August 1527, 16-20


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'Spain: August 1527, 16-20', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2: 1527-1529 (1877), pp. 323-338. URL: Date accessed: 21 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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August 1527, 16-20

16 Aug.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof-u. States Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 224, No.27.
152. Don Iñigo de Mendoza, Imperial Ambassador in England, to the Emperor.
Will be brief, as the present despatch goes by land, and another fuller one has been forwarded by sea. Has duly received two of His Majesty's letters, dated respectively the 22nd and 29th of March. (fn. 1) (Cipher:) By the first of which he (Mendoza) was charged to represent to this King the extreme and earnest desire which His Majesty had for peace; and that since he (the King) had renewed his friendship with France, there was no reason for his not doing the same with His Majesty, and thus cementing the old alliance between the houses of England and Burgundy. Did as he was ordered, and represented the Emperor's wishes, but the more he (Mendoza) dwelt upon the Emperor's exertions for peace, the more passionate the King grew (tanto mas se encendía), saying that His Majesty did nothing for him, and that the offers made by the Bishop of Tarbes (Gabriel de Grammont) were of a nature to satisfy the Emperor entirely. The more he (Mendoza) strained his argument to prove that these terms were both unreasonable and inferior to those proposed to the Viceroy, or laid before the Imperial Council of State by Secretary Comacre (Comacler) and L'Esleu Bayard, thus showing that the King of France had little or no regard for His Highness of England, the more irritated did the King become, telling him (Mendoza) that those ambassadors had no mandate whatever from their master to offer such terms, and that neither had the promises to the Viceroy been signed by the King of France, with other similar excuses of very little importance. Whence it may safely be concluded that he (the King) is guided more by passion than by reason in this business. In short, the King showed his disappointment at the Emperor's not declaring himself more explicitly on that point. He (Mendoza) calmed the King by giving him hopes that whenever the King of France proposed more reasonable and just terms the Emperor would be glad to renew the negotiations, and to show that besides his wish for general peace, he is as much inclined as ever he was to please his brother of England. He (Mendoza) expected a vessel (zabra) from Spain soon, which was to bring him instructions on the subject.
With regard to the renewal of the old friendship and alliance, which is another part of his commission, Mendoza would willingly not have mentioned the subject, for two reasons; the first, because when he came here, and made overtures thereupon, he was distinctly told that nothing of the sort could be entertained whilst the Emperors debt to this King remained unpaid ; the second, because he knows for certain, as he wrote on a former occasion, that the new French treaty contains a mutual obligation, and, therefore, any attempt of his to renew the alliance without any apparent advantage to His Majesty would have been derogatory to his authority and reputation, as it would appeal; as if we could not manage our own affairs without tins King's assistance and help. Notwithstanding the reasons above mentioned, and others which might be adduced, as the Emperor's last letter again orders such overtures to be made, the ambassador seized the first opportunity to declare, in as courteous terms as he could, that the Emperor being prepared to give any guarantee that might be asked for the payment of his debts, he (Mendoza) begged him to have the old friendship and alliance between England and Spain renewed ; to which he (the King) answered that he was now so bound to the French that he could no longer treat (capitular) with His Majesty as he did in old times. Mendoza's reply was that His Imperial Majesty was so fond of peace and so averse from war, that if an offensive alliance with England was no longer to be entertained, he begged that a defensive one might still be made. "Things have gone so far," said the King, "that I do not believe that I can please the Emperor on that point; but since you mention treaties, &c, may I ask what your instructions are concerning the Emperor's debt to me?" "I have already told Your Highness (said Mendoza) that any security or caution that may be required the Emperor is ready to grant." "I am tired (retorted the King) of hearing about treaties and securities; deeds, not words, are wanted." And although Mendoza gave him to understand that in this particular case the payment of the money would immediately follow the signature of the treaty, the King attached no faith to his words, and dismissed the subject. Whence Your Majesty must naturally conclude that this King considers the delay in granting the proposed alliance a sufficient security for the money His Majesty owes him. In case of such treaty being made, it will be merely to abstain from mutual offence ; a defensive and offensive alliance, such as His Imperial Majesty wishes, he (the King) considers difficult in the extreme; besides which, he says, the case is fully provided for (está saluado) in former treaties.
