Spain
February 1528, 1-5

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Institute of Historical Research

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Pascual de Gayangos (editor)

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1877

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565-575

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'Spain: February 1528, 1-5', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2: 1527-1529 (1877), pp. 565-575. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=87560 Date accessed: 26 November 2014.


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February 1528, 1-5

1 Feb.310. Andrea del Borgo to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 1,553,
f. 215.
B. M. Add. 28,577,
f. 141.
His faithful friend and correspondent has this day informed him that the Duke of Ferrara has had letters from Rome in date of the 27th and 28th January. The Germans are still giving trouble; they refuse to leave unless their arrears are paid.
The Pope is waiting for an answer to the letters he sent the other day to the Kings of France and England by his Nuncio, Prothonotary Gambara. We shall soon see to which side he leans, whether to us or to the League.—Ferrara, 1st February 1528.
Signed: "Andrea del Borgo."
Latin.. Copy. 1.
2 Feb.311. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 1,553,
f. 216.
B. M. Add. 28,577,
f. 143.
Has heard from the Ferrarese ambassador at Rome, who professes to have it from His Holiness' own lips, that three things prevent him from signing the capitulation, namely, the safety of the hostages; the fear that the Imperialists may set fire to Rome; the danger of the cardinals of the Imperial party keeping aloof and producing a schism in the Church.—Ferrara, 2nd February 1528.
Signed: "Andrea del Borgo."
Latin. Copy. 1.
2 Feb.312. The Marquis del Guasto to Secretary Garcia.
M. Re Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 99.
Has received his letter brought by Francisco Gutierrez. Shall not feel satisfied until he bears from him that his conduct has met with the Emperor's approbation. Will not spare work or fatigue to put affairs in better train —Naples, 2nd February 1528.
Signed: "El Marques del Gasto."
Addressed: "To Secretary Pero Garcia, of the Emperor's Council, &c."
Spanish. Holograph, .. 1.
3 Feb.313. Count Burrello to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 100.
Has not written for several weeks owing to a severe illness. On his recovery attended the Collateral Council and discussed with the Prince [of Orange], Don Ugo [de Moncada], and the rest of the councillors the best means of surmounting the present difficulties. His father, the Viceroy of Sicily [Duke of Monteleone], cannot fail to have apprised His Imperial Majesty of the deliberation of the Councillors, and the resolutions they have come to; he needs not repeat them here.—Naples, 3rd January 1528.
Signed: "El Conde de Burrello."
Spanish. Original, .. 1.
3 Feb.314. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambssador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 101.
Since the 28th ulto., the date of his last letter, intelligence has come that yesterday, Candlemas day, Lautrech was expected at our Lady of Loretto. Some add that the Duke of Urbino (Francesco Maria della Rovere) and the Marquis of Saluzzo (Michaele Antonio) with their forces are to meet him there. Of the arrival of Lautrech at Loretto no doubt is entertained; it is a positive fact; but of the meeting of the other generals there is no certainty.
Though for the last few days the rumour has been that the Germans and Spaniards had evacuated Rome, there is no truth in it; on the contrary, we are assured by private letters from Orbietto, of the 24th inst., that the men were still at Rome, in a state of insubordination, and threatening that, unless they were paid within a certain time, they would go home or take service with the enemy. (Cipher:) Indeed they write from Rome that there is a secret compact between the generals of the League and a certain German captain for one thousand of his men going over to Lautrech and receiving pay from him. Should the latter invade Naples, as he seems disposed to do, that kingdom will be in danger and if conquered by the enemy, everything in Italy may be lost before His Imperial Majesty, or his brother the King of Hungary, can come in person.
(Common writing:) Lautrech is making every effort to persuade the Pope to join the League. Thinks he will be successful in the end, for the disorderly and mutinous spirit of the soldiers has no other cause than his not Keeping his engagements, and for the present, at least, there is no chance of his doing so. Leyva has not answered yet.
