Spain
June 1527, 16-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Pascual de Gayangos (editor)

Year published

1877

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245-261

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'Spain: June 1527, 16-30', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2: 1527-1529 (1877), pp. 245-261. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=87536 Date accessed: 15 September 2014.


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June 1527, 16-30

17 June88. The Emperor to Secretary Perez.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Muñoz 56, f. 315.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 252.
Your letters of the 20th of May, 7,16, 29, and 30th of April have been duly received.
The message you sent to Don Ugo urging him to succour Sicily, threatened by the brother of the Duke of Lorraine (Vaudemont), was very opportune, and we thank you for it.
Bulls of Zamora and Oviedo. Is to prevent as much as possible their being expedited by way of supplication, as the Pope and the cardinals wish them to be, but only by presentation and nomination, as has been hitherto the custom of Spain.—Valladolid, 17th June 1527.
Spanish. Original draft, pp. 1½.
17 June.89. The Same to the Abbot of Najera.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Muñoz 56, f. 316.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 253.
Hears that Antonio de Leyva has borrowed on his own word and responsibility certain sums towards the keeping of the troops under his orders, and that the creditors press him for payment. He is to ascertain what amount of money that captain has borrowed, that he (the Emperor) may pay the debts contracted.—Valladolid, 17th June 1527.
Addressed: "To the Abbot of Najera."
Indorsed: "From the King. 1527."
Spanish. Original draft, .. 1.
17 June.90. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Muñoz 36, f. 317.
B. M. Add. 28,576.
f. 254.
His letters of the 18th February, 3rd and 28th March, and 13th of April have been duly received. The Emperor was awaiting them with impatience and anxiety, not having heard from his army for a long time. No answer to them is needed, except to request him to forward news as soon and as frequently as possible.—Valladolid, 17th June 1527.
Addressed: "To the Abbot of Najera. From the King. 1527."
Spanish. Original draft, .. 1.
17 June.91. Don Martin de Salinas.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
C. 71, f. 174, v..
Plus ultra, the King's herald (eraute) arrived on the 8th inst., and brought letters from Prague of the 15th. March, in answer to those taken by Don Antonio de Mendoça. Those of the 15th of February have also come to hand; not so those of the 12th.
Delivered to the members of the Privy Council (Consejo Secreto) the letters and messages that came for them. The councillors are, the Count of Nasaot (Nassau), the Bishop of Osma (Loaysa), Don Juan Manuel, Laxao (La Chaulx), Mona. de Prat (Praet), and Secretary Juan Aleman (Lallemand). These, one and all, show the best disposition for His Highness' service, principally the Secretary (Lallemand), who is the pivot on which the whole affair turns, but it would be advisable to keep them all in good heart by occasional grants of favour, holograph letters of thanks, and so forth. Though the Secretary is a very worthy and deserving man, and very disinterested, yet he should be encouraged in his work. He (Salinas) has pointed out in his despatch [of the 22nd of May] that went by Longoval the way to reward that functionary for his services. May the answer come as soon as possible, and bring facts, not words.
The Emperor was glad to hear of His Highness' coronation as King of Bohemia. He and the Empress inquired after the health of the Queen and the Princess Isabella.
News has come from Genoa, announcing that Mons. de Bourbon had taken Rome on the 7th of May, and besieged the Pope in the castle of Sant Angelo. It is reported that the Imperial army, after much fighting and considerable slaughter, penetrated into the city, and that Bourbon himself was among the dead. Of this last intelligence no official confirmation has reached us yet, but all letters from Italy and France report his death as certain. If so, it will be a great loss under present circumstances. At any rate His Highness had better write a letter to his brother the Emperor, reminding him of the offer he once made him of the Duchy of Milan.— Valladolid, 17th June 1527.
Addressed: "To the King."
Spanish. Original draft pp. 2.
20 June.92. Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 40,
f. 486.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 255.
Has received an answer to several of his letters written in April, and as late as the 22nd of May. In the meantime the Emperor must have been informed through Captain Rivadeneyra, not only of the truce made with the Pope (le cose de la tregua) and its consequences, but also of the taking of Rome and the death of Bourbon. Has nothing new to report except that all the Imperialists in Italy are anxiously expecting the Emperor's commands. The sooner these come the better, for after such success as the Imperial arms have lately had, and after the Pope's capitulation, no time should be lost in having these Italian matters advantageously settled. Money is wanting for the support of these troops under the command of Leyva, if he is to defend the Duchy against the French and the rest of the confederates. As the bills of exchange lately remitted to [Soria] in Genoa came too late for Bourbon to make use of them, they ought to be cashed, and a portion at least of the sum destined to this Milanese army.