As His Majesty must be fully informed by his ambassador in France (fn. 2) of the Legate's journey to and doings in that country, he (Mendoza) need not refer to the subject further than to say that the opinion here is that the King of France is delaying as much as he can his reply to this King. Should that which he expects from Spain be favourable, he will no doubt change the terms of his treaty, and disappoint these people. Should it be unfavourable, he will from sheer necessity accept any conditions that are offered to him, and these people will be exacting. That is the reason why he (Mendoza) cannot be persuaded that this King and Legate work sincerely for peace; for, although it is true that they may eventually be the winners by it, they are sure to gain much more if the war continues, as the King of France being perchance reduced to extremities, the trade of England may increase in consequence.
Has sent to Madame [of the Low Countries] a copy of the mandate and powers which the Legate took from hence, that she may forward it [to Spain] through the French ambassador residing there. Has begged that this he done with great secrecy, because if the Englishman who gave it him tells the truth, great difficulty and danger were incurred by him in procuring it. Another copy shall be forwarded by the first Spanish vessel sailing from these ports, that if the one miscarries, the other may reach. His Majesty will therein be able to perceive the evil disposition of these people (la ruyn intencion de estos), and also that there are reasons to suspect that if peace is not concluded in the manner and on the terms recommended by the Legate, the treaty now being made in France will also include offensive alliance against Your Majesty; though when he (Mendoza) spoke last to the King he assured him most positively that there was no clause to that effect in the treaty [here made] with the French ambassadors, His Majesty having been accepted by England (estaba acceptado por su parte).
With regard to the Queen [and the letter to the King, her husband], that is a morsel which will not be much to the King's taste, though he (Mendoza) will be most cautions in making the communication. But in truth the King is so swayed by his passions, and so determined to persevere in his error, that he is rather seeking the means of accomplishing his purpose than advice for abandoning it. Owing to which reason those who counsel him best he considers as his worst friends. But His Majesty will act in this case as befits his rank and parentage, and disregarding the inconvenience that may arise therefrom, will help with his authority and power wherever most wanted.
Yesterday, immediately after the receipt of the Emperor's letters, Mendoza wrote to the Queen, informing her of the arrangement made at Rome as well as of the measures which His Majesty proposed to adopt in future for her comfort and assistance, that she may let him know when and at what, time he is to wait upon the King and deliver his message, so that it may be beneficial, not detrimental, to her cause. As soon as she has answered he (Mendoza) will execute His Majesty's commission, though he cannot help thinking that were the matter delayed for some time, it would prove highly advantageous for His Majesty's affairs in this country, He (Mendoza) knows for certain that such conversations will rather revolt the King than otherwise, so blinded is he by passion. The morsel, however, shall be given to him in such disguise as to be as little repugnant as possible to his palate, though his conscience is so perverted that whatever is most for his good meets with the least favour.
It is generally .believed that if the King can obtain a divorce he will end by marrying a daughter of Master Bolo, (fn. 3) who was once ambassador at the Imperial Court, and who is now called Millor de Rochafort. Everything, however, is now in suspense, and will be so until the Legate returns from France. It is feared that then the suit will begin, and the Queen be summoned to appear. She intends refusing to appear before (recusar) the Legate, and applying for unsuspected judges, which application he (Mendoza) does not believe will be granted, as they themselves have begun by finding fault with the Pope's brief, and alleging that the marriage of a woman with two brothers is forbidden by canon law (derecho), and that the Pope has no authority to give dispensation. Perceiving, however, that this course was not likely to lead to success, they have changed their plan; they now plead that the dispensation was surreptitiously obtained, and is null and void, not only as regards the statement made, but also in the concession itself, all of which, as His Imperial Majesty knows, is entirely false. The better to refute the malicious arguments of these people, [Gardiner] the Bishop of Wyncestre (Winchester), who is a great lawyer (letrado) and a good servant of the Queen, was of opinion that the present Pope [Clement VII.] should make good any deficiency which might exist in the brief, but this would have been equal to acknowledging that there had been a flaw in the dispensation, and consequently that the Queen's daughter (Princess Mary) was illegitimate. Owing to these reasons that plan has been abandoned. Whatever line of defence is taken, he (Mendoza) will not fail to inform Your Majesty, that either one way or other, without injury to the one principally concerned, a remedy may be adopted. The greatest inconvenience is that the Queen has no means at her command to communicate with Rome and let the Imperial ambassador there know how the trial proceeds, there being no posts established between this country and Italy, and no security on the roads, and therefore the suit might be finished and closed before the Pope could come to the rescue.—London, 16th August 1527.