The Duchess of Urbino [Eleonora Hippolita Gonzaga] has been set at liberty. Her son [Guidobaldo] still remains here under guard.
The fleet which this Signory had with the French was so shattered and deficient in men—most of them having died from hunger and disease—that if called upon to do service it cannot be of any real use. For this reason the Signory has sent orders that it should go to Corfu to be refitted.
Hears also from two different sources that Lautrech intends invading Naples by the Pulla (Apuglia). Is very much inclined to think that such is the intention of that general, for he has lately written to this Signory begging them to send thither their fleet, now at Corfu. Finding that their proveditor was away, the Signory have despatched a brigantine to Candia, ordering him to repair to the Pulla (Apuglia) with the eight galleys under his command.—Venice, 3rd February 1528.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty, in the hands of Secretary Soria."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1528. Venice. Alonso Sanchez. 3rd of February."
Spanish. Original mostly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, pp. 3.
3 Feb.315. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 111.
Is almost sure that this despatch will reach as soon as that of the 29th January and others, for he finds that at times his correspondence and that of other Imperial ministers in Italy is delayed one month and six weeks for want of a safe conveyance. And yet there is no other route at present, all other roads being either unsafe or cut up by the enemy. Never, at any time, was there more want of reliable information respecting the affairs of Italy, and, therefore, he (Perez) has not hesitated to write again, though his letter may not reach the Emperor's hands.
The Pope is still at Orbieto, showing no disposition, as was reported, to remove to Ancona. Lautrech continues marching; some say be is already at Pesaro ; others that he is close to Tronto; whilst the generality assert that he has passed Arrimini (Rimini), and settled with the lord of that place that he will make it over to the Pope, on condition of receiving a yearly income of 2,000 ducats, and 6,000 more on marrying one of his daughters. Wherever Lautrech goes, we see him trying to gain the affections of those who hold Church lands, and persuading them to make restitution, an evident sign that he wishes to keep in His Holiness' favour for the furtherance of his future plans. If we are to believe his Legate (fn. 1) here, Lautrech will not succeed. May it be so.
The report about Cesaro Gaetano having joined the French turns out to be true.
The confederates who came this way have done nothing important, except taking a few places. Neither has the Marquis of Saluzzo (Michaele Antonio) joined them as they expected; so that in reality they are in a rather dangerous position. A message has been sent to Cardinal Colonna to attack them; if he wants any forces they shall be sent to him, and whatever he may spend in artillery and ammunition shall be faithfully accounted for. Great hopes are entertained that with one half of the means placed at his disposal the Cardinal will do wonders, for he is the sort of man who knows best how to deal with such marauding scoundrels, especially when, as now, he will be protected in the rear.
The four companies (banderas) of Spaniards have done their work. The guns and ammunition have been escorted as far as Velitri. They, as well as the men-at-arms in that locality, have received orders to put themselves at the disposal of the Cardinal, and do his pleasure.
The Lord of Salmoneta has made no change, as was apprehended. When he heard of the arrival of the confederates he had most of the powder and ammunition safely stored inside his castle, and he would have had the whole in, had not the Spaniards arrived first.
To-day, the last of January, the term agreed with the Germans expires, but the Prince of Orange writes very confidently from Naples, and so does Don Ugo. To-day one of the German captains is expected, who is to bring part of the money ; the remainder the Prince will procure and bring in a day or two. It must be said, however, that certain of our correspondents at Naples are not so confident. There w fear of the banker, who accepted the bills, not paying them m full, because when the Prince of Orange went to Naples be did not accompany him as was previously settled. Gironimo (Girolamo) Moron thinks that he will be true to his word as he has already commenced to pay and furnished 25,000 ducats of his contract. These he would lose unless he made up the whole. If he did not accompany the Prince on his journey, it was owing to his having taken the road to the Abruzzi for the sake of calling on certain partners there, raising funds, &c.
As far as His Holiness himself is concerned, the Legate told him (Perez) that there would be no difficulty. The 145,000 ducats were ready, and orders had been sent for the surrender of Civittà Castellana. As to the additional 50,000 and the rest, it was almost impossible (he said) to furnish them at present.
