Spain
May 1530, 1-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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Pascual de Gayangos (editor)

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1879

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523-543

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'Spain: May 1530, 1-15', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 1: Henry VIII, 1529-1530 (1879), pp. 523-543. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=87706 Date accessed: 29 July 2014.


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May 1530, 1-15

2 May.296. Muxetula to the Emperor.
S.E.L.851,
f. 5.
B. M. Add.28,580,
f. 1.
Has been expecting letters [from Mantua], which have come at last; has communicated to the prince [of Orange] the Emperor's orders. Perceiving the Pope's refusal to pay more than the 60,000 crs. per month, the Prince decided some time ago to disband part of his men and invest Florence more closely, so as to stop the supplies which the Florentines still receive from the neighbouring towns. To this effect he has resolved to bring 11,000 infantry on this side of the river; i,e., 3,000 Germans, the 2,000 Spaniards who came last from Naples, and 6,000 Italians, after taking from each colonelcy (coronelía) what is over that number. For the pay of these 11,000 men there is enough with the 60,000 crs. of the Pope, but then there is the light horse most indispensable in a war of this kind, and other minor expenses will arise for which 10,000 crs. are required. The object of the Prince is to surround the city in such a manner that the enemy may no longer receive supplies from the outside. The very day of his (Muxetula's) arrival, about 600 foot and 100 horse sallied out of Florence,and having joined at Empoli another force, went together to Volterra, 40 miles from hence, and as they still hold that fortress, were able to overrun the country and bring cattle and provisions into the city. To prevent the recurrence of such acts the Prince has now decided to lay siege to Empoli, half-way between Pisa and Volterra. To this end and in order to take the burden from the shoulders of the Sienese, who could no longer bear it, and for fear so many disbanded men should get together and do mischief, the Prince thinks of sending colonel Fabricio Marramaldo against Pisa and Volterra to engage the attention of the enemy in that quarter for some days.
Cesare di Napoli has received instructions to disband his men, and so will the other Italian colonels. As to Fabricio and the "aventureros" it will be seen what can be done with them; should His Imperial Majesty wish them to go to Hungary they will be glad to serve there.
The Prince has also, in a very polite way, dismissed many hundreds of Albanese light horse and sent them to Naples, to be paid and disbanded there. He could not do it here, as he was ordered, because had they been dismissed at this place there was a risk of their taking service with the enemy, for they are Greeks and are in the habit of doing this sort of thing. However, the Florentines did not want them, nor could they all be kept here. The Prince has kept 250 of them, the best of the lot, and given to those who have left for Naples 1,000 ducats out of the money furnished by Siena.
The 1,000 Spanish foot dismissed met together the other day and threatened to mutiny. There was evidently some trick about it, for many other Spaniards on this side of the river attempted also to join them, intending no doubt to compel the Prince by their great number to give in and keep them here. On his arrival at the camp he (Muxetula) spoke in very strong terms, explaining how sorry the Emperor would be of the mutiny of the Spaniards, and what a shame it was that soldiers of that nation should refuse to serve, when they ought to offer their service gratis, &c. This and other arguments have produced good effect, for not only has the desertion stopped, but most of those who did desert have returned to their banners, and others have separated from the bulk of the mutineers, who are now in a village of which they at first possessed themselves. Their captains are still in treaty with them, to make them obey orders and march to Hungary, or return to Spain.
The Imperial letters of the 27th April have come to hand. The mutineers still persist in their disobedience, and although the Imperial paymaster has offered them one month's pay at Bologna, and another at Trent (for such he says are His Majesty's orders), they still refuse to move, alleging that they have not one "real in their pouches." The Prince has promised them one ducat per man if they will go, but they are obstinate and will not give in. Nor does he dare make an example of them, for, after all, they have served the Emperor well. He is still trying to bring them round, and, if so, will be able to send 3,000 or 4,000 of them, for he has here more than he wants. Cesare of Napoli is also ready to start with his 1,000 Italians; but unless a ducat per man is issued to them at starting it is not likely that they will go.
Grant to the Viceroy (Chalon) of a pension of 15,000 ducats on the treasury of Naples.
Naples and the administration.
Cardinal Colonna and bills of exchange on Naples for 40,000 ducats.
Siena.—Military preparations against the Turk.
Ansaldo Grimaldo to pay the overplus of the "decimas" or tithes.
Has spoken to the Marquis [del Vasto] and to the Prince [of Orange], and made them friends again.