Signed: "Don Iñigo de Mendoza."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King, our Lord"
Spanish. Original entirely in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet pp. 6.
17 Aug.153. The Emperor to Alonso Sanchez.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 264.
B. M. Add. 28,575,
f. 319.
We have received your despatches of the 29th of May, 3rd and 8th of July, together with the enclosures, containing the news of Germany. We thank you very much for the information contained in the said despatches.
We wish you, out of the money you are to receive from the Venetian bankers on our account, to repay yourself your expenses in the despatch of couriers, as well as retain your salary.
Since the above minute was written we have received by Knight Commander Suarez de Figueroa your letter [of the 27th of June]. We have ordered an answer to be written, which immediately after our signature shall be addressed to you.—Valladolid, 17th August 1527.
Addressed: "To Alonso Sanchez, of our Council, and our ambassador in Venice."
Spanish. Original minute. (fn. 4) .. 1.
17 Aug.154. The Emperor to the Abbot of Najera.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 319.
Was very anxiously awaiting the news of Italy, when his letters of the 27th May and 11th of June came to hand. Thanks him for his diligence and zeal in all matters connected with his Royal and Imperial service. Will hear from his Viceroy of Naples what he (the Emperor) has decided respecting Italian affairs.—Valladolid, 17th August 1527.
Signed: "Yo el Rey."
Post datam et firmatam.— Your letters by Knight Commander Figueroa have just come to hand. An answer shall be speedily sent.
Indorsed: "From the King. 1527. From Valladolid. To the Abbot of Najera. 17th August." .. 1.
18 Aug.155. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist,
Salazar, A. 40,
f. 87.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 320.
Wrote on the 4th, enclosing duplicate of his letter of the 1st, sent by way of Genoa. Stated then what he knew about the Marquis' business, and his intention to come to Rome.
(Cipher:) As Alarcon writes fully on the present state of affairs, and the mutinous spirit of this Imperial army, there is no need for his (Perez) returning to the subject, save to say that unless all the men, of whatever nationality, are quickly paid, there is no chance of their consenting to leave Rome, and marching to the assistance of Antonio de Leyva, and defending Lombardy against the enemy. The appointment of a commander-in-chief is more needed than ever, now that the Duke of Ferrara declines to accept the charge.
(Common writing:) The Viceroy, Don Ugo, and the Marquis del Guasto have not yet come from Naples, though they are anxiously expected by all parties. The former writes that he has been delaying on account of Don Ugo's bad state of health, but that he will soon come to Rome, and see about the payment of the army, &c. Fancies, however, that the Viceroy will not come for the present, as his stay in Naples is required, in order to raise the money, &c.
The Germans, they say, will not consent to the Pope and cardinals being taken to Naples as proposed, and are trying to persuade the Spaniards and Italians to join them in this resolution. These last, on the other hand, wish very much to go to the kingdom [of Naples], and though some of their captains have actually advanced money on the security of the Grimaldo bank, most of the men are greatly inclined to execute their threat.
Gironimo (Girolamo) Moron came here the other day, expecting to find the Viceroy. As the latter did not come he was sadly disappointed, though he omits nothing that may be conducive to the Emperor's service.
The plague is now raging to such extent that it is doubtful whether the Emperor's next letter will find him (Perez) alive. Should he, however, by God's infinite mercy be spared, he will continue at his post, advising, as he has done hitherto, any changes in that Duke's wavering mind, and reporting also on general affairs, until the Emperor be pleased to send him his congé to go back to Spain. He cannot now be of much use at Rome, as he is in disgrace with His Holiness for having presented the Emperor's letters in the College of Cardinals, &c.
He had written thus far on the l6th when the Marquis del Guasto and Juan Antonio Muxetula, of the Council of Naples, arrived. The latter comes from the Viceroy to negotiate with His Holiness; the former to lead this army to Lombardy as soon as possible. Already be has announced his arrival to the captains, telling them that the men will be paid immediately. What answer the Spaniards, who are now assembled for that purpose, will give, it is impossible to say, but if it be unfavourable His Imperial Majesty's affairs in Italy run great risk, for already thousands of Frenchmen and Swiss, with full complement of artillery, have arrived in Lombardy, and will join the army of the League in order to come this way. Doria is blockading Genoa, and between 5,000 and 6,000 men are being prepared to attack that city on the land side.