Hears that the Bishop of Verona (Gianmatheo Giberti) arrived at Venice on the 10th of January. Is much afraid that he has gone thither for no good, although he gave out that he intended settling at Verona, retiring from state affairs, and leading a quiet life in the service of God.
A merchant has arrived here from Germany, who says that an army of 20,000 foot and 3,000 horse is now being enlisted with great haste, and that preparations of all kinds are being made at Bolzano. It is generally believed that, when these Germans come down, King Francis will take an equal number of Switzers into his pay, and that this matter has been previously settled between them, for otherwise Lautrech would not dare to advance on Naples.
Cardinal Cortona is dead; his bishopric of Barcelona has been conferred upon Don Luis de Cardona according to the Emperor's presentation.
There is no talk of His Holiness leaving Orbietto for the present.
The four companies (banderas) that went to Velitri have returned [to Rome] ; firstly because they found no provisions in the country, and secondly because the enemy had retired within their castles so that nothing could be done against them. Colonel Fabricio Marramao has since arrived with his 2,000 Italians, of whom nearly 800 are hackbutiers. He has gone already to the assistance of the Colonnese. If a greater force should be required it shall be sent.
The news about Lautrech are somewhat vague. Some say he has arrived at Senagalla (Sinigaglia), close to Tronto; others assert that he has reached this latter place.
Up to this day, the 2nd of February, the German captain who was to come from Naples with an answer has not made his appearance ; at which the lansquenets are so much disappointed and hurt that they begin to get troublesome and demand some money on account of their arrears. If the answer tarries we shall be obliged to give them some money, lest they should break out into a fresh mutiny.
It is reported that the Duke of Urbino (Francesco Maria della Rovere) has left Tode, and gone five leagues back, most likely with the intention of invading Lombardy. The Marquis of Saluzzo is crossing the country (las Marcas) to effect his junction with Lautrech. A "condotta" of 2,000 infantry and 200 light horse has been given to the Lord of Arimine (Rimini), and it is asserted that Count Guido [Rangone], Count Gayaço, Orazio Ballon (Baglione), and other captains are also with Lautrech, and that Count Pedro Navarro, with his Gascons, leads the van. This army is provided with 16 heavy pieces of ordnance and 30 lighter ones, besides 800 horses for the carriage of the same.
Letters have been received from Don Lope de Soria, at La Mirandola, of the 15th of January. He strongly recommends this Imperial army to go at once into Lombardy, for Leyva, he says, is master of the field. He had relieved Lecco, besieged by the Venetians, and if helped with money or men, would make short work with the confederates in those parts.
Soria writes also that King Francis was pressing the Duke of Ferrara to send him his son [Hercole], that he might marry him to his sister-in-law [Renée].
The news of the Duke of Urbino's march on Lombardy is confirmed, and also that Lautrech is going to Tronto, and that he has sent the whole of his heavy artillery by sea. The forces of the League on this side of the Tiber have suddenly crossed to the opposite bank, with the intention, as it is suspected, of attacking Sienna.
Up to the moment of closing this despatch the German captain has not returned from Naples, nor has the Prince written to announce the result of his negotiation. There can be no doubt, however, that either with money or without, as it may happen, the Prince cannot fail to return as soon as possible, accompanied by the Marquis [del Guasto] and Alarcon, that they may take the command of the Imperial forces here, and lead them against the enemy, since they must have heard of Lautrech's march and warlike preparations.— Rome, 3rd February 1528.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: " . . . . Cesæ., Cathcæ. Mti."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1528. Rome. From Perez. 3rd February."
Spanish. Original, pp. 3.
3 Feb.316. Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
M. Re Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42.
f. 115.
(Cipher:) Wrote last by Bartholomeo de Tassis. Since then no material change has taken place in the state of affairs. It is only wonderful how we have been able to subsist without a farthing of money to spend, without provisions or resources of any kind: "tucto esta su le espalle de li huomini de la cità e del paese." So dear and scarce is food of any kind that men drop down dead from hunger, and that passing through the streets of this city one hears nothing but lamentations and wailings, women and children clamouring for bread.
