April 1528, 1-10


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'Spain: April 1528, 1-10', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2: 1527-1529 (1877), pp. 641-651. URL: Date accessed: 21 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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April 1528, 1-10

S. E. L. 1,454,
f. 49.
B. M. Add.28,577.
f. 32.
392. The Emperor's Declaration respecting the Division of the Duchy of Milan.
Be it known to all Whereas, notwithstanding our constant endeavours to conclude a general peace between the Princes of Christendom, We have hitherto been disappointed, chiefly through the confederated powers suspecting that We purposed retaining the Duchy of Milan, or giving it to our brother Ferdinand, the King of Hungary and Bohemia, We hereby declare that, far from having entertained such ambitious designs, We fully intended, after the said Duchy of Milan had, at our own expense, and by the force of our arms, been reduced to obedience, to restore it to the illustrious Francesco Sforza (though he has no right whatever to it), and graciously grant him again the investiture of the same on condition of his paying a moderate sum as indemnity for the expenses of the war, before such investiture, and taking the usual oath of fidelity. Francesco Sforza, however, instead of showing his gratitude for our favours, has tried to work out our ruin and that of our army, entering into alliances with our enemies, carrying on war on the said Duchy, &c. Things being in this state, and our longing for peace remaining as great as ever, We proposed to the Apostolic Nuncio, then residing at our court, that should the Duke Francesco Sforza he legally deprived of the said estate, and the fief falling in reversion to the Sacred Roman Empire; should the Pope think it more advantageous for the peace and tranquillity of Italy, and for the conclusion of universal peace, that the said Duchy of Milan should be entirely broken up and dismembered, and apportioned among several lords, in such case We were fully prepared, without retaining for ourselves or for our brother the King [of Hungary] any part, however small, of the said Duchy, to divide the same between various lords, princes, potentates, and other private persons, "jure feudi disponere, debitasque investituras sub rationabili pretio seu servitio juxta rerum ac personarum qualitatem unicuique concedere, taliterque providere ne de cætero quispiam ad ipsius status occupationem, illius ampliatione disjuncta atque suppressa, verisimiliter aspirare, seu Italiam propterea turbare præsumeret."
We then appointed Don Ugo de Moncada, the Prince of Aurentia (Orange), and Mr. de Verey (Veyre), our chamberlain, to be our orators and ambassadors, to treat and negotiate with the Pope as to the manner in which the said Duchy should be divided, and to whom the investiture should be given. (fn. 1)
393. Draft of Treaty sent to the Cardinal. (fn. 2)
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof-u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 224, No. 29.
1. The Emperor to give His most Serene Highness the King of England hostages for the release of the [King's] sons, after receiving in the very act of the restitution 1,200,000 crowns of gold, besides the obligations which the aforesaid King of England holds from the Emperor for the money lent to him; after receiving also the lands and territories which the Duke of Vendome, and the most illustrious Lady, the Queen mother of the most Christian King, possess within the Emperor's dominions. The said delivery being accomplished, the most Christian King shall make over to the King of Portugal, or to the Duke of Savoy, the towns and castles of which mention is made in the overtures (oblationibus). This done, the Emperor shall give back the sons [of France] in the manner above described, and as soon as the delivery is effected shall recover his own hostages, whilst the King of Portugal or the Duke of Savoy, whoever is appointed, shall also give back to the Emperor the said towns and castles; on this condition, however, that, previous to the liberation of his sons by the Emperor, the most Christian King of France shall give security through the King of England that immediately after the release of the hostages he will recall his army from Italy.