(Cipher:) Alarcon and Muxetula waited yesterday on His Holiness, and spent some hours with him. On coming out of Sanct Angelo they despatched a messenger to Naples. It is rumoured that the conference turned upon the securities which the Pope is to give for the future, both in hostages and towns.
The Archbishop of Cosenza died at Gaeta on the 15th or 16th inst.; Cardinal Rangone last night. Knight Commander Aguilera is ill with four boils (nacidos), and as many carbuncles, but the physicians who attend him expect to save his life.
The Marquis and Bishop of Astorga are expected here to-day. They will be lodged at the Belvedere, close to the Papal Palace, but according to Knight Commander Mayorga will only remain at Rome two or three days.
Auditor Casador, the Bishop of Alguer, is at Aquila. He begs him (Perez) to bring him before the Emperor's notice. —Rome, 18th August 1527.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1527. Perez.
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphing on separate sheet, pp. 6.
18 Aug.156. Charles de Lannoy to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist,
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 90.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 324.
(Cipher:) The French under Lautrech are entering Italy; the Swiss coming down on Lombardy; some have already reached the Hastesano (county of Asti). Andrea Doria with his galleys has joined those of the French, and is actually blockading the port of Genoa. Any force of the enemy, however small, attacking that city on the land side is sure of success, for the Genoese are tired of suffering privations, and as they are fond of novelty, and wishing for a change of government, the chances are that, if attacked, they will make no resistance whatever. In Lombardy, Antonio de Leyva has been obliged to shut himself up in Milan, whilst the confederates are masters of the field. The Imperial array, now quartered on the patrimonial estates of the Church (en el patrimonio de la Iglesia), is both licentious and ungovernable, owing to the great arrears of pay owing to them and to other causes. Should the war continue it will be exceedingly difficult to preserve discipline. Venetians are in treaty with the Germans and even with the Spaniards of this army, and the Pope entertains the hope that the Emperor's affairs in Italy may soon become so entangled that he will be able to escape from his most solemn engagements.
Never was Italy in so critical a position. The Duke of Ferrara wavers in his fidelity. Since taking possession of Modena and Carpi, which is what he most desired, he begins to say in public that the treaty which His Imperial Majesty concluded with him was not such as he wanted. This he does no doubt that he may leave a door open, as these Italian politicians are in the habit of doing, to go over to the other side whenever it suits him. He (Lannoy) is very much afraid that the King of France will one of these days make great offers to the Duke and gain him over, so as to stop the passage of the Imperial troops through the Ferrarese territory, and prevent their returning to Lombardy. On the other hand the Venetians have armed 40 galleys, and the Turk at their request is fitting out 25 more, to invade the coasts of Puglia or Sicily. The Pope is delighted at all this, because the greater the danger of our position, the more chance will he have accomplishing his object. Every potentate in the world is now arrayed against the Emperor, and there is not money to carry on war against them all. For this reason, if an honourable peace can now be concluded with His Holiness, even if it were necessary for that purpose to make some concessions, he (Lannoy) is of opinion that the expedient should be tried at once. There are, however, two very potent reasons for doubting its success. The first is that the Pope has been so much sinned against, and has himself sinned so much, that no reliance can be placed on his keeping any conditions that might be made; the other that if the League become prosperous in Lombardy, the enemy will throw all his forces upon this kingdom [of Naples], and that being the case, all hopes of an arrangement with His Holiness will vanish. That is the reason why, instead of setting the Pope free, as Alarcon advises, his (Lannoy's) opinion is that he ought to be brought here,—the army allowing it, on the promise of their being paid their arrears.
Has considered it necessary to state his views of the matter, because the present state of affairs is very different from what it was on the 1st of July, the date of the Emperor's last letter.—Gaeta, 18th of August 1527.
Signed: "Charles de Lanoy."
Spanish. Original entirely in cipher. pp. 2.
18 Aug.157. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 82. B. M. Add. 28,575,
f. 320.