Needs not describe the state of insubordination and wants of the soldiers. As long as they remain unpaid no reliance can be placed on their services. If Leyva attempts taking them out of Milan for any military expedition he may have planned, they are sure to disobey him and refuse to move. The rumour is that the Venetians are arming, and that the French are to send considerable forces here under Mons. de Lautrech, to which a good number of Swiss infantry is to be added. This last intelligence may be considered almost certain, for no later than last week a gentleman of the name of Morletto (Morelte?) and other agents of France went to the Cantons with money for the purpose of making levies. Should the storm that is gathering over our heads, and will certainly be discharged on the Duchy, take us unawares, with an exhausted treasury, and an army weakened by famine and distress of all sorts, the harm done may be incalculable. —Milan, 20th June 1527.
Signed: "El Protonotario Caracciolo."
Addressed: "Sacre. Cathce. et Cese. Mti."
Italian. Original, pp. 4.
23 June.93. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 40,
f. .
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 227.
Wrote in his last of the 11th (fn. 1) that the Viceroy had gone to Civittà Lavina, whence he proceeded to Gaeta to attend to the affairs of Naples. Whilst there Don Ugo, Alarcon, and other Spanish captains sent him a message by Knight Commander Figueroa, requesting him to return to Rome and take the command of the Imperial forces. The Spanish infantry, whose mutiny had heen the principal cause of the Viceroy's hasty departure, sent also two of their captains, Alonso de Gayoso and Rodrigo de Ripalda, besides a gentleman (gentil hombre) from each company to beg he would pardon them, and not allow a few mutineers, whose names they did not know, as the riot took place at night, to put the whole army in jeopardy.
The Viceroy's answer was that he would not hesitate under such circumstances to return to Rome and assume the command of the Imperial army, but that he must needs go to Naples first, to procure the 50,000 ducats which the Pope had promised to the Spanish infantry, and also funds with which to pay the men-at-arms, (cipher) who at this moment are at Velitri, on the road to Naples, with the firm purpose as they say, of retiring to that kingdom unless they are paid within a week. This object being accomplished, the Viceroy will return [to Rome], as he himself writes both to Don Ugo and Alarcon. May it be so, for unless the men-at-arms are paid forthwith, and prevented from carrying out their threats the Spaniards and the Italians are sure to follow them, and this Imperial army will inevitably fall to pieces.
The plague is -so bad at Rome that the number of deaths per day is seldom under 200. To avoid it, the Prince of Orange with his Germans, Don Ugo, Alarcon, and Juan de Urbina, with the Spaniards lately come from Lombardy, have decided to pitch their tents without the city, and would already have done so, had not the Germans and Spaniards refused to stir unless they are first paid their due. Of the money consigned to the Germans, 80,000 ducats have already been received, and the Pope is making every effort to pay the remaining 20,000 in silver coined for the purpose (en contante y argento que se batte). For the payment of the 50,000 owing to the Spaniards, the Pope has sent the Archbishop [of Capua?] to Naples to induce the Viceroy and the barons and prelates of that kingdom to get that sum from the bankers on his (the Pope's) security, as well as the 20,000 still owing to the Germans. Similar requests have been made by His Holiness in other quarters, but he (the Abbot) imagines that unless the money is sent from Naples all other applications will prove unsuccessful, and the remedy perhaps come too late, obliging us to stay here longer than necessary, to the great risk of our own lives. Indeed, had it not been for the Pope's sake, and to prevent any disorderly acts on the part of the Germans and Spaniards, Don Ugo and Alarcon would already have left Rome, and the Prince and all of us would have done the same. The Spaniards who lately came from Naples, the whole of the Italian infantry, and the light horse have already left the city, and are encamped on the right hand of the road leading to Viterbo. In short, no time is being lost, either by the Pope or the Viceroy, in procuring the entire payment of the Germans, Spaniards, and men-at arms, to enable them to quit Rome and march to the assistance of Antonio de Ley va, (cipher) who writes from Milan, in date of the 10th inst., that 15,000 Swiss are expected to cross the frontier in about a week, and join the Venetians in an attack upon that city.
(Common writing:) Again entreats the Emperor to appoint a commander-in-chief, in case of the Duke of Ferrara refusing. Meanwhile Don Ugo is of opinion, and so are the rest, that the Viceroy ought to place himself at the head of the men and march as far as Florence, or wherever the Duke [of Ferrara] may be at present. Alarcon, Juan de Urbina, and the other captains are sure to follow him with their men, whereas they will not do so under the Prince of Orange or any other general not having special mandate from the Emperor.
Should the Viceroy make up his mind to take the lead of the Imperial army, it will be necessary that Don Ugo and Alarcon remain behind, the former having to attend to the administration of Naples during the Viceroy's absence; the latter to the custody of the Pope. We have, therefore, humbly requested His Holiness to appoint Cardinal Colonna his Legate in spiritual matters, since he and the rest of the Colonnese will be most likely elected to exercise the temporal power in this city, until His Majesty decides otherwise. The Pope's answer to our request has been that the Imperial army can do as they please, since they are the masters; he himself will neither authorise nor consent to such an arrangement, but in the end His Holiness is sure to grant whatever is just and reasonable.