Ferrante Gonzaga and his commission of captain of the light horse, just as count Potença had it. As, owing to the new arrangements made at Milan, (fn. 1) the post of captain which Zuccharo (fn. 2) held, ceases, there will be more facility for such an arrangement.
When back at Rome he (Muxetula) will not fail to complain to His Holiness of the innovations introduced by his Nuncio at Naples.
Siena pays 5,000 crs. down in consideration of Fabricio having gone away with his Italians. The men, after all, did not molest the citizens so much as was said at first, but, nevertheless, the Sienese are very contented with the bargain they have made.
Will leave for Rome to-morrow, execute the Emperor's commission, and then start for Naples as ordered.—In sight of Florence, 2nd May 1530.
Signed: "Jo. Anto Muscetula."
Spanish. Original. pp. 7.
4 Mai.297.Rodrigo Niño to Miçer Mai.
S. E. L. 851.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 45.
The "fuorusciti" of Naples, who reside here [in Venice], are continually spreading most alarming rumours concerning the Emperor's affairs in Italy; Renzo da Ceri (they say) is going soon to France for the purpose of doing all the harm he can to the Imperial cause the moment that the liberation of the King's sons has been accomplished. His son (Giovan Paolo) left Naples on bad terms with him, as it would appear, but in reality with a view to assist his father in his wicked plans. He has already with him 14 Italian captains, all of whom were formerly in Puglia, and boasts that, whenever he chooses, he will cause 4,000 Italians to desert the Imperial camp, and go over to him. Six thousand Switzers (he says) will soon descend into Italy, and with that force he can at any time succour the Florentines, who have promised him 70,000 (?) ducats in bills of exchange upon Lyons.
The news of the Turk in date of the 28th March is that although the armaments go on very briskly it is firmly believed that they are intended not for this year but for the next. Later advices of 14th of April from Constantinople state that there is no rumour whatever of war for the present, and that the Turk [Solyman] is only thinking of the pageant and rejoicings that are to take place on the circumcision of his three sons.
With regard to England, the information is that the King is doing his utmost to gain the votes of the Paduan doctors through his ambassadors. No sooner did the Prothonotary (Caracciolo) and he (Niño) hear of it, than they both called on the Doge and Council on their own responsibility, and with-out waiting for instructions from home. Represented to them how unfriendly it would be on their part to allow such meetings to take place in the territory of the Signory. Their answer was that they were determined to prohibit them altogether, and had already intimated this resolution to the English ambassadors. Having since learned that, notwithstanding this prohibition, the English had gone to Padua and tried to do there all the mischief they could, he (Niño) went again to the Doge and complained. His answer was that he would see to it and stop their proceedings, as both their manner of negotiating (he said) and the affair itself seemed to him a most diabolical contrivance. Is told that during the English agent's stay at Padua he made the acquaintance of a friar of the name of Symoneta, a very perverse man, whom he induced to go to a place 20 miles from that university, and arrange the whole affair with another friar called Fray Francisco de Lavina. Similar steps had been taken at Venice to promote a meeting of theologians; but, as before stated, the Doge and Signory will not allow such meetings. To this end the English agents had brought letters from their king to the bishop of Theati (Chieti), but perceiving that his answer was unfavourable, they procured another introduction from the bishop of Verona (Gianmatheo Giberto), and tried, though unsuccessfully, to win the Theatine over to their side. In short, the English say that since they are not allowed to have the matter discussed in Venice or Padua they intend going to Bologna and holding their meeting there.
On the whole, the Signory's conduct in this affair has been most praiseworthy, because, whilst the English were trying to make the Paduan doctors vote in their favour, the Doge managed matters so well that out of six professors in that university, only one—named Mariano di Sena, the same who gave his opinion in writing more than six months ago—persists in his resolution to vote in their favour, but all their efforts in this way will be unavailing as long as the Doge keeps his promise, and since no danger is to be apprehended on this side, let the Imperial ministers keep an eye on Bologna.
The bishop of Quieti (Chieti) left the other day for Padua, to bring to trial and punish a friar who preached certain heretical propositions in a sermon; also to institute an inquiry respecting several German Lutherans who have taken shelter in that city, and who, it is said, are successfully spreading their wicked doctrines in that locality. Has himself written to the Paduans in the Emperor's name, exhorting them not to give shelter within their city to men professing and preaching such heresies. No answer has yet come, but as they are equally interested in preventing the spread of Lutheranism through their territory, has not the least doubt that a remedy will soon be applied to that evil.