Since his despatch of the 7th inst., the Marquis of Astorga (Don Pedro Fernandez Osorio) has obtained "by means of penance " (por via de penitencia) certain Papal bulls absolving him from his marriage to the daughter of the Count of Benavente (D. Alonso Pimentel). No sooner did he (Perez) hear of it than, accompanied by Knight Commander Aguilera, he went up to the Pope and did all he could to nullify the said bulls. The Pope promised to see that they contained no clause at which His Imperial Majesty might possibly take offence, but said that the bulls being applied for "por via de penitencia," he had no right to refuse them (no lo podia de derecho estorbar).
Has written to the Marquis, who is still at Civittà Vecchia, and to his uncle the bishop, informing them of the Emperor's wishes in that respect, and of the order for them to return to Spain as soon as possible. Believes that at the date of this letter the Marquis has suspended his application, and is returning home. Enclosed is his letter and that of the bishop. (fn. 5) —Rome, 18th August 1527.
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1527. From Secretary Perez 18th August."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 82.
18 Aug.158. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 41,
f. 85.
B. M. Add. 28,575,
f. 320.
Has reported in his letter of the same date on the business of the Marquis [of Astorga]. Encloses also the duplicate of his letter of the 4th, which went by way of Genoa. (fn. 6)
As Alarcon has always written, and continues writing, to Court on military affairs, giving his opinion thereupon, he (Perez) needs not refer to them, (cipher) save to say that unless God and His Imperial Majesty provide a remedy, the army be paid and sent to Lombardy, and a commander-in-chief appointed, all is lost there as well as here.
Lannoy, Don Ugo, and the Marquis del Guasto are daily expected in. Rome for the settling of this business of the Pope and cardinals. To-day, the 13th, they have not yet arrived, but they cannot fail to come in a day or two, for the Viceroy has written to say that the moment Don Ugo has quite recovered from his late illness—and he was already much better—they would all start on their journey.
It is said that the meeting of the Germans the other day was for the purpose of persuading the Spaniards to join them, and go all together to the kingdom [of Naples], which, if carried into effect, would be a very serious thing, and might possibly encourage the enemy to stronger measures. The Viceroy has been duly informed of these designs of the Imperial soldiers, that he may hasten the payment of the 150,000 ducats guaranteed by the Grimaldo bank, and also of the sums owing to the captains, &c.
The Bishop of Huesca (Juan de Aragon y Navarra (fn. 7) ) has died at Sora. Don Pedro de Urrias has petitioned the Pope not to grant the abbacy of Monte Aragon to anyone but himself, as he pretends to have a right to it, and says that the provision is juris patronati. Hears that the Pope intends giving the vacant bishopric to Cardinal Campeggio, but Alarcon is to go to Sanct Angelo before long about it.
Had written thus far when the Imperial letter of the 2nd of July came to hand, announcing the appointment of the Duke of Ferrara, to the post of commander-in-chief, and that of the Prince of Orange to be lieutenant-general under him. Has only to observe that the former does not accept the appointment, and therefore that a new one must be made. Whoever he be, Perez will not fail to report and give his opinion on the state of affairs, as it is his duty to do,—that is, if he is still alive, for considering the great mortality from the plague at this moment, there is little chance of his escaping. Begs again for leave of absence to go home. He has been in disgrace with the Pope ever since, in obedience to the Emperor's commands, he presented to the College of Cardinals the letters about the Council, and therefore cannot be of much use under present circumstances.
Alarcon and Muxetula saw the Pope yesterday, and held a conference with him, after which they despatched a messenger (estafeta) to the Viceroy. (Cipher:) Cannot say for certain what the conference was about, but hears that on the application made to His Holiness for certain hostages and fortified towns as security for his future behaviour towards His Imperial Majesty, he made no objection whatever, declaring that he is as sure of the Emperor as the Emperor is sure of him, and that he knows very well that whatever ill or good is to come to him must proceed from the Emperor's hands, and that he wants no other protector and true son but His Imperial Majesty. (fn. 8) —Rome, 18th of August 1527.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "To His Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1527. Perez. 18th Aug."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 3.
19 Aug.159. Don Martin de Salinas to the King of Bohemia and Hungary.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
C. 71, f. 175, v..
Received on the 23rd of June last the packet of letters of the 9th of May, brought by Mosior de Rosinbues (Rosinboz), in answer to his own of the 15th March and 9th of May. Has informed the Emperor of their contents.