2. Or if the Emperor prefers, the most Christian King will pay him 800,000 crowns of gold, besides the obligations which the King of England holds, and the Emperor will then give up the Dauphin [of France]. As regards the restitution of the towns [and castles] the following order may be observed:—The most Christian King shall make over to the King of Portugal, or to the Duke of Savoy, Genoa and Asti, and to the King of England the town of Hesdyn; on this condition, that they shall deliver and give them up to the Emperor immediately after the liberation of the Dauphin. That the Duke of Orleans will remain in the hands of the Emperor until the most Christian King recall his Italian army, and the Emperor receive the rest of the money completing the total sum of two millions, whether by giving in payment the lands and estates of the Duke of Vendome, or otherwise, with this stipulation, that the Emperor shall be bound to give hostages to the King of England for the liberation of the said Duke of Orleans, immediately after the recall of the French army and payment of the remaining money up to the total sum of two millions, as above said.
3. Or if the Emperor so prefers, let him on the receipt of the money, obligations, and lands above mentioned, give back the King's sons, and the most Christian King deliver as hostages all the persons designated in the Madrid convention, "qui in præsent sunt in suo regno, exceptis suis filiis, pro consignatione et restitutione Januæ, Ast et Hesdyn, et revocatione exercitus, qui remanebunt obsides in manu serenissimi Regis Angliæ quoad rex Christianissimus omnia perimpleverit quæ superius dictæ sunt."
4. If neither of the above proposals should be accepted, the most Christian King engages himself, immediately after the conclusion of the peace, to give back to the Emperor Asti and Hesdyn, in which case the Emperor, after receiving the money, obligations, and lands to the amount of two millions, as above stated, will give up the Dauphin only, the Duke of Orleans still remaining in his hands. This being done, the most Christian [King] will give Genoa back to the Emperor and recall his Italian army; on condition, however, that the Emperor will also give security to the King of England that, immediately after the restitution of Genoa and recall of the French army, he (the Emperor) will deliver the Duke of Orleans to the most Christian [King] his father.
5. Should the Emperor reject all the above proposals a fifth mode might be suggested, which is for the most Christian [King] to pay down in cash 1,200,000 crowns of gold, and the rest as in the first article; on condition, however, that simultaneously (uno et eodem tempore) with the consignment of the said money, obligations, and territories to the Emperor, he (the Emperor) be bound to give back both the King's sons; and that equally before the Emperor gives back the hostages the most Christian King engage himself (obliget se) to give up all the towns and castles mentioned in the overtures (oblationibus) previously made, and also to recall, his [Italian] army, under pain of incurring ecclesiastical censure, and a fine of one million of gold. Further, that the King of England, after receiving from the most Christian King satisfactory securities and hostages, promise and pledge himself to the Emperor that the said towns and castles shall be duly restored, and the French army [in Italy] recalled, and that in case the most Christian King should not fulfil and accomplish the said conditions, the said King of England will take up arms and declare war against him conjointly with the Emperor.
6. Again, should the Emperor prefer it, the towns and castles may be returned, the money paid, and obligations given simultaneously with the delivery of the sons of France, after which the Italian army will be recalled. The better to bind both Princes to their engagements, each party shall give security to the King of England of one million of gold to be paid by the party failing to keep such engagements to the other.
Latin. Original draft, pp. 4.
6 April.394. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 223.
Since his letter of the 26th ulto., advising the arrival of Julian de la Speça (Giuliano della Spezzia) With bills of exchange, (cipher:) he (Perez) has been told by Thomasso de' Fornar[is], who came with him and is now here in concealment, (common writing:) that he was ready to fulfil the engagements taken [in Spain], and would pay the money as he received it. Accordingly, a few days ago, he paid him, by Don Ugo's order. 2,000 ducats, which have not yet been spent, but will be as soon as Don Ugo and the Prince will give him the requisite vouchers and receipts, &c.
The aforesaid Thomasso has given him four bills of exchange, drawn by Stefano Centurione and Ansaldo de' Grimaldi, for the receipt here and at Rome of 33,300 ducats. Those that were to be paid here by Cosmo Pinelo and Agustin Calvo have been presented, but are not yet accepted. Another bill for 10,000 ducats on Rome, payable here at Naples by the said Cosmo, in case of the Grimaldi not being at Rome, the former banker refuses to accept, on the plea that the bank of the Grimaldi on whom it is drawn has its fixed residence at Rome. Is about to send thither a messenger for the acceptance of that bill, and of another also drawn upon that house,
Don Juan Pimentel is about to start for Spain by way of Sicily. He takes with him a writ forbidding the judges the Marquis [of Astorga] took with him to Spain, to take cognizance of the marriage business, but the whole thing to be brought [to Rome] for the decision of the Rotta.