Indorsed: "Paragraphs of letters of Rodrigo Niño for Miçer Mai at Rome, of the 4th, 13th, and 17th May."
Spanish. Contemporary copy. pp. 3½.
7 May.298. The Emperor to Miçer Mai.
S. E, Div. Desp.,
L. 1,557, f. 49.
B.M.Add. 28,580,
f. 9.
Our ambassador at the court of France has written to us respecting the business of the queen of England; you will see what he says by the copies of the enclosed despatches. A master of theology, named Garay, residing at Paris, has likewise written to inform us of the doings at that university, as you will see by the enclosed copies. We have written to the most Christian king of France, requesting him to procure the signatures of those doctors and theologians, who, according to the said Garay, have voted in favour of our aunt; but you and the other lawyers of the Queen's counsel, who have charge of her affairs in Rome, ought to consider that for many reasons, which cannot escape your penetration, it would be dangerous and much open to suspicion to adhere implicitly to the opinion of the said theologians of Paris, especially owing to the intrigues (platicas),which the king of England has been and is carrying on, and the favour he has or might have at that court. It would, however, be advisable that whilst discussing the subject with His Holiness you should tell him in our name that his nuncio at the court of France has done and is doing in this affair, as well as in all other matters concerning him and us, all that could be expected of him. This will induce His Holiness to write to his nuncio at Paris, who is well informed of the course of this affair, that he may in union with our ambassador concert measures for the success of our cause, as well as any other that may occur. You will take care to inform us as soon as possible of whatever may pass at the conference with His Holiness.—Inspruch (Innsbruck), 7th May 1530.
P.S.—Matters concerning Castille and the "quarta. (fn. 3) "
Since writing the above the English ambassador, who resides at this our court, has asked us permission to return to Rome for the affair of the divorce, saying he has orders to do so from the King, his master, owing to a gentleman of that king's chamber coming shortly to replace him. He told us more; he said that although his general orders were to go to Rome for the divorce case, he has reason to think that he is sent thither to advocate in favour of his master, and that the bishop of London (Tunstall) was for the same reason leaving Lyons for Rome. We give you proper notice of all this that you may be on your guard, and prepare, together with the Queen's counsel, the measures and acts most conducive to her welfare, without attending to what the English ambassador there may say, or losing any time since the term of one month lately granted has already expired. The said English ambassador purposes going to Trent with his family and servants; there he will take post to Rome. Should His Holiness or any of his cardinals allude to his departure you can make a suitable answer.
Spanish. Original draft. pp.3.
7 May.299. The Emperor to the Empress.
E. L. 21, f. 227,
f. 11.
Wished to dispatch Don Antonio [de Mendoza] from Trent, but press of business prevented it. On Tuesday his brother [Ferdinand] met him on the road. Was much rejoiced to see him. Travelled together to Inspruch (Innsbruck), where they arrived on Wednesday, and discussed German affairs.
To day, Thursday, letters have been received from Andrea Doria and from the ambassador at Genoa [Gomez Suarez de Figueroa]. The former would already have set sail had not the winds been contrary and the sea boisterous. In a later despatch dated the 1st the ambassador advises that Doria had actually left the port with part of the fleet, and that the rest of the galleys were to follow him soon. He has with him 29 galleys, namely, 15 of his own, 13 of France, and one of Naples. He will touch at Palamos, or at some other port on the coast of Catalonia, to collect information about the enemy (tomar lengua).
Provision and pay for the galleys.— Ysprough (Innsbruck), 7th May 1530.
Signed: "Yo el Rey."
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
8 May. S. E.L.4, f. 109.
B.M.Add.28,580,
f. 14.
300. De Validitate Matrimonii Henrici VIII. regis Angliæ cum Catherina Regina, a fratre Anselmo Voch Terino, Augustiniano Vicentino
Conclusio Prima. Nullus potest secundum legem divinam nee humanam accipere in conjugem uxorem fratris sui, et quando decesserit absque liberis.
Secunda conclusio. Papa non potest dispensare, et si dis-pensat facit quod non potest, et quod non debet in predicto casu quando frater vellet sumere in uxorem conjugem fratris sui mortui, dato quod esset mortuus sine liberis.