Don Juan Manuel has not heard from His Highness for a very long time, and yet at the present moment, and when he might favour his (the King's) application for the Duchy of Milan he ought by no means to be forgotten. Salinas has pledged his most solemn word to him (Don Juan) that in the event of His Highness obtaining the investiture of that Duchy a good pension shall be ensured to him. His Highness should write to him in the meantime, and confirm the promise made in his name. Both Don Juan and the Secretary (Lallemand) are much devoted to His Highness, and very ready to do him service. The rest of the councillors should also be written to respecting this affair of Milan, each of them separately, and without the other's knowledge. That will have a better effect, and His Highness will then be able to gain the affections of all. He (Salinas) has not spoken to the Emperor about it, as he fears he may reply that the acquisition of this new estate (Milan) will divert him from more important business; that it is too much for the King [his brother] to hold at one time, as he may in consequence relax in the matter of the Turkish war, and so forth. If the business, however, is brought on and discussed in Council, the ambassador thinks that it will be carried out, as the Emperor, now that Bourbon is dead, can have no possible objection to his appointment.
The letter for Chancellor (Gattinara) came too late, as he had already started on his journey. We have heard of his arrival at Monago (Monaco), and that he has changed his mind since Bourbon's death and the sack of Rome, for he speaks of returning to the Emperor's service, &c. It is doubtful, however, whether he will be again admitted. If he is, he is sure to be in perpetual contradiction with His Imperial Majesty, and not at all in favour. Should he write to His Highness, the answer had better be shaped in accordance with His present position, and the little probability there is of his returning to the Emperor's grace.
The Emperor is as well disposed as ever he was to give the promised assistance, but new obstacles rise in his way and prevent the execution of his wishes. Were it in his power to make peace at once with his enemies, so as to be able to attend exclusively to the affairs of Germany and the Turkish war, he would not hesitate in making such military preparations as would overawe the common enemy. Has been informed by Count Nasaut (Nassao) that the Emperor intends crossing over in person; perhaps the galleys which are now being constructed in the ports of Mediterranean are for this special object, unless it be that His Imperial Majesty thinks of increasing his forces at sea.
The Emperor approves the alliance which His Highness has just concluded with the King of Poland (Sigismond), also the negotiations for the marriage of the Princess. His answer respecting the affairs of Hungary and the doings of the Vayvod must be subordinated to the state of things in Italy, and the prospects, not very promising just now, of a general peace. What His Highness writes about Hungary has given general satisfaction here, but everyone is amazed at hearing of Juan Negro's doings, and their presentiment is, whatever the Pope may write to the contrary, that the Turk will soon invade Germany. A report is current here that Sultan Solyman is dead, and that his successor, whoever he may be, has met with disasters in Syria; but well- informed courtiers do not believe this news, which comes entirely through the Pope and the Venetians.
Respecting the intentions of the Duke of Jasa (Hesse), Lantzgrave, and Count Palatine Frederic, if they are such as announced in His Highness' last letter, he (Salinas) can only say that the Emperor was very much concerned when he heard the news, and caused certain letters to be written to them, bidding them not to favour Count Ulric and the Suabian League.
Nuño Ramirez de Gusman and his family—his son, Ramiro Nuñez de Gusman, has been set free, but Gonçalo Nueñz is still a prisoner, notwithstanding his (Salinas') solicitations and prayers, as the Emperor will not hear of his release just now.
When His Highness' letters came to hand, Don Jorge de Austria (fn. 9) had already left for Flanders. He could not, therefore, deliver His Highness' message and recommendation in the affair of Sigismond d' Erbestain (Herbstein) and his castle.
The report (relacion) about the Switzers, which His Highness sent by this last post, was put into the hands of the Emperor, who has forwarded it to Antonio de Leyva, that he may act accordingly.
His Imperial Majesty has heard of the unsatisfactory answers which the English ambassadors gave to those of His Highness. It was never presumed that they would answer otherwise, when the King of Portugal, a country so closely allied to Spain, replied as His Highness must have seen by their letters.
A French Franciscan friar, known by the name of Ave Maria, a man of science and authority, who has been general of his Order, has lately come here, sent by the King of France to treat for peace, but on such conditions that they can hardly be accepted, however inclined His Imperial Majesty may be to put an end to the war. Ambassadors from England and France have also arrived on similar errands, but hitherto they have not been received at the Palace.