No letters have been received from the King of Hungary. Nevertheless private advices state that money has been remitted to Germany, and that considerable armaments are being made. We are not, however, informed when the reinforcements will be ready, and certainly, if they do not arrive soon, it is all over with us. For eight consecutive months we have not received money, nor assistance of any kind, not even letters from Spain.
The last advices from Rome are that the Pope had recovered his liberty and moved to Orbietto, after delivering hostages, &c. He (the Pope) had promised to pay the amount of his debt, and if so, it was expected that the army would soon leave Rome, but when and how God only knows.
The country is so ruined that no food is to be found anywhere, and the men forage as they best can (biveno ad arbitrio, senza remedio). This Leyva cannot help, as his soldiers have no money and must not starve. The consequence is that daily requisitions take place in the city, and the men, and principally the Germans, treat the inhabitants with great harshness (con molta aspereza), retaining many gentlemen and ladies prisoners in their lodgings (in loro hospicii) from fear of their quitting the place.
News has come that Lautrech with his whole force was at Faenza, ready to push on to Tronto, on the road to the kingdom [of Naples]. His Imperial Majesty will know best whether this information is correct or not; at any rate the situation is critical, &c.—Milan, 3rd February 1528.
Signed: "II Prothonotario Caracciolo."
Addressed: "Sacræ, Cesæ., Cathcæ. Mti."
Italian. Original entirely in cipher. Contemporary decipherimg on separate sheet, pp. 2.
4 Feb.317. Don Martin de Salinas to Ferdinand, King of Hungary.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
f. 190.
On 'the 26th ult.. Luis de Taxis arrived at this Court with His Highness' letters, the contents of which were communicated to the Emperor, at a time when he was about to send Mons. de Montfort, gentleman of his bed-chamber, on the secret mission mentioned in his (Salinas') despatch of the 19th ulto., forwarded through the Velzers.
Is sorry to hear that the Emperor's autograph letter was not so explicit respecting the grant of Milan as his private conversation with Lallemand, at which he (Salinas) was present, led him to expect. That Secretary assured him at the time that nothing could be more encouraging and kind than the expressions used by the Emperor, and as all offers of peace based upon the restoration of Francesco Sforza to his Duchy have since been rejected, there can be no doubt that no material change has taken place since he wrote. Had his Highness crossed over to Italy, as all his servants and well-wishers wanted him to do, there would have been no excuse for the Emperor refusing him the investiture of Milan.
Now His Highness writes to say that he is so much engaged with other matters, so destitute of money, and that the affairs of Italy are in such bad plight, that there is no possibility of crossing over in force. On the other hand, things have materially changed since; negotiations for peace were then going on, though with no great hope of success, whereas now there is nothing but preparation for war. Fancies that the principal cause of the negotiations having been broken off is that the Emperor insisted upon the King of France withdrawing his armies from Italy, and restoring all his conquests by land or sea, and, therefore, that there is nothing lost, since His Highness may yet, with the Emperor's favour and his own exertions, attain that which he so much deserves.
The letters for Don Juan Manuel and Confessor (Fr. Garcia de Loaysa) were duly delivered, but as neither of them knows what has been privately negotiated with His Imperial Majesty, nor what message Mons. de Montfort takes [to England], no help can be expected from them just now.
Respecting His Highness' inquiry, whether it would be possible to obtain from the churches and towns in Spain some sort of assistance in money for the war against the Turk, the ambassadors' answer is that at the Cortes of Valladolid the Emperor went so far as to try the expedient and make the proposal, but that it was considered prudent to withdraw it; for His Highness must know that in this country, and at the present times, words and money do not always go together, (fn. 2) and there is great need of the latter. Besides, news has lately reached this Court, more particularly from the Antwerp fair, that His Highness had lately recovered not only the whole kingdom of Hungary, but Belgrade also, and a portion of the territory formerly conquered by the Turk, and if so, His Highness' merits deserve a better reward than money. To which may be added, that people here feel confident that, however great the present wants and troubles, the Emperor and his brother are sure to come out victorious in the end.