The bills of exchange were about to be accepted by Stefano Centurione, when his brother, Agostino, interfered, saying that the 5,000 ducats advanced by him to Don Ugo and the Prince of Orange for the pay of the Germans were still owing to him, and that he had also in his possession promissory notes of the Emperor for another 5,000 advanced in Spain, and the interest thereupon, which he says ought to be discounted from what his brother Stefano has to pay. In this emergency, for fear lest this claim and protest of Agostino should prevent the acceptance of the said bills of exchange, it has been agreed that the whole of the debt shall be deducted from the amount.
Thomasso de' Fornariis has paid in 9,000 ducats more, and offers to do his utmost in this respect.
The Prince of Orange, the Marquis del Guasto, and Alarcon. have arrived. They will, no doubt, write [to Spain], saying what they intend doing, whether bringing the Imperial army into Naples, or keeping it outside in the neighbourhood. Whatever they do, it is quite evident that they will be able to defend themselves against Lautrech, who is said to be approaching; the only fear is that the enemy's fleet may stop the supplies, &c. Geronimo Moron came also four days ago to attend conjointly with the Collateral Council to the provisioning of this city and army. He is a very good man of business, and his presence is likely to be of great service.
On the 4th inst., as the Marquis del Guasto was going out to receive the Prince of Orange, accompanied by Cardinal Colonna and Don Ugo [de Moncada], he remained behind with five or six of his own retainers on horseback, and made abruptly for a street where the Count of Potencia lived. He found him riding on a mule, and his son on a horse. The Marquis went up to them, and gave the Count two sword cuts in his arms, wounding the son through the breast, after which he rode away and went to Iscla (Ischia). Neither of the wounds is said to be dangerous. What the cause of the assault may be, nobody knows, except it be on account of the differences existing at one time between the Count and the Marquis of Pescara (Don Hernando de Avalos), Guasto's uncle. The Prince and Don Ugo, however, have sent for the Marquis to make up the quarrel (para entender en las pazes), and again place him in command of his men.
The other day, also, Juan de Urbina had words with Captain Salzedo in the very presence of the Marquis del Guasto, and gave him a sabre cut. Some say that there was even more than that. The cause of the broil was that Urbina charged Salzedo with being the promoter of a mutiny that had taken place among the Spaniards two days previous. Salzedo gave him the lie, upon which Urbina drew out his sword and wounded him as related. Salzedo came here to his lodgings in Naples, and the affair might have assumed a serious aspect, had not the Marquis interfered and blamed Juan de Urbina for his hasty temper. The Spaniards, who love the latter, had nearly taken up arms, but through the prudence and moderation of the Marquis the whole was satisfactorily arranged. Salzedo and Urbina are friends again, and a deputation has come from the Spanish infantry, begging the Marquis to return to the camp. He has actually come back from Ischia, and is about to start for the camp.
Thomasso de' Fornariis has made over to us the 35,000 "tumbanos" of wheat he ordered from Sicily. They shall be given to the municipality (ciudad), to divide between the inhabitants and the army. The cost of the whole amounts to 38,000 ducats, "de carlines." Thomasso and Giuliano della Spezzia are going to Rome to forward the Emperor's money affairs in that city.—Naples, 6th April 1528.
Signed: "Perez.''
Addressed: "To His Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty"
Indorsed: "To the King. 1528. Perez. 6th April"
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering between the lines. pp. 4.
6 April
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 225.
B. M. Add. 28,577,
f. 210.
395. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
Has received no letters from Spain since August of last year. Encloses copies of those of the King of Hungary and Bishop of Trent.