Adduces his proofs and then the writer continues: "These, I believe, were the reasons and the authorities brought forward in support of the above conclusions; but I (Vochterinus) had scarcely looked over them and over the proofs when suspicion was aroused concerning me, and the paper snatched out of my hands. Everything, however, was already in writing in the hand of Francesco Zorsi, who read the whole to me in the presence of a gentleman, not an Italian, whom he (Zorsi) called "Dominus Ricardus." This latter offered me 30 ducats if I would annotate the paper in my own hand, but I, who have written thrice for the faith of Christ and the Church of Rome, refused. Saw many signatures appended to the document, and some of them quite fresh.
If Holy Mother Church bids me to disprove the above false conclusions I am ready to do so with the authority of Holy Scripture, not with the arguments of those doctors who, though very holy and very learned, are generally called "scholastics," as I did once, writing against the Lutherans and in defence of the Sacred Consistory. Saw their writings on the 4th of May 1530.
This declaration was written by me on the 8th, at the command of the most Reverend Girolamo Saledeo (sic),bishop of Vaison, Papal Nuncio at the Imperial court.
Signed: "Humilis servitor frater Anselmus Vochterinus, Augustinianus Vicentinus."
After this follows: Revocation by Giovan Pietro, of Vicenza, friar minor, of his subscription to a paper in favour of the divorce. Given at Vicenza on the 7th of May, addressed to Girolamo, bishop of Vaison.
Latin. Original. pp. 6.
10 May.301.Mai to the High Commander Of Leon.
S.E. L. 851, f. 25.
B. M. Add. 28,580, f.20.
Wrote from Ferrara by one of Castaldo's servants advising what had been done up to that day in the affair, which they both know. Left in company with cardinal d'Osma (Fr. Garcia de Loaysa) and arrived at Rome on the 2nd inst. Found there the Emperor's letter of the 21st ulto and delivered its enclosure to the Pope.
The Pope's "advogado fiscal" is a good Imperialist. We want him continually. He it was who went to Spolctto at the time that a treasurer of the French was there distributing money and raising men for the Abruzzo; he succeeded in preventing the enlistment, &c. Your Lordship might address him a letter of acknowledgment as you did to the others.
Fray Felice del Prado (fn. 4) is the friar of Ancona, who wrote in favour of the Queen. He applied once for naturalization as a Spaniard, but it was refused to him because in reality he did not want it, being a native, as it appears, of Barcelona. He himself knows this, and therefore has not renewed his petition. He is the cousin of Dr. Coronel, and wishes for a letter to the Pope in his favour, that he may get a reserve of 500 ducats a year.
Don Juan de Borja has come here to claim the duchy of Camerino, which is held at present by a niece of the Pope, (fn. 5) and sister of cardinal Cibo.
Cardinal Ancona is still absent. Cannot say whether he will come to Rome this summer. We may want him for our affairs, but perhaps Your Lordship had better ignore him altogether, like Monte and La Valle.
Rome is at present full of Spaniards. Miçer Andrea del Burgo with the Countess, his wife, has just arrived.—Rome, 10th May 1530.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To the very illustrious and very magnificent lord, the High Commander of Leon."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2½.
10 May.302. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
H of-u.-StaatsArch.
Wien.Rep P.Fasc.,
c. 226, No. 25.
Since my despatch in date of the 23rd ulto, two letters of the 9th have been received, which arrived two days ago, and yesterday the Queen was to her great satisfaction informed thereof.
I have this day waited on the King, who arrived late last evening accompanied by the Lady. After presenting him Madame's letter in favour of a Flemish physician, who some time ago suffered ill-treatment in this country, the King asked me when had I heard last from Your Majesty. Told him that my last advices were those of the 9th, wherein Your Majesty expressed gratitude for the care and affection he had shewn in the restitution of the "fleur de lis." That the objection raised by Your Majesty's commissioners respecting the release (guidance) given by him in your favour, and to which he himself had alluded, had not proceeded from you, who were perfectly satisfied with the terms in which it was originally couched, but from the commissioners themselves, and that he could easily imagine and understand from the general tenour of your letters, as well as from the trust Your Majesty had at all times placed in him, that it would never spring from you. "Indeed, I am fully convinced," I said, "that had the other conditions of the peace, or the greater part of them, been fulfilled, Your Majesty would immediately have ordered the liberation of the princes, even without waiting for the release of the 'fleur de lis' in the form and in the words demanded by the commissioners; and most certainly the Emperor would not have given occasion for the reproach that he had for such a trifle led to a rupture of the much desired peace, feeling quite sure that at the required time and place he (the King) would give the release (quictance) in due form." I felt justified in expressing myself in this manner now that both the "fleur de lis" and the release (quictance) have been sent away. I should never have dreamt of such a thing before. I then added rather drily (ung plus seechemant): "the Emperor is surprised at Your Highness tolerating and allowing the circulation of such slanderous reports at your court, about princes in general, and especially about one, who, like the Emperor, my master, professes the greatest esteem and affection for Your Highness." These words of mine werevery acceptable to the King, for his countenance suddenly brightened, and he seemed very much pleased to hear them. He then asked me whether Your Majesty was already in Germany, to which I answered that I did not know for certain, but had no doubt you had arrived there. To his inquiries about the state of affairs in that country I replied that advices from Envers (Antwerp) stated that everything was improving, and all hoped that Your Majesty would soon make a complete and permanent reform. On this the King observed that there was a report in circulation that the cardinal of Mayence (Maintz) had taken a wife to himself, which was a very scandalous proceeding, and a bad beginning of reform. The report, he said, had been brought to London by an Englishman coming from Hungary, but comparing the date of the report and of the news lately received from Germany he had reason to believe that all was a pure invention.