With regard to the Count Palatine (Frederic), whom His Highness recommended in his last for the vacant post of Viceroy of Naples, he (Salinas) spoke to the Emperor, who said that he was about to despatch to His Highness the Provost of Balcrique (Valkirck) to communicate certain matters respecting Italy, but that he reserved the Count for another and better post than the viceroyalty of Naples.
Has mentioned in a former despatch the fact of the ambassadors taking leave of the Emperor. Has since ascertained that those of England, France, Venice, and Florence asked for an audience, and said that since they could not do anything towards peace, they begged leave to depart. The day after two kings-at-arms of France and England made their appearance at the Palace Hall, and sent to say that they wished to make certain declarations in the name of their respective kings. His Imperial Majesty knew very well what their errand was, for they had been five or six months at Court for that purpose. They were accordingly admitted into the large hall of the Palace, to which all the nobles, prelates, and knights at Court had been previously summoned. The Emperor heard what the heralds had to say, which was to give a formal challenge in the names of their respective sovereigns, after which he answered in the most resolute and dignified manner, as the enclosed copies both of the challenge and reply will sufficiently show. His Highness can hardly imagine the impression which the Emperor's words, delivered in a high and distinct voice, produced upon the assembly. Every one of those present considered the challenge as made to himself individually, and was delighted to see the French king-at-arms throw down the gauntlet in his master's name.
All the above-mentioned ambassadors, with the only exception of the English, who are still at Court, have been, by the Emperor's commands, removed to a place called Poza, where they are kept under guard. The Dauphin also, and his brother the Duke of Orliens (Orleans), have been confined to a spot where they ought to have been from the very beginning, and all the servants about their persons dismissed.
His Imperial Majesty was glad to hear the details of the coronation at Prague. He should very much like to know for certain what is the amount of the service in money which the kingdom has offered to His Highness. The letters which the Venetian ambassador and others have received state that each house is to pay two ducats, and that one horse, fully caparisoned and equipped for war, is to be furnished besides by every twenty families.
Secretary Lallemand showed the Emperor His Highness' letter granting him 10,000 florins annual pension. He did so by his (Salinas') advice. The Emperor was much pleased.
Hungary and the Vayvod, &c.
Things in Italy seem to be mending. By the last advices the Pope was free, and the Imperial army marching on Lombardy. Money had been procured for its most immediate wants, and further remittances were expected. He (Salinas) read to the Emperor the letter of His Highness, showing his inability to cross over to Italy at the present moment owing to the state of Hungary.
Christoval de Castillejo. Bernaldino de Meneses is to be knighted shortly.
Has applied in due time for the Treasury of Granada in favour of Don Pedro de Cordova, as he was instructed to do. The Emperor's answer was that he could not dispose of it, as all the offices and emoluments which the late Viceroy of Naples (Charles de Lannoy) possessed had been promised to his sons. The precentorship of Malaga should have been bestowed upon the person recommended by His Highness had it not been found upon inquiry that its late holder had already resigned it during his lifetime.
Montfort will give full account of all the provisions lately made at Court. The Archbishop of Toledo (fn. 3) is to leave for Rome in a few days, as he is the person appointed to visit the Pope.
The post of Grand Equerry bas been given to Mons de Rus (Rœux).—Burgos, 4th February 1528.
Addressed: "To the King."
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 6.
5 Feb.
S. E. C. d. l. L. 16,
f. 288.
B. M. Add. 28,577,
f. 145.
318. Licte. Martin de Vargas, Corregidor of Guipuzcoa, to the Emperor.
Has his letters informing him of the challenge of the Kings of France and England, and ordering him to place the province in a state of defence. Has accordingly convoked the deputies of the province and proposed to them to arm a strong fleet, and issue orders for all men able to bear arms to be in readiness to repel any aggression of the French or English.—Azpeitia, 5th of February 1528.