A courier has just arrived, who left Augusta (Augsburg) on the 31st March. He says that the day before the Duke of Brunswick arrived there at the head of 1,000 cavalry. Feels certain that by this time the Duke is with his forces between Insbruck and Trent, and that about Easter he will be in Italy. These people must be already aware of the fact, since, besides the 4,000 infantry mentioned in his (Sanchez's) last despatch, they have now very recently ordered 6,000 more to be raised. They are to be in all 10,000, but he (Sanchez) fancies that they will be none of the best, and that most likely they will never reach that number. (Cipher:) Against the arrival of these German reinforcements ample funds must needs be provided from Spain, as he (Sanchez) has had occasion to point out in several of his despatches; otherwise the confusion likely to arise from so many thousands being without money or provisions will be awful.
The son of the Duke of Ferrara (Ercole) left on the 3rd inst. for France. (Cipher:) He will pass through Modena and Reggio, where he will spend the Easter festivities. The Germans might, however, arrive in Italy about that time, and in that case the Duke is sure to tell his son not to proceed on his journey. Of the machinations (andamientos) and intrigues of the Duke, there must be sufficient proof at Court, and therefore there is no need for him (Sanchez) to say anything more on the subject.
(Common writing:) This Signory's proveditor at Lautrech's camp writes in date of the 21st March that the Imperial army at Troya had retreated 12 miles to a place called Ariano. Fancies that the movement can easily be explained by the desire of the Prince of Orange and others in command of the Imperial forces to join Don Ugo, who with 5,000 infantry, 200 lances, and 14 pieces of artillery, besides several barons and nobles, was coming from Naples. The same proveditor writes again on the 25th, announcing that Lautrech's people had stormed Melfi, inside which place were 600 foot, all of whom had been put to the sword, not sparing women or children. The reason for so much rigour must have been that two bands (bandas), which Lautrech had sent against that place, bad been repulsed by the inhabitants with great loss, and that since the commencement of this war that general is said to have lost before Naples alone 40 of his best captains. He therefore went to Melfi with the whole of his force, resolved upon punishing the inhabitants, and, when the city was stormed, ordered a general massacre. The Prince of Melfi (Caracciolo) was, they say, inside the place, and consequently was either killed or taken prisoner; but others assert that he was not there. He (Sanchez) rather inclines to the latter opinion. The Venetian proveditor adds that at the date of his letter the Imperialists were at Ariano, 14 Italian miles from Melfi.
Leyva is doing wonders in Lombardy. Having taken up positions on the banks of the Adda, he is waiting no doubt for the German reinforcements. He had lately made some sort of agreement with the Castellan of Mus (Gianiacopo de' Medici), through which the Switzers and Grisons, who used to come to Italy that way, will now be obliged to take a very circuitous road.
Rumours are afloat of the great preparations the Turk is making against Hungary. The Duke of Urbino arrived yesterday. He will not make a long stay.
The Signory, it appears, have lately had letters from France, about the great preparations now being made in that country, as well as in England, to invade Flanders. The same intelligence has been brought from Orbieto by a gentleman coming from those parts, who says that in a conversation held with the Pope on the 24th ulto., whilst lamenting together the present wars, he said, "Your Holiness might wait and see what turn affairs will take," and that the Pope answered, "Yes, I would if my estates were entire as formerly," (fn. 3) which declaration on the part of His Holiness would show that he intends soon to decide for one of the contending parties, and wait for the issue of the war in Naples. The same gentleman says that the Pope announced to him the arrival at Orbieto of an English ambassador with most exorbitant demands in the name of the King, his master. Among other things he wanted his marriage with Doña Catalina, the Emperor's aunt, annulled, which petition the Pope was disinclined to grant for the present, though there is no saying how he may think hereafter. It is rumoured here that the Spanish fleet, or at least 28 of the vessels (barchas) of which it is composed, has arrived at Naples. Whence the news has come, or by whom conveyed, he (Sanchez) cannot guess; all he can say is that a Spaniard, coming from Sicily, asserts that at the date of his departure from that island seven vessels (barchas) had arrived at Trapani, and several more were expected.—Venice, 6th April 1528.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, pp. 3¼.