Coming then to the point of the liberation of the children of France, the King said to me that he fancied that all the conditions stipulated had not been fulfilled. Replied that I was not aware of any wanting, except perhaps the restitution of the property once belonging to Mr. de Bourbon, which had not yet been accomplished. "That is a sort of thing," replied the King, "which cannot be an obstacle to the peace being consolidated," (and he said this under the impression, as he afterwards declared to me, that Your Majesty wanted a portion of that property for himself). He even maintained that there was a clause to this effect in the treaty of Cambray, but having informed him how the case stood, he praised Your Majesty's magnanimity in not claiming that for which you had a much better title than the Queen Mother (Louise de Savoie) as being descended from the elder branch of the family.
The King then told me that the gentleman whom he was about to send as resident ambassador to the Imperial Court, whose name was Elbi (fn. 6) would set out in five days.
With regard to the Crieveceur (fn. 7) affair the King told me that he had appointed Mr. de Londres (Cuthbert Tunstall) to look into it and report; but that he made difficulties about accepting the charge. I fancy, therefore, that nothing will be done in it (se coulera par dissimulation).
On taking leave of the King I asked and obtained permission to visit the Queen and the princess, who are to pass five or six days together at Richmond. I hope to go there to-morrow; indeed, had the permission been refused I should have gone all the same in disguise, the Queen having sent me word that she must absolutely see me one way or other.
The audience lasted a long time, and indeed had it not been that the hour for going to mass was approaching, and that the French and Venetian ambassadors were also waiting, it would have lasted longer. The said ambassadors were in the hall when I arrived, and were still there when I left the Royal chamber. The Frenchman was transacting business with the King's first secretary and Brian Tuke, but the subject could not be very important, for they were discussing it in a corner of the hall where the greater part of what was said could be overheard.
Whilst awaiting the King's audience I went into the apartments of the duke of Norfolk, who is now lodging at the Palace, and asked him the cause of the present convocation of prelates and theologians of this country. The Duke said that had I not asked the question he would of himself have volunteered to give me the required information, as many persons wrongly supposed, and perhaps I was one of them, that the assembly was for the purpose of discussing the Queen's case, and bringing about the new marriage. He assured me on his honour that there was nothing of the sort, the sole object of the convocation being to take measures for preventing the Lutheran heresy from entering this kingdom. It was for that exclusive purpose that the King had come here [to London], and he intended to be daily present at the meeting of the said prelates and doctors as one most competent to decide on those religious matters. (fn. 8)
Notwithstanding the Duke's asseverations, the Queen is afraid that something is about to be attempted to her prejudice. I have, therefore, sent in all haste to Madame [Margaret] for copies of the Papal brief in an authenticated form, that it may be exhibited before the King, if necessary. (fn. 9) The execution of the brief took place in Flanders some time ago, but no noise has been made about it here.
The Duke shewed me to-day a letter from the Staple (Debit) of Callaiz (Calais) which he said contained bad news for the King. Before declaring, however, what the news was, and having protested that he would not for the world that the King heard of it, he said with much solemnity that he would communicate it to me, provided I promised not to tell the King. The intelligence received proved after all to be nothing more than the execution of the Papal brief [in Flanders] which he (the Duke) considered a bad thing (mauvayse chose).
The Queen, though meeting with the accustomed treatment (oires quelle soit trayttee a laccoustumee),is so comforted by the many proofs of Your Majesty's affection, that she is now firmer than ever in her purpose. She hopes and believes that either out of regard for his own honour and reputation, or for fear of Your Majesty, the King will not dare make the other marriage. Should it take place, which may God prevent, I suspect that the King will hastily repent, and that he will be thankful to return to his first marriage if by so doing he could be freed from his second. This was also the opinion of the Cardinal (Wolsey) and of many others, for the said cardinal would willingly have given up his archbishopric [of York] that this had been attempted two years ago, for then he could not have been better revenged of an intrigue, which has caused his ruin. (fn. 10)
The Duke also said he had heard that the Turk had collected powerful armaments, both by land and sea, and that the Vayvod had occupied the whole of Hungary. He greatly lamented the trouble which the king of Hungary (Ferdinand) had hitherto had, and was likely again to meet with, should the Turk return to the attack. It was, indeed, a pity (the Duke remarked) that one of the most virtuous princes that ever lived should be exposed to such troubles and dangers without being assisted by the rest of the Christian princes. Upon which, having forcibly represented to him that the danger was indeed imminent, and that the affair did not concern only king Ferdinand, but all and every one of the princes in Christendom, I could not help reminding the Duke of the cold and curt answer (la froyde et crue responce) sent by the King when requested to give his help. The Duke replied that the vexation experienced by the King at seeing his project of a new marriage opposed in every quarter was the real cause of this, and that perhaps greater evils and inconveniences might spring up from the same source than we were aware of.
The King has not yet been officially informed of the answer given by Your Majesty to his ambassador respecting the overtures he himself once made to me, (fn. 11) that the suit should be limited to proving and establishing whether the Queen had, or had not, been known by prince Arthur. It has not been necessary, therefore, to speak about it. There are many persons who can give evidence on this point, but being English, and residing in this country, they will not venture to speak out the truth. The only way would be to obtain from the Pope a secret and extraordinary brief in the form I have recommended to Miçer Mai, to whom, as Your Majesty has been informed by my last, every particle of information that could be collected for the Queen's benefit has already been forwarded.
The earl of Vulchier (Wiltshire) has not yet arrived. Nor has the King heard of him since his arrival at Milan on the 3rd of April, at which he is very much surprised. I hear, on good authority, that the King is very dissatisfied at his manner of conducting negociations, the Earl having given no proofs of the intelligence and ability generally attributed to him here. The King, when he first heard of the Earl's ill-success and subsequent dismissal from Your Majesty's court, was for two consecutive days deliberating whether he would or would not dispatch a courier to him with orders to return immediately to Your Majesty, for there is a rumour current that he was very rudely treated, at which people were greatly rejoiced and failed not to praise Your Majesty for it. Indeed, considering who the Earl is, and what errand he went on, everyone thinks that he might have been treated much worse.
There has been quite recently here an ambassador from the king of Scotland (James) seeking reparation and compensation for the invasions and injuries inflicted in times upon his master's kingdom, stating, after a good many representations of this kind, that unless immediate redress was granted to his master's complaints the Scots would have recourse to war in order to obtain it. The ambassador must also have been the bearer of some message or other from the Queen Mother to this king, for having, in the presence of all his Council, made an answer, the latter said, among other things, that he was not at all satisfied at his nephew of Scotland being surrounded by such young and inexperienced councillors, and being placed under the guardianship of a queen, who, having deserted her second husband, had now taken another. As to the war to which the ambassador alluded, he should indeed regret having to commence it against his own nephew, and against people so impoverished and ruined as the Scots were. Upon which the ambassador, either in pursuance of his instructions, or prompted by his witty and facetious humour—of which he has a considerable share—or perhaps also thinking that since war was spoken of he could not but give a martial answer, said: "If the king of England, as a good uncle, regrets the bad counsels which he says have been given to his nephew, my master of Scotland, as a dutiful nephew of the King, his uncle, regrets still more those which his councillors have given him from time to time, and of which experience has shown the bad consequences. As to the Queen Mother, she has hitherto conducted the affairs of government so much to the satisfaction of the Scots that all to a man are ready to die for her. She cannot be blamed for her separation from her first husband, since the Holy Father and the judges of the land have approved of it; and besides, that is not a thing to be wondered at, when Your Majesty, after so long a union with such a princess as queen Katherine is now seeking for a divorce!" "In short" (he added) "the kingdom of Scotland is singularly thankful to Your Majesty for your considerate regard for its safety and welfare, much greater, as it appears, than you have for your own subjects, some of whom might also be the sufferers if things came to a rupture." (fn. 12) The ambassador has not had a definitive answer to his claim; he has gone home to his master to relate what he has seen and heard here, and is to return [to England] in a few days.