The army of the League left Orbieto for Perugia. It was thought at first that they meant to attack Sienna, but we hear that they have taken the direction of the Romagna, with the intention, as we presume, of effecting their junction with the Swiss, about whom Leyva writes, or else to cover the frontiers of the Venetians, unless it be for the purpose of preventing the Duke of Ferrara from taking possession of Parma, as he has lately done of Modena, and Leyva of Piacenza. However this may be, it is important for us to evacuate Rome, for by doing so we shall be able to defend the Duchy of Milan, which is in danger, attend to other parts and conquer the rest of Italy (lo que queda de Italia), thereby extracting enough money from the vanquished to pay and keep this army.
These considerations have prevented Don Ugo from quitting Rome, though he has lost within the last week no less than four or five servants of his household, among them a page.
The Duke of Ferrara, with upwards of 2,000 of his own vassals and efficient artillery, went the other day to Modena, where were a governor for the Pope, and Count Lodovico Rangone, the brother of Count Guido, with 800 men. Some show of defence was at first made, but the Duke having sent a message that unless immediately evacuated by the Papal troops he would employ force and sack the place, the citizens expelled the garrison, and opened their gates to him.
(Cipher:) To-day, or to-morrow at the latest, the Pope's commissioner is to leave with orders to the people of Parma and Piacenza to deliver those cities to Antonio de Leyva, or whomsoever he chooses to delegate.
(Common writing:) The Florentines are now trying to come to some arrangement with us through the Duke of Ferrara. We have written to him that on no account is he to accept less than 300,000 ducats, one half down, and the other in thirty days, besides 20,000 ducats every month as long as this present war lasts. Don Hercules (Ercole), the eldest son of the Duke, to command the troops of the Signory, as the Duke himself has requested. If the Florentines are wise, they will accept these terms, which are far preferable to having their city sacked. They have already snatched Pisa and Leghorn out of the hands of the Medici, as Your Majesty will see by the enclosed instructions which we have sent to the Duke thereupon.
Cardinal Fernesis (Farnese) is going as Papal Legate to Spain. Andrea Doria, who is now at Porto Ercole, not far from Civittà Vecchia, has been written to, to inquire whether he will give two of his galleys to convey the former and the ambassador of Portugal to Spain. As soon as the answer comes they will start. Has already sent a copy of what Andrea Doria asks as a remuneration for his services, and of the reply that has been made to him. We are anxiously waiting for his answer, and hope it will be favourable, for certainly he is a captain of great importance, and one who can do much for the Emperor's cause.
The Prince of Orange is quite well of his wound, and begins to ride. A few days ago he sent to ask the Pope by the bailiff of Mont to make his brother, the Bishop of Geneva, cardinal; (fn. 2) but the Pope has refused, alleging that there is no need of new cardinals, and that without His Imperial Majesty's knowledge and personal application (sin que .,. .,. lo sepa y lo pida) he does not intend proceeding in the matter.
The Viceroy is sending to Spain Knight Commander Gomez Suarez de Figueroa, from whom and from Mossior de Babri (Bauberi?), as well as from Mons. de la Mothe and Mons. de Pelu, who, it would seem, are going to Spain on private affairs of the late Mons. de Bourbon, Your Imperial Majesty will no doubt learn how matters stand in these parts.
Arrival on the 20th inst. of Maffeo de Thasis with the news of the birth of Prince Philip. Mass of thanksgiving in "Santiago de los Españoles," great rejoicings throughout the city, salvos of artillery from the castle of Sanct Angelo, and volleys of arquebuses from the infantry.
Landing at Monaco of the High Chancellor, Mercurino di Gattinara. His nephew, Bartholomeo, with a commissary from the Pope, gone to take possession of Parma and Piacenza, of which cities the Prince of Orange has appointed him governor, in accordance with the advice of the Council of War, as a compensation for the hackbut shot he received on the day the capitulation was discussed with the Pope. (fn. 3) —Rome, 23rd June 1527.
P.S.—Don Ugo has just received a letter from Andrea Doria, saying that he will not take service under the Emperor as long as Genoa does not change its present form of government, and recover its former freedom. This shows that the said Doria intends renewing his contract with France, or offering his services to the Venetians, and that he wants to sell himself dearer (encarescer) by acquainting the opposite party with the conditions which he proposes to the Emperor. To the Pope's message respecting his Legate, he has answered that he will with pleasure take him (Farnese) as far as Marseilles, but that he cannot go further. He will then give him two or three brigantines to continue his journey. So that if the Legate really wishes for a prosperous and short voyage [to Spain], he must needs go to Gaeta to embark.
Signed: "El Abad de Najara."
Addressed: "A la Sacrma., Cesa., Cathoca. Mt., &c."
Spanish. Original, pp. 5.
26 June.94. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 40,
f. 505.
B.M. Add. 28,576,
f. 263.