Count Noguerol has also arrived with the ambassadors of Muscovy, who were received by His Imperial Majesty on St. Peter's Day.
Since Antonio Rincon (fn. 10) is again intriguing against the Emperor, it is advisable to put into practice those means which His Highness mentioned in his last letter.
Gave Laxao (La Chaulx) the royal letter and message about his pension. That councillor would much prefer to see the ducats, though of the Hungarian mint, rather than all the fine reasons therein expressed.
On the 15th of March His Highness bade him (Salinas) procure from His Imperial Majesty permission to hold a diet in Flanders, under the presidency of the Lady Margaret, wherein the affairs of Hungary might be discussed, and a subsidy obtained against the Turk. The Emperor did not object to the diet being held in Flanders, but wished the assembly to be convoked, and the subsidy to be asked in his name. Upon the ambassador's insisting that it should be held in His Highness' name, Secretary Lallemand sent to say that the Emperor had made up his mind on that score, and was not likely to change it. Has therefore desisted, as it will not do to press matters against the Emperor's will in this particular.
Quicksilver mines to be farmed out to the Fucares (Fuggers) for a term of 15 or 20 years.
Secretary Christoval de Castillejo.—Knighthood of St. James to Bernaldino de Meneses.
Don Frances [de Zuñiga] would very much like to see the promised marten skins. He has shown His Highness' letter everywhere at Court, but still he thinks of retaining his chronicle until he has the furs. (fn. 11) His book, however, is being transcribed, and shall go by next messenger.
Laxao (La Chaulx) writes by this post and encloses autograph letters from the Emperor and Empress. Be, himself, is very grateful for the promised favours, but would very much like to see the fulfilment of them.—Valladolid, 19th August 1527.
Addressed: "To the King."
Spanish. Original draft, pp. 8½.
19 Aug.160. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
C. 71, f. 179, v..
By the Emperor's last letter His Highness must have been made acquainted with what has been resolved concerning the quicksilver mines in the masterships (maestrazgos) of the Order of Calatrava. When, on the 15th of February, he (Salinas) received especial instructions on that subject, he sent to the Council of Finances (Hacienda) certain proposals in His Highness' name, offering to rent the said mines for a period of 15 or 20 years, on the same terms as the Fucares (Fuggers) or any other contractor, previous to the appointment and acceptance of a mercantile house to be responsible for the payment, and to undertake the works, &c. The Council's decision was that the mines should be worked by certain Spanish merchants for a sum of money equal to that which the Fuggers had received during the three last years of their contract, and that the entire produce of the mines, after deducting that amount, should be placed to His Highness' credit. He (Salinas) accepted this contract in his master's name conditionally, until it should be ascertained how much ore the mines yielded. Meanwhile a Spanish banker named Juan de Vozmediano, offered to pay a higher price for the mines, namely, 20,000 ducats. Another company of Genoese merchants then bid 10,000 more, including the quicksilver mines of the said masterships, and consequently the whole has been adjudicated to them as the highest bidders. Has since been requested by them to ratify the contract in His Highness' name, which he has delayed until he should receive further instructions to that effect.
Such was the state of matters when a servant and factor of the Estretes (Straëts?) arrived in Spain, who was the bearer of a letter of His Highness, ordering the ambassador to use all his influence in their favour, that they might obtain the lease of the mines. Having asked the factor to exhibit His Highness' mandate to that effect, he answered that he had not yet received it, though he knew that it had been signed and sent fifteen weeks ago. Nevertheless, as there is no time to lose, since the present contract is to end on St. Michael's day, he (Salinas) inquired whether he was ready to take the mines, and at what price. His answer was that he was disposed to enter into a contract, but could not offer more than 2,000 ducats commission on the whole. Has ascertained that when Alonso Gutierrez had the mines his profits only amounted to 1,700,000 maravedis, and that of the Fucares (Fuggers) to 2,200,000, and that in three years; so that, such being the case, His Highness would have to disburse annually seven or eight thousand ducats, besides the expense of working the said mines. As at the present moment upwards of 2,000 hundredweight of quicksilver are already taken out of the mine,—a quantity more than sufficient for the supply of the trade during the next six months,—it naturally follows that the expenses would exceed the produce. Has, therefore, determined, after consulting people well versed in such matters, not to bid for the mines, but leave them to the company that works them at present.—Valladolid, 19th August 1527.