Spanish. Holograph. 1.
5 Feb.319. The Emperor to Nicolas Perrenot.
S. E. L. 1,554.
B. M. Add. 28,577,
f. 147.
Since our letter by Guillaume Coste every effort has been made here to ensure the peace of Christendom, to promote which We have generously relinquished part of our own right, so much that it is doubtful whether the King of France would have done the same under similar circumstances. There only remained one point of disagreement between us, namely, the recall of his army from Italy, and the restitution of Genoa and other cities previous to the release of his two sons, to which the King would nowise consent. Had We agreed to such a condition as this, which the French ambassadors have since adhered to most pertinaciously, it is quite clear that all our sacrifices for the sake of peace would have been fruitless, since, far from its being firmly cemented and sincere, a gate would have been opened for new, fiercer, and destructive wars Yet, considering ourselves in duty bound to persevere in our purpose, which has always been, and is, to obtain an honourable peace at any cost, We hereby inform you of the public declaration made by us to the French ambassadors at our last interview. We told them that should their King consent to the recall of his army from Italy, and to the restitution of Genoa and other cities and towns taken from us during this war—which certainly is not too much to ask—We were ready to make peace, and immediately after release his sons. That We also intended recalling our Italian armies and settling all political matters in such a way that all differences existing between the Princes and potentates of that country should be satisfactorily arranged, and a solid and lasting peace ensured. Besides pledging our faith and word to the immediate libera tion of the sons of France, the moment the above conditions were fulfilled, We offered at the time other substantial securities, more important even than the recall of the French army and restitution of Genoa, namely, our pledging in the hands of the King of France the sum of 1,000 cr. of gold for the restitution of Tournay, and making the King of England stand security for the fulfilment on our part of that and other conditions of the treaty. But the French ambassadors, without offering to consult their court respecting these proposals, have obstinately refused to entertain them, insisting that the release of the King's sons must needs precede the recall of their army and restitution of Genoa.
Such was the state of the negotiations when on the 15th of January last the French ambassadors took leave of us, and on the 22nd a king-at-arms came and solemnly challenged us in the name of his master. Enclosed is a copy of our answer to the royal herald, that you may know what was said on the occasion, without the addition or suppression of one single word. On the receipt of this letter you will wait on the King and ask for your congé, and after obtaining the necessary safe-conduct, which We have no doubt will be easily granted, you will come back to Spain by way of Bayonne and Fontarrabia. The Bishop of Tarbes (Gabriel de Grammont), the President of Bordeaux, and Secretary Bayart are at Poza, eight leagues from this city (Burgos), and shall not be allowed to depart until We hear of your being close to Fontarrabia. You will also inform us as soon as possible what treatment you have experienced in France, for certainly according as that may have been We shall give orders for the French ambassadors, or each of them, to be treated in a similar manner. Should you be allowed to depart you will not fail to apprise us of your arrival at Bayonne; if, on the contrary, no letter from you should come, We shall conclude that you have been ill-treated and detained, and shall take our measures accordingly. You will not forget to bring with you, or send back, Coste, the courier, and, moreover, despatch Montfort (fn. 4) to England with the enclosed letter [for our ambassador], the duplicate of this one, and copies of all the papers We now send you.—Burgos, 5th February 1528.
French. Original draft. pp. 5.

Footnotes

1 Campeggio.
2 "Por que crea V. A. que es cosa de donde se sacaria mas verguença que provecho, por que palabras y dineros no andan todas vezes juntos."
3 D. Alfonso de Fonseca, from the 26th of April 1524 to the 4th of February 1534.
4 The copy at Brussels which Dr. Karl Lanz used (Correspondent, &c., i. p. 259) has, "Et au surplus vous envoierez Don Hugues de Montcada en Angleterre porter la lettre qui est en ce pacquet," but as Moncada was then acting as Viceroy of Naples, I have not hesitated in substituting Montfort.