7 April.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 235.
396. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador at Genoa, to the Emperor.
Received on the 2nd inst. the Emperor's letters of the 13th of December and 20th of February; the former being a duplicate of that which was intrusted to Miçer Juliano, (fn. 4) the Doge's secretary. However, as the latter has not yet made his appearance, he (Soria) is at a loss how to act in his new charge of Commissary General to the Imperial army in the room of the Abbot of Najera. Therefore, until the said Giuliano arrives, he (Soria) does not intend moving from La Mirandola, unless the reinforcements expected from Germany should come in the meanwhile, for in that case he will join them, and enter at once upon the exercise of his functions. Were he indeed to attempt even going to Milan now, it would be impossible, as the country round this place is in the hands of the enemy, who keep very strict watch at all the passes, stopping all messengers and letters sent by the Imperialists. He himself is so well known throughout the Genoese territory that he could hardly expect to pass unnoticed, however secret he might try to keep his journey.
(Cipher:) The bearer of this and other letters will be Estevan Espindola. Suspecting that he was about to proceed to Spain, and might possibly have messages and letters from him (Soria) and other Imperial agents, the present governor of Genoa (fn. 5) ordered his arrest, but he had time to escape. Recommends him to the Emperor's notice, as he and his family remain faithful and do good service.
Is glad to hear that ample provision of money has been made for this Imperial army, and that reinforcements of ships and men are to be sent to Naples and Sicily. The 100,000 ducats in bills of exchange remitted to the King of Hungary will help effectually towards raising a considerable force in Germany, although if this war goes on that sum will only last a few days, and further provision must needs be made.
The 13,000 ducats now remaining in his hands out of the last 20,000 to be spent in the building of galleys and so forth, he (Soria) will lay out according to the Emperor's orders. (Common writing:) As Antonio de Leyva has applied very urgently for money, stating that he has not one farthing with which to pay his men, he (Soria) has sent a message to Jorge de Fransperch (Fruntsperg), now at Ferrara, inquiring whether he has been reimbursed of his advances to the German troops at the request of the late Duke of Bourbon. Having heard from him that not only has he not received a quatrino, but is in a state of desperation about it, he will be paid according to orders, and the remainder of the money sent to Leyva.
(Cipher:) As soon as Secretary Giuliano arrives with instructions care shall be taken to present the bills of exchange for 400,000 ducats, and cash the amount, that it may be fairly distributed between the various branches of the Imperial service.
(Common writing:) The late challenge made by the Kings of France and England, and the Emperor's answer to it, are now known to the world. Since the King of France pretends to seize by force of arms his two sons, given as hostages for his word of honour, let the Emperor take up arms in his own defence, and compel him to the fulfilment of the stipulated conditions.
(Cipher:) The Pope is still at Orbieto, affecting neutrality in public, though secretly he is as much disposed as ever he was to do all possible harm to the Imperial cause.
(Common writing:) Don Hercules, the Duke's son, left Ferrara for France on the 3rd inst., there to be married to Madame Renea (Renée). He is now at Modena, where and at Rezzo (Reggio) he intends staying until after Easter. (Cipher:) He is most probably gaining time to see what the armies in Pulla (Puglia) are likely to do. If nothing decisive takes place soon, he will no doubt determine upon his journey to France.
(Common writing:) The defeat of the Vayvod [of Transylvania] turns out to be true. It happened on the 6th of March. It is again stated that the Turk is arming both by land and sea with the intention of assisting him.