Addressed: "To the King [of Bohemia], my Lord."
Spanish. Original draft, pp. 3.
20 Aug.
S. E. C. de C.
f. 15.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 326.
161. Declaration of Witnesses concerning Vessels captured by the French.
Pedro de la Cama (?) declares on oath that on 26th July (1527) he sailed from Chester in England on own ship "Santa Maria de Guadalupe," freighted with ox-hides and other merchandise, and bound for Andalucia. His vessel was boarded off Cape Finisterre by a Frencg man- of-war, and captured.
He (Pedro de la Cama) protested against such a proceeding, saying that when he sailed from England it was not known there that France was at war with Spain. The French replied that war had been declared three weeks before.
Gonzalo Relon, from Codillero [in Galicia], then declared that, coming from Cape Finisterre, he was on the 5th of August (1527) assailed by an armed French vessel. The cargo, consisting of wine, &c., was confiscated and the vessel sunk. He was, moreover, kept prisoner on board the French ship for two days. On the 17th the French, having sighted a, sail coming from England, put the witness (Relon) and others on shore and went in pursuit of the other sail, &c.—Santiago, 20th of August 1527.
Spanish. Original protocol attested by a notary. pp. 10.


1 Nos. 44 and 55. This last is dated the 25th of April, but might be in part a duplicate of that of the 29th March, which is not in the Imperial Archives.
2 Nicolas Perrenot, better known as Sieur, and afterwards Cardinal de Granvelle.
3 Thus written for Boleyn (Sir Thomas), the father of Anne, who about 1519 had formed part of an embassy to Charles.
4 A note in Secretary Soria's hand is thus conceived: Fiat ut supra ad Abbatem de Najera in Rome, et Lupum de Soria in Genua.
5 Both are dated "Civita Vieja, 10th of August," and addressed to Secretary Perez, and may be found in the Academy's volume, A. 41, at fol. 75 and 76. Uncle and nephew show their readiness to comply with the Emperor's orders, and tender their excuses for visiting the Pope at Rome. The bishop says distinctly that he never advised the Marquis to apply for the Pope's dispensation to dissolve his marriage with Da Maria Pimentel, as he himself (the Bishop) had married them when of suitable ages, and besides did not consider such a proceeding lawful (lo tenia por cosa ilicita). But he loved his nephew so much, and owed so many favours to his family, that if it could be proved that his first marriage was invalid, and that he could marry another lady of larger dowry (de mayor acrecentamiento de estado), he would do everything in his power to forward it. The Marquis, on the other hand, declares that, in obedience to the Emperor's commands, he is already making preparations to return home, but that he cannot leave Italy without going to Rome and kissing the hands of the Pope. He did not deserve the letter which the Emperor caused to be addressed to him, and at which his relations and friends, as he hears from Spain, had taken offence. His conduct throughout the affair had been that of a Christian and of a gentleman, &c.
6 No 144, p. 314.
7 His death is recorded by Fr. Ramon de Huesca, Teatro Hist. de las Iglesias de Aragon, as having taken place on the 26th of December 1526. See vol. vi., p. 323.
8 "A lo que alcanço cs lo de la seguridad que dará para ser buen padre de v[uest]ra Magd, que es dar fortalezas y personas. Y diz que muestra gran voluntad á cstar ya asegurado de v[uest]ra Md. y que v[uest]ra Mad. lo está de su Sd. y conoce claro que si bien ó mal le ha de venir ha de ser de mano de v[uest]ra Md. y que no quiere otro protector ni fijo sino á v[uest]ra Md."
9 A natural son of Emperor Maximilian, and consequently uncle both to Charles and Ferdinand. He had been proposed for the Duchy of Milan. See Part I.
10 The same individual called Rangone by the Italian writers. He was a Castillian by birth, and took refuge in France during the war of the Commons (Comunidades). Francis employed him in various embassies to Hungary and Constantinople until the year 1541, when he and Cesar Fragoso, who escorted him, were assassinated by order of the Marquis del Guasto, as it is believed.
11 A buffoon of Charles, better known by the name of Don Francesillo, probably from his small size. His burlesque chronicle of the Emperor, in which not one of the courtiers about his person is spared, was published at Madrid in 1855.