It is now a long time since the duke of Suffolk has been at Court. Some say that he has been exiled for some time owing to his having denounced to the King a criminal con nection of the Lady with a gentleman of the Court who had already once been dismissed from Court on such suspicion. This time the gentleman had been sent away at the request of the Lady herself, who feigned to be very angry with him, and it was the King who had to intercede for his return. (fn. 13) Others attribute the Duke's absence from Court to other causes with which I will acquaint Your Majesty at the very first opportunity.
The King shews greater favour to the Lady every day; very recently coining from Windsor, he made her ride behind him on a pillion, a most unusual proceeding, and one that has greatly called forth people's attention here, (fn. 14) so much so that two men have been, as I am informed, taken up and sent to prison merely for having mentioned the fact [and commented upon it].
Some vessels have already been chartered, and there is some talk of raising 500 men to go to Ireland under the count of Quildara (earl of Kildare).
There is here one (Michiel), a native of Grave (Gravelinghes), long a servant of Mons. de Gueldres, and who has the reputation of being a, great rogue (cant varlet), owing to which circumstance some people imagine that he is after no good here. I will have him closely watched in order to ascertain what his business is. The Master of the Horse [grand escuyer] not being in London at the time I could get no information about the man.—London, 10th May 1530.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Addressed: "To the Emperor."
Indorsed: "Angleterre, xme May. Reçue le xxvme a Ys-broug."
French. Holograph. pp. 6.
12 May.303. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 831,
f. 26.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 32.
Two days after his leaving Mantua he (Mai) arrived at Ferrara, where he overtook cardinal d'Osma, when both took the road to Rome,
Relates a conversation he had with the Duke (Alfonso d'Este).
Arrived at Rome, kissed the Pope's feet and spoke to him about different affairs. Begged him to attend to the business of Isabella Colonna, which he readily promised. Sent Don Diego and one of his chamberlains called Mentabona to fetch her. She is to live here at Rome with the wife of Jacopo Salviati, and we shall try to have them both lodged at the Sacred Palace, that the whole thing may be more secure (para mayor seguridad). Agents both of Ferrante and of Luigi Gonzaga are in Rome soliciting her hand for their respective masters.
Is daily expecting from Naples the money for the white steed and the census. The vice-chancellor, Miçer Sumer, (?) and the bishop of Burgos (Don Iñigo de Mendoza) left for Naples.
Yesterday Giovan Antonio Muxetula arrived.
Hears that the English have made great efforts to procure opinions in Venice. Has written to Rodrigo Niño to ascertain if the report be true, and if so, to do all he can to prevent it, just as the Imperial ambassador in France is now doing, If the opinions have been obtained to ascertain whose they are.
A courier arrived from England yesterday with letters from the Queen and from the Imperial ambassador (Chapuys). Will endeavour to procure the brief they ask for.
Now that the objections raised in England are known he will draw up the case so that Your Majesty may at once send for the opinions of your own kingdoms [in Spain] where there are hosts of lawyers as good or better than the English. Begs to be excused for not having done it at Bologna, because, as he then told the High Commander and Mr. de Granvelle, he was waiting to learn what could be the objections (dudas) raised by the opposite party the better to meet their arguments. Copies of those objections ought to be sent to Castille, Aragon, Sicily, and Majorca, where good lawyers abound, and also to Naples. And since the king of England decides upon following this course, let him know that we are prepared and that he is as likely to lose in this as well as in the other game. Meanwhile the principal affair is not to be disregarded, and though, in his opinion, it would be best to solicit the said brief first, everything else shall be done.—Rome, 12th May 1530.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "Sacræ Cæs et Catholicæ Maiestati."
Spanish. Original. pp. 4.
12 May.304. Rodrigo Niño to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 1,308,

f. 39.
Is ready to execute the Emperor's orders and instructions respecting the English affair, and very much flattered at the trust placed in him. The King's conduct has met with general disapprobation in this city, and both the Doge and his Council have assured him that no permission shall ever be granted to the English to consult the Paduan university about the divorce. Though the Doge's resolution was made public, the ambassador residing here for the English king has nevertheless taken his departure for Padua to procure, if he can, the private opinion of the principal doctors of that university. No sooner was he (Niño) acquainted with the ambassador's intention than he called upon the Vice-Doge and spoke to him warmly in the presence of his Council assembled for the purpose, recalling to his memory the whole affair in the very words used on a former occasion by prothonotary Caracciolo and himself, when, he (the Vice-Doge) was put on his guard as to the designs of the English and duly informed of all the circumstances of the case, as well as of the fact that right and justice were entirely on the side of the Queen. He was further told that the English ambassador, perceiving that the permission to consult the University at large as to the merits of the case had been denied to him, had suddenly taken his departure for Padua to obtain, if he could, the private opinions of some of the doctors whom the English had previously gained to the cause of their king by the offer of bribes, &c. He (Niño) needed not to point out the wickedness of such proceedings, for certainly no conscientious vote could be expected in a case of this nature from men previously corrupted, and who no doubt were prepared whenever called upon to decide in favour of the English king, and against the very excellent and good princess his legitimate wife, who certainly does not deserve the treatment her husband has in store for her.
Such was his (Niño's) reasoning before the assembled Council, to which he added after a pause, that as a servant of the queen of England, and not because he had instructions from the Emperor, he did not hesitate to request that an order should be sent to all doctors and professors of the Paduan university forbidding them to assemble, interfere, or otherwise give opinion in the affair without the Signory's express commands.
To this the Vice-Doge and Council assented, and having thanked him (Niño) for the information, promised to issue the order.
Such is the state of this business at present. The Emperor may be sure that nothing shall be left undone to counteract the plans of our opponents.
As to the bishop of Quieta (Chieti) there is nothing to be feared from him. On the contrary he (Niño) has persuaded him that he cannot fulfil his duties as a Christian and an ecclesiastic unless he forsakes the life of abstinence and retirement that he is leading and consents to go at once to England and exhort king Henry to forsake his errors and make peace with his Queen before the wrath of God overtake him and his kingdom: and remind him how many kings, especially in England, have lost their crowns and their lives with much less cause.
No one better for such a task than the Bishop himself, for he has been once in England, knows the Queen well, and can appreciate better than anyone else in Christendom her eminent qualities, her piety, and her virtues, which certainly do not deserve the cruel treatment to which she has been subjected for the last few years; besides which the King has more than once asked his advice in the matter. Has told him so, and likewise that it is far better for his soul and more meritorious in the eyes of God to employ himself in such a service as this than to shut himself up in a convent, and lead a life of abstinence and penance with his companions, though they may flagellate themselves twenty times a day. (fn. 15) Keeps continually urging him to undertake the journey, persuaded as he is that should he (the Bishop) see the King and speak to him on the subject, his wisdom in all worldly matters, his reputation, and learning could not fail to produce an effect on his mind.—Venice, 12th May 1530.
Signed: "Niño."
Addressed: "To the Sacred Imperial and Catholic Majesty of the Empr., our Lord."
Indorsed: "Paragraph of letter from Rodrigo Niño, Venice, 12th May."
Spanish. Original. pp. 3.
12 May.305. Miçer Mai to the High Commander.
S. E. L. 851 ff. 26,
36–37.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 34.
Two days after his departure from Mantua he (Mai) arrived at Ferrara together with cardinal Osma. Saw the duke [Alfonso d'Este] who expressed a wish that some sort of agreement should be made with the Pope respecting his own affairs. He (Mai), considering that it would be for the Emperor's service, if the proposed agreement could only be carried out, promised to speak to the Pope, as if the proposal came from himself. Will do so as soon as he has an opportunity, though he is told that His Holiness himself is about to dispatch to the Emperor an auditor of the Rotta, and two more lawyers, one an advocate, the other a proctor, on this very business. They are to leave eight days hence. Having inquired why so many people were sent, he (Mai) was told that in reality it was to give the embassy more solemnity, and shew how much the Pope is interested in the settlement of his differences with the Duke. This latter, on the other hand, has promised to send here a lawyer, once his (Mai's) companion at the University, with most positive orders to follow his instructions. He wishes this step to become as public as possible, because he professes that he has not, and will not have, another lord in this world but the Emperor. Some of his ministers, and especially those with whom he (Mai) was personally acquainted at Ferrara, did not hesitate to add that their master, the Duke, had now very good reasons to be discontented with France, for, besides giving his son [Ercole] a wife from whom he expects no children or consolation of any sort, it has since become apparent how very little the king of France cares about him (Ercole) or her.
The day after his arrival at Rome waited upon the Pope, to whom he (Mai) delivered the Emperor's letter, requesting him to give orders that certain business should be attended to. He promised to do so, but as these people are apt to forget, will take care to remind him.
Letters from Constantