generals respecting the said articles, point out which are to be granted, and which to be rejected.
Antonio de Leyva went, 12 days ago, to visit the camps at Cremona, Lodi and Gera di Adda (Ghiara d'Adda). Everything, he says, is in good order there. The men are cutting trenches and fortifying themselves against any sally of the enemy. On his return he was slightly seized with ague, but is better now. Parma and Piacenza are being fortified, by order of the Pope. The Venetians, on the other hand, keep a vigilant look-out on their frontiers, owing to the rumours afloat that no real peace has been made between His Imperial Majesty and the French King, and that the Duke Maximiliano [Sforza] is coming down with the outlaws (fuorusciti) and 10,000 Switzers besides. These last are reported to have held a diet on the 13th inst., at which a safe-conduct and permission to attend the next diet were applied for in behalf of the said Maximiliano. This, however, the Switzers have refused to grant unless he first pays certain sums owing to them from the time he was Duke of Milan.
All these rumours are only new devices to prevent the Emperor from coming to terms with the French King and setting him at liberty; for, after all, there is nothing the Venetians fear so much as the event of His Imperial Majesty coming to an agreement with that monarch, this being the only reason of their military preparations on the frontiers, as well as of their secret dealings both with Switzers and Grisons.
Everyone here wonders how it is that no letters have been received ever since the arrival, a month ago, of Hernando Çis, the steward of Don Hugo de Moncada. May it please His Imperial Majesty to let the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva know, as soon as possible, how they are to act and what they are to do with this army, (cipher) for they have no instruction or commission except that which the last Marquis de Pescara left them before his death.
(Common writing:) The Lord of Monaco has lately applied for the 2,000 ducats pension which the Emperor was pleased to grant him some time ago, as likewise for a number of auxiliary troops to protect him against the attacks of Andrea Doria, his capital enemy. And, considering that the said Lord of Monaco is a faithful vassal of the Empire and has upon every occasion done his best, having thereby lost all his spiritual and most of his temporal possessions, the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva have both been of opinion that his request should be granted, and bills to the amount of 2,000 ducats drawn on Genoa to his order.—Milan, 22 Jan. 1526.
Signed: "El Abad de Najera."
Post scriptum.—Letters came this morning from the Archduke (Ferdinand), inquiring about the number and quality of the ordnance here, how many pieces there are, in what condition, the amount of ammunition, &c. (Cipher:) He also writes to ask which would be the best road to take in the event of his bringing his army into Italy, adding that he is quite ready to cross the Alps and come down in person, or send his forces wherever they may be most required. The Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva have answered him as will be seen by the enclosed copies. (fn. 6) —Data ut supra.
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Milan. The Abbot of Najera, 22 Jan."
Spanish. Holograph partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 4.
25 Jan.326. The Emperor to the King of France.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 224.
Has heard by his letters, and by those of the Viceroy of Naples, and Don Hugo [de Moncada], as well as by a verbal report of Jean Lallemand, his secretary, of the conclusion of the peace. Has the greatest satisfaction in responding to his wish for a meeting, and would have visited him at once had he not been prevented by press of business closely connected with the said treaty of peace. Sends Count d'Egmont to pay him a visit until he can do it in his own person. Has applied [to Rome] for the required dispensation, which he has no doubt will be ready in the course of to-morrow.—Toledo? 25 Jan. 1526.
French. Original draft. p. 1½.
25 Jan.327. The Emperor to Louis Praet, his Ambassador in France.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 224.
Has received his three letters, to which he has made no reply, as he was waiting to know the result of the pending negotiations for peace. Thanks to God this has been concluded and sworn to. He (Praet) is to present the Emperor's letters to the Queen Regent, and offer his congratulations on that happy event. As the Emperor is very anxious to see the Prince of Orange (Philibert de Chalon), Guilford, the Englishman, (fn. 7) Captain Sucre, (fn. 8) Don Garcia de Toledo, (fn. 9) and other gentlemen of his household, still prisoners in France, and who are to be released according to an article (fn. 10) of the Treaty of Madrid, he (Praet) is to request Madame the Regent to set them free and send them off at once before the prescribed term of one month.
He is likewise to solicit the release of the Bishop of Othun (Autun) and of the Sieur de St. Valier, who are equally entitled to obtain their liberty according to another article (fn. 11) of the said Treaty, of which Dormans, the bearer, takes a copy.
Will soon despatch Phippot, his (Praet's) attendant, with instructions. Is desired to accompany the Queen Regent in her journey to Bayonne or wherever else it may be her pleasure to go, and advise all news.—Toledo, 25th of January 1526.
French. Original draft. pp.
26 Jan.328. The Emperor to Pope Clement VII.
S. E. L. 1554,
f. 510.
God gave him a great victory on the banks of the Ticino. It was in his power to invade France and repossess himself of all that which by right belongs to him. France was at the time without a King, without generals, and without soldiers.
He (the Pope), Vicar of Christ on the Earth, asked him to postpone his own personal interests and pacify Christendom, which he has done, following his exhortations. In consequence thereof a peace and close alliance has been concluded between him (the Emperor) and the King of France, in which a place has been reserved for him (the Pope) as one of the principal contracting parties.
The Duke of Sessa has been instructed to communicate to him the articles of the treaty.
His sister Eleonor is to marry the King of France. Hopes that he (the Emperor) has thereby ensured the peace of Christendom. (fn. 12) —Datum Toleti, die xxvi. of January 1526.
Addressed: "To His Holiness the Pope, at Rome."
Latin. Original draft by Valdes, corrected, in Gattinara's hand.

Footnotes

1 "Secretario y del Consejo de la dicha Cesarea Majestad;" but his real post was Secretary to the Council of Estate, or foreign Affairs, for the Crown of Aragon.
2 See the preceding paper, No. 320.
3 According to the Itinerary of Charles V., published by Bradford (p. 489), the Emperor resided at Toledo from the 22d of October to the 11th of February of the following year. He left that city on the 14th to go to Madrid, on a visit to the King of France.
4 Not so very recently, since he died early in July of the preceding year. Germaine was the widow of Ferdinand the Catholic, and was appointed by Charles to the viceroyalty of Valencia.
5 Evidently the same Captain called elsewhere "Bozano."
6 Not in the volume.
7 In 1511 King Ferdinand of Spain conferred the honour of knighthood on Henry Guildford, an Englishman, for his services in the African war. Most likely he remained in the Spanish service, and was made a prisoner either in Italy or in Bourbon's retreat from Marseilles. Another Englishman, named Wistan? was knighted on the same day (15th of Sept.) at Burgos. See Bergenroth, Calendar of Letters, &c., vol. II., p. 54.
8 The same Captain called elsewhere Sucaro, Cuçaro, and Chucharo by Sandoval.
9 Probably the fourth Marquis of Villafranca, whose sister, Doña Leonor de Toledo, married the Duke of Tuscany. The Marquis himself took for wife Vittoria Colonna, daughter of Ascanio.
10 The 23d. See Sandoval, Historia del Emperador Carlos V., lib. XIV.
11 The 22d. See ibid.
12 Similar letters were addressed to the College of Cardinals at Rome, to the Cardinals separately, to the Italian Princes, to the Kings of Hungary, Poland, Portugal, Duke and Prince of Muscovy, &c.