Wrote on the 11th inst. by way of Genoa, the bearer being Bauberi, (fn. 4) who went to embark there [for Spain]. Since then the most glorious and welcome news that could come from Spain, namely, the birth of a Prince, has been received in this city, to the great contentment and joy of all the Emperor's subjects and ministers. Many rejoicings have taken place on the occasion, and the Pope has shown so much pleasure at the news, that it is believed he will make a good present to him who brought the intelligence first, as conveyed in a letter of His Imperial Majesty to the Marquis del Guasto, which Mafeo de Tarsis, (fn. 5) the Postmaster-General, brought himself.
Has nothing particular to advise besides what Don Ugo, Alarcon, and the Abbot must already have stated in their despatches. The Pope is making great efforts to raise the 70,000 ducats still owing to the army, out of the 150,000, as agreed by the capitulation. He is now selling the fief of Benevento, and offering the tithes (decimas) of Naples to any banker who will lend that sum. If he succeeds, and the money is obtained to pay these troops, not a moment should be lost in taking them out of this city and making them march against the enemy, or to the assistance of Leyva, who sends word that the French and Swiss are threatening Lombardy and the Duchy.
The men themselves are desirous of quitting Rome, owing principally to the scarcity of provisions, almost amounting to a famine, and also because the plague has so much spread of late that hundreds die every day.
A message has been sent to the Viceroy to come to Rome in all haste. Cannot say what the result will be, (cipher) but feels quite certain that if he does not come this Imperial army will fall to pieces.
(Common writing:) The men-at-arms still at Veletri. If to-morrow, the 23rd, no money is sent to them, they will go to Naples, and, once there, it will be difficult to bring them out of that kingdom again.
An ambassador of the Duke of Ferrara has come to announce to the members of the Council of War of this Imperial army that he is about to attack Modena, if not delivered to him according to the last capitulation. He has been referred to Antonio de Leyva, to whom the commission was first entrusted of occupying that city, as well as Parma and Piacenza. The Regent Gattinara, accompanied by one of the Pope's chamberlains, started yesterday with briefs for that purpose. It is not supposed that he will meet with any difficulty. He [Gattinara] is to remain as governor of those cities until further orders. Civittà Vecchia was given up on the 20th, and Don Alonso de Cordova appointed to the command. Doria was not there, as he had gone to Porto Ercole, leaving behind him one of his nephews called Filipin (Filippino). Ostia was given up some days before.
It is reported that the army of the League is on this side of Orvieto, on the road to Perugia, and that they no longer intend attacking Sienna, as was thought at first, and as the Siennese themselves dreaded. In consequence of which rumours, the Marquis of Astorga (Don Pedro Alvarez Osorio), who was at Lucca, hastened to the threatened city to do his duty as a soldier and vassal of His Imperial Majesty, and wrote besides to the Council of War sitting here at Rome, to inform them of the movements of the League. No provision, however, will be needed, as the enemy appears to have abandoned for the present all design of attacking that Signory.
The Council has sent for provisions to all parts of Italy, principally to Sicily and the kingdom of Naples. Although some have already come by sea, owing to Andrea Dona having granted the required safe-conducts, yet they are not in such abundance as to meet the wants of this army and of the Romans. It is to be hoped that when the Neapolitans hear of such permission, provisions will be more plentiful and cheaper, especially if some abatement is made in the import duties, which are now very high.
Cardinal [Pompeo] Colonna and all the others who were staying with him have left Rome from fear of the plague.
Cardinal Jacobacio is the only one who remains; he is living at his own house without seeing any one or stirring out of doors. Geronimo Moron is gone to Anguilara.
Great watch is, on account of the plague, kept over Sanct Angelo, nobody being allowed to go in or out of it. The Pope, they say, is very much afraid of the plague, and greatly wants to go to Naples. There is no certainty yet as to whom he (the Pope) will appoint as his Legate during his absence. We all wish that Cardinal Colonna may be the person named, but, if so, it will be rather against the Pope's will.
Cardinal Frenesio (Farnese) has been appointed Papal Legate in Spain. He is expected to leave very soon, but, however rapid his journey, he will be tardy enough in the delivery of his embassy, being so slow and irresolute in coming to the point, though a wise and eloquent ecclesiastic. (fn. 6) Most people here wished Campeggio to go in his place, because he is a better friend to the Emperor, and more active in transacting business.
The Pope wishes that the hostages who are to be delivered to the Germans as security for his payment should be placed in the hands of some neutral personage, but this the Germans refuse, insisting upon taking them in any event wherever they go. Negotiations are being carried on respecting this point, but it is doubtful whether the Germans will give in, for they are very obstinate (rezios) on these points.
Had written thus far when' a Spanish courier arrived with the Emperor's letters of the 21st of April, (fn. 7) 13th and 22nd of May. (fn. 8) The bills of exchange for 100,000 ducats come in very good time, as with them, and with what the Pope has already given and will give hereafter, we shall be able to pay the troops and prevent their dispersion, which was imminent; for, as before stated, had it not been for this remittance of funds the men-at-arms would have gone to Naples, and part of the infantry and all the light horse would have followed their example. We shall thus be enabled to march on Lombardy and help Leyva, though it is not likely that the French or Swiss will dare to invade the Duchy when our army is there.
Has greatly rejoiced, as all the Emperor's servants in Italy have, at the news that a powerful fleet of galleys is being fitted out both at Genoa and in the ports of Catalonia for the purpose of waging war on the Turk and attacking him in his own dominions. Will take the very first opportunity to inform His Holiness of this, as well as of the deliberations of the Spanish Cortes and the subsidy they intend to grant for that purpose.
The Pope refuses to sign any papers or take any resolution whatever in ecclesiastical affairs, as long as he remains at Sanct Angelo, for which reason he (Perez) has not yet spoken to him, according to orders, respecting the commutation of the sentence passed on Cobos and the Alcalde Ronquillo Will, however, do so the first time that the opportunity of making the application with any chance of success occurs.
News has come that the Grand Chancellor (Mercurino di Gattinara) has landed at Monaco.
The Viceroy is trying to persuade Don Ugo [de Moncada] to take the command of the Imperial forces until His Majesty be pleased to appoint a general-in-chief. Don Ugo excuses himself by saying that the command devolves naturally upon the Viceroy from his having been at other times at the head of the Imperial forces. But precious time is lost in these messages, backwards and forwards, and there is urgent need to decide who is to take the lead of this army to prevent its utter ruin and dissolution.
Commander Figueroa (fn. 9) arrived this morning with the Emperor's letter to the Pope approving of the armistice. He came straight from the Viceroy, who gave him a verbal message for the Pope. What the result of the conference was Perez cannot tell, but as the commander is to return to Spain immediately, His Imperial Majesty will be minutely informed thereof. The interview, however, was agreeable to both parties, and the Pope was glad to hear the message from the Viceroy. Considering the opportunity a favourable one Perez spoke to the Pope about the commutation of sentence against Cobos, and the complete absolution of Ronquillo. He found him rather unwilling, as he said that Secretary Cobos had been the first to advise the execution of the Bishop [of Zamora]. Still hopes that His Holiness will yield.
Also begged for a brief addressed to the Archbishop of Seville that he might impose silence on those who contradicted the opinions of Erasmus. The Chancellor before his departure from Spain wrote to him (Perez) to apply for it, and when obtained remit it to the hands of Alfonso Valdes, the secretary. Has done so and the Pope has referred him to Cardinal Sancti Quatuor.—Rome, 26th June 1527.
P.S. — Forgot to say that when he mentioned to His Holiness the affair of Secretary Cobos, and the Emperor's request, he said, "At any rate Cobos seems to be a good Christian, since he is doing penance for the offence done to a bishop, whereas those who offended me do none."
Benefice in the diocese of Orense to be solicited in favour of a son of Secretary Pero Garcia.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Original, pp. 10.
27 June.95. The Emperor to Secretary Perez.
M. Re Ac. d. Hist.
Muñoz, A. 83,
f. 315.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 264.
Received his letters of the 20th March, 7th, 26th, 29th, and 30th of April. Thanks him for his zeal, and for his foresight in letting the Viceroy of Naples (Charles de Lannoy) know the intrigues and devices of the brother of the Duke of Lorraine (Vaudemont) in that kingdom. Is to see that the bulls for the Bishops of Zamora and Oviedo be not expedited . supplicatione, as the Pope and cardinals pretend, but by his own presentation and appointment as King of Spain, in the manner used to this day.—Valladolid, 27th June 1527.
Spanish. Original corrected draft, .. 1.
27 June.96. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador at Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 40,
f. 509.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 268.
Since his letter of the 22nd inst. the Republic has had letters from the Court of France confirming the news he (Sanchez) gave in his last, viz., that Mons. de Lautrec was about to cross the Alps with 6,000 Germans. Miçer Ambrosio de Florencia, who formerly resided here as ambassador of France, writes in date of the 15th that he was about to start with Lautrec in five days, from which the Venetians naturally conclude that the French forces will soon be in Italy, though most people think that they cannot come before the end of July.
The Bolognese have sent away the Pope's officials and created new ones. It is reported that they intend to have the same form of government as they had before, and to constitute themselves into a sort of Republic. They were about to send ambassadors to this camp and place themselves at the disposal of the generals. We shall see how all these things end. (fn. 10)
Florence is raising 7,000 infantry to engross the army of the League. Many people are deserting the city in consequence. Counts Guido Rangone and Gayatço (Gayaço) have sent, to ask the Bolognese passage for 4,000 infantry through their territory. The answer was that they would think about it, which is not quite satisfactory. The intention of those captains, as it would seem, is to go to Parma.
(Cipher:) A friend tells him that an influential member of this Republic has lately told him in secret that the castellan (alcayde) of Milan had sent to offer his services both to this Signory and to the King of France, and that he was only waiting for the arrival of Lautrec to raise banners (alçar banderas) for the League. The informer is an old friend very much attached to the Imperial cause, and the person who told him the news is in a position to know. Whether he has told the truth or not is more than he (Sanchez) can say. Has written to Leyva informing him thereof.