(Cipher:) Has just heard from Alonso Sanchez in date of the 30th ulto., and from Andrea de Burgo of the 5th inst. Both write to say that on the night of the 20th the Imperial army left Troya without the enemy becoming aware of its departure until it was broad daylight. They had reached a village called Ariano on the road to Naples, and had there been joined by Alarcon, who came from that city, with a reinforcement in men and artillery. On the other hand, letters from Troya of the 23rd, received at Orbieto, and copies of which were also forwarded by Sanchez and Burgo, state that on the evening of that day (the 23rd) Mons. de Lautrech had marched with the rest of his force upon Melfi, which Count Pedro Navarro was already battering with heavy artillery. The Prince [of Melfi] was inside the place, making a stout defence. Cesaro Ferramosca was at Barletta, and his brother, Count Minamon (sic; Mignano?) at Monrredoni (sic), which he had sacked owing to the inhabitants having refused to admit him, and their being in treaty with the enemy. Aquila had been completely sacked by Orazio Ballon (Baglione), who had afterwards joined Lautrech's camp at the head of the Florentines. Luis Pisani with the Venetians, amounting to about 4,000 men, had also joined the French on the 20th, so that the enemy's forces muster now about 20,000.
Hears that the Pope has commissioned Cardinal Salviati to ascertain whether the King of England can divorce his wife and marry another, and that His Holiness asks a large sum of money for the dispensation, which money the King of England is willing to pay on condition that it shall be spent in war against His Imperial Majesty. It is generally believed that the Pope will grant the dispensation required.
(Common writing:) Antonio de Leyva has taken the field, and is now between Milan and the river Adda, inflicting all possible harm upon the Venetians, whom he has defeated with great loss in several encounters, so that he is complete master of the country.
(Cipher:) In Germany some ecclesiastical Princes and others are taking up arms against the Lutherans; a bloody war is likely to ensue.
(Common writing:) There is a rumour afloat that Signor Vespasiano Colonna, the son of Prospero, is dead, but there is no certainty about it.
(Cipher:) A person of credit, lately arrived from France, says that great preparations are being made in that country to invade Flanders and Spain, but three things he says will make the undertaking fail; namely: The want of counsel and fit commanders for the army. 2ndly. The King's disease, which is supposed to be incurable. 3rdly. The want of money. All wise Frenchmen are of the same opinion.
(Common writing:) Count Giovanni Francesco [Pico] della Mirandola has married his daughter [Giulia] to the Lord of Arrimini (Rimini), Sigismondo [Malatesta], to whom the Pope has lately granted the investiture of that fief, to please, as he says, His Imperial Majesty. His father-in-law, the Count, is a good servant of the Empire, and therefore the Pope ought to be written to in acknowledgment of the favour granted, &c.
Estevan (Stefano) Grimaldo is also here. He left Genoa the day it was lost, and has never returned thither, though the French. Governor [Theodoro dé Triulzi] has had him tried as a rebel, and confiscated all his property, He wishes to be employed in the Emperor's service; is a man of great ability, and fit for any office. All his brothers, moreover, are good servants of the Emperor.—La Mirandola, 7th April 1528.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Holograph partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 5.
9 April.397. Count Burello to the Emperor.
M Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 241.
Would have written before concerning the affairs [of Naples] had he not been sure that both Don Ugo and the Prince of Orange send frequent reports. He will not, however, let the courier depart without assuring His Imperial Majesty of his readiness to sacrifice his person, family, and fortune for the Imperial service.—Naples, 9th April 1528.
Signed: "El Conde de Burrello."
Addressed: "Sacræ, Cesareæ, Cath. Mti."
Indorsed: "To His Majesty. From Count Burrello. 9th April. Answered."
Spanish Original, .. 1.


1 Two drafts of this document are to be found at Simancas (Leg. 1454), one bearing the date of the 1st December 1527, the other that of— April 1528. It may be that the older of the two was never sent to the Pope, or, if it was, that another copy was forwarded in April.
2 Probably by Margaret of Savoy, who began about this time to exert herself to bring about a peace between the belligerents.
3 By the negligence of the deciphering clerk the sense of this passage is rather obscure. It stands thus: "Que doliendose Su Santidad de estas guerras, este le "dixo que Su Santidad se estuviesse al ver, y que le respondió si, sis us tierras "estoviessen enteras como estavan."
4 Giuliano della Spezzia mentioned in former despatches.
5 Theodoro de' Triulzi.