Gregorio da Casale, who was at Rome as English resident ambassador, has arrived here; he held yesterday a conference with the Signory, which lasted upwards of three hours.
The Mantuan ambassador goes on doing all the harm he can, from which I conclude that his master, the Marquis (Federigo Gonzaga), cannot be in our favour.
The Baron del Burgo, a Sicilian, who it seems is going to His Highness the King of Bohemia and Hungary as ambassador, though not as Papal Nuncio, is now here, holding frequent conferences with the ambassadors of the opposite parties, nor has he called upon him (Sanchez).
(Common writing:) Relates a long conversation he had with Cardinal Egidio, who received him very courteously.
(Cipher:) Has been told, though he does not vouch for the truth, that since the taking and sack of Rome, France and the Signory have concluded a new treaty stipulating that whatever they may gain by this war is to be equally divided between them.—Venice, 27th June 1527.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet pp. 3.
27 June.97. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 40,
f. 54.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 272.
Wrote last on the 13th (fn. 11) by Knight Commander [Gomez] Suarez de Figueroa, who was going to Spain. Has nothing new to add. Begs credence for the bearer of that despatch, and a quick resolution respecting Italian affairs.—Rome, 24th June 1527.
Signed: "El Abad de Najera."
Addressed: "A la Sacrama. Cesa. y Cathca. Mt."
Spanish. Holograph, .. 1.
30 June.98. The Emperor to Prothonotary Marino Caracciolo
S. E. Princ. d. I.
L. 1,454, f. 95.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 273.
Names and appoints him supreme magistrate (supremum justitiœ prefectum) in the Duchy of Milan.—Valladolid, on the last day of June 1527.
Latin. Original minute, .. 1.
30 June.99. The Emperor to Alfonso d'Este, Duke of Ferrara.
S. E. Princ. d. I.
L. 1,454, f. 110.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 274.
Has always been most studious to procure the peace of Christendom, and therefore concluded one with the King of France, then his prisoner.
Did elevate Pope Clement to the Pontificate, trusting in the goodness of his sentiments. This confidence, however, has been betrayed. Has been forced to take up arms, not from any lust of conquest, but in order to protect his own subjects against the tyranny of his enemies. Charles of Bourbon, "multis nominibus invictissimus," was his captain-general in Italy, and under him by letters patent, dated Granada, 5th of October 1526, he (Alfonso d'Este) was appointed his lieutenant (locum tenens). Now that Bourbon "nostro et omnium dolore" is dead, the Emperor appoints him (Alfonso d'Este) captain-general of all his armies in Italy, with all the honours, prerogatives, emoluments, &c. belonging to that post.— Valladolid, the last day of June 1527.
Latin. Original minute, .. 1.
30 June.100. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 40,
f. 516.
The general of the Franciscans sailed on the 11th. The day before he (Soria) received the Emperor's letters of the 23rd May, 6th and 21st of April. Delivered to the Doge and bailiffs (baylia) of Genoa the Imperial letters announcing the birth of Prince Philip, which news was received with great joy. Gave them also the letters wherein His Imperial Majesty exhorts them not to seek for change in their form of government, but to continue as hitherto. This precaution has been of good effect, though some of the citizens still persist in the idea of the union, so much so that they are thinking of sending Martin Centurion [to Spain] to beg His Imperial Majesty to accede to their wishes. It is, however, important that the Emperor should know that the said Centurion is a partisan of the union, and speaks in favour of it, saying that when he was last in Spain, and mentioned the subject in the presence of the Emperor and his Council, the scheme was approved of. They have promised him, if he succeeds, the post of chancellor, and therefore he is bound for his own convenience and profit to speak in favour of the projected union. His (Soria's) opinion is that at the present moment nothing can be worse for the Emperor's interests in Italy, and that the application of these people ought to be refused.
Any attempt on Savona at this juncture would be out of the question, because, besides the city being strongly fortified, Count Pedro Navarro has left and gone to Asti, there to join the Switzers and the forces expected from France for the purpose of invading the Duchy of Milan. Until the Imperial army return to Lombardy it is of no use to attack Savona. There is besides no sea force to dispose of, some of our galleys being at Naples, and the rest at Genoa, which is no small inconvenience under present circumstances, as nothing can be effectually done unless this coast is completely cleared. Has often written to the Viceroy, asking that the Naples fleet should be sent back, but hitherto without success. The captains of the galleys no doubt prefer remaining there inactive, and supporting their crews at less expense.
Has duly received, and presented for acceptation, the bills of exchange for 120,000 ducats which came by the last post; but is in reality very much perplexed as to the employment of the said funds, because his orders are to distribute them according to Bourbon's commands, and that general being dead, he hardly knows what to do. But as Leyva is in such stress, and cannot leave Milan for want of money to pay his troops; as before Bourbon marched on Rome he (Soria) received an order to pay to that general half the money that was to come from Spain ; as the Abbot of Najera writes to say that the Milanese army must needs be helped at any cost, he has not hesitated to remit to him one third of the 100,000 ducats Should the Viceroy and other Imperial officials, whom he (Soria) has consulted thereupon, order him to make further remittances he will do so on his own responsibility, as there is no possibility of receiving fresh instructions from Spain.
As to the remaining 20,000 they shall be employed exclusively in the building of galleys. The Doge and Community have agreed to furnish six, provided he (Soria) builds the other six at the Emperor's expense. They will be ready in September. Count Flisco offers to arm four of them at a cheaper rate than the Community, and contractors will not be wanting for the other two. But as one galley ready for sea costs, exclusively of artillery and arms, 2,200 ducats of gold, the 20,000 appropriated for that service will not suffice, as they are simple ducats, not ducats of gold. In short, there is only money for eight galleys, and if these are to be properly armed, and four more added to their number, further bills of exchange at very short dates will be required. Of the 30,000 ducats remitted last year, no portion remains in his (Soria's) hands. They were exclusively spent for the building and arming of certain galleys, and for the pay of three companies of Spanish infantry sent by Mons. de Bourbon, which proved to be the saving of Genoa on that occasion. Has been informed by various friends and relatives of Andrea Doria that there is some probability of that captain now forsaking the service of the King of France, if advantageous terms are offered him, such as the purchase of his galleys by the Emperor, or the payment of the same stipend as the Pope gave him. Has written both to the Viceroy and to the Abbot of Najera on the subject, requesting them to make overtures to this effect.
The Duke of Ferrara has taken possession of Modena and Carpi.
The Florentines have had in their power (hail avirdo en su poder) the fortresses of Pisa and Leghorn; notwithstanding which, they have confirmed their alliance with the League. Cardinal Cortona and the two nephews of the Pope nave applied for a safe-conduct to come to this city (Genoa), The Doge and he (Soria) are of opinion that the safe-conduct ought to be granted. Most likely the cardinals will come soon, for they are now at a place called Masa. All the others went out of Rome are thinking of meeting at Venice.
The jewels which Mons de Bourbon pawned to Ansaldo Grimaldo for 8,000 cr. have been redeemed.
The Grand Chancellor (Mercurino Gattinara) arrived on St. John's day with three Genoese galleys. He is suffering from gout, and intends staying here a few days until his recovery. He and those who accompany him were in great danger of being captured by the French eight leagues from this port; indeed one cannon ball struck the galley in which he was He (Gattinara) having written from Monego that 2,000 ducats should be paid to the Lord of that place, and that the two companies of Spanish infantry now in guard of this city should likewise be paid out of the Emperor's treasury, he (Soria) has done so.
Leyva was to have left Milan yesterday, the 26th inst., to meet the Duke Francesco Sforza, who had left Lodi at the head of 10,000 men for the purpose of laying waste the country about that capital. Count Pedro Navarro had come as far as Alessandria for a similar purpose.
The camp of the League, since its retreat from Rome, is almost broken up. The few forces that remain together are said to have taken the direction of Sienna. This last news is not officially announced, but the truth is that the Siennese are terribly afraid of being invaded by the enemy, and are writing everywhere for succour.
Since the death of Mons de Bourbon the warden of the castle of Milan (La Mothe) has had the draw-bridges raised and the gates shut, not allowing any one to go in or out, and retaining possession of Leyva's silver plate that is inside. Certainly these are no symptoms of fidelity on the part of the said warden, who is a Frenchman, and has under him 80 Spaniards and 100 Germans. The captain of these last is a Grison, and therefore not to be trusted. God forbid that there should be treachery in that quarter.
Andrea Doria passed this morning before this port with seven galleys, on board of which are Alberto di Carpi, Renzo da Ceri, with their respective wives, and several Roman families. Mons. de Langes (Langey), the French ambassador, is also on board one of the galleys. They are bound for France. Doria has in reserve seven more ships laden with alum, taken at Civittà Vecchia and Porto-Hercole, as part and portion of the stipend which the Pope owes him for his late services. All his galleys hoisted white colours, indicating that he (Doria) is not now in the service of any Prince whomsoever. He said to some one who spoke to him that Civittà Vecchia had been delivered to the Emperor's captains.—Genoa, 30th June 1527.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1527. From Lope de Soria, 27th of June. Answered."
Spanish. Original, pp. 8.
30 June.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 40,
f. 521.
101. Gabriel Sanchez, Secretary to the King of Hungary and Bohemia, to [Alonso Sanchez].
Up to this hour the Vayvod has made no great preparations to invade Hungary. He has certainly collected considerable forces, but his men are worthless (no es gente de affrenta).
Joan Negro, the Greek, about whom I wrote [to you] that he was waging war at once on the Vayvod and on the Turk, has lately declared in favour of His Highness. It would appear that in consequence of the said Negro having only under his command volunteers (aventureros), who serve without pay, some robberies and other excesses had been committed in the villages and towns which he visited with his bands. The Vayvod hearing of this, and wishing to alienate the affections of the Hungarians, who are to a man in favour of our King, adroitly circulated the rumour that the excesses of Negro's followers were to be solely attributed to King Ferdinand and his orders. To destroy this false impression an ambassador was sent to Negro, requesting him not to allow any injury to be done to people who were the Archduke's natural subjects, since the kingdom of Hungary belonged to him by right. Negro received the Austrian ambassador most honourably, and excused himself by saying that if any excess had been committed by his men, it was entirely without his knowledge or consent, and that he would cause the guilty parties to be arrested and tried. It happened, however, that whilst the said ambassador and a Russian gentleman were at table, dining with Negro, a lady entered the room complaining that the said Russian, who was Negro's maître d'hôtel and the general of his small army, had ravished one of her daughters. Upon which he (Negro), having ascertained the truth, had the Russian beheaded in his very presence, and ordered four more of his courtiers, who were also implicated in the affair, to be immediately arrested and executed. This being done, he said to the ambassador, "You will tell the King, your master, that he will always find me ready to execute his orders, and that be may consider me as his most faithful servant and subject." Negro has since sent an embassy to our King [Ferdinand] to make similar protestations, and yet there are not wanting courtiers who assert that he is in secret communication with the Vayvod, and that whatever he has done and said hitherto is merely for the purpose of gaining our master's confidence, and the better to execute his treacherous designs.
Indorsed: "Copy of paragraph of letter from Gabriel Sanchez, secretary to His most Serene Highness the King of Hungary and Bohemia, dated Vienna, the 31st (sic) of June."
Spanish. Contemporary copy. pp. 1½.
30 June.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 522.
102. Paragraphs extracted from a letter of Archduke Ferdinand, King of Hungary and Bohemia, [to Alonso Sanchez].
We have seen the copy of the letter which Leyva wrote to you about the plans of the confederates, and the rumour that Francesco Sforza was preparing to inarch against Milan, and although the news of what has happened at Rome must have rather disconcerted our enemies, we are anxiously waiting to hear that the Imperial army has evacuated that city, and returned to Lombardy. No other provision that we know of can be made now for the defence of the Duchy in case the confederates should attack it, for we cannot detach any of our forces, the Vayvod having in Hungary, and elsewhere, such powerful auxiliaries. It may be true, as you say, that the Turk has sent part of his army against the Pasha of Anatolia, but there can be no doubt that he has considerable forces on the frontiers of Hungary and Servia, and that the Vayvod has secret intelligences with him, though he gives out that he has nothing in common with the Infidel, in order to deceive and take us by surprise.
Our army is not so strong as it ought to be, for in the first place the Vayvod, through his intrigues, has prevented our kingdom of Hungary from paying us the whole of the service money; and, secondly, we have spent so much of late years, owing to the armies we have sent to the frontiers against the Turk, or to Italy to the assistance of our brother the Emperor, that we really cannot raise any more troops.
(Common writing:) Orders were sent four days ago to our cousin the Marquis Casimir, our captain-general, to enter Hungary as soon as possible. We ourselves shall follow him as soon as the rest of our forces join us in this capital. Of the result of the campaign and our ulterior plans you shall be adviced in time.—Vienna, the last day of June 1527.
Spanish. Contemporary copy, pp. 2.

Footnotes

1 No. 83, p. 232.
2 "Ha supplicado estos dias al Papa por ruego del Balli de Mont, que hiziesse á su herinano el obispo de Geneva cardinal."
3 The fact is not mentioned in the Abbot's letter of the 11th of June, but recorded in Secretary Perez's despatch of the 18th (No. 71, p. 201).
4 See above, No. 84, p. 237.
5 Also written Tassis, and more frequently Taxis, which appears to have been the name of Francis, the founder of the family. The Spanish genealogists, and among them Lopez de Haro (Nobiliario, &c., Madrid, 1622.), invariably call them Tarsis. Francis was appointed by Maximilian I. Postmaster-General to the Empire. Three of his nephews, Jean Baptiste, Simon, and Maffeo, inherited that charge, and divided it between them, the former taking Flanders, the second Milan, and the latter Spain. From Jean Baptiste the counts of Oñate and Villamediana in Castille are descended.
6 "Por que es el mas largo hombre que jamas se vió en platicas, y menos resoluto, aunque es sabio y bien hablado."
7 No. 50, p. 148.
8 Nos. 66 and 69.
9 Don Gomez Suarez de Figueroa.
10 "Los de Boloña han echo (sic) ciertos officios e dizen que quieren estar al gobierno della como ciertos (antes?) que estauan en el Palacio que es azerse (sic) quasi como Republica, e diz que querian embiar al exercito de V[uest]ra Md. para hazer lo que quisieren. No sé en que parará."
11 No. 83 p. 232, but with the date of the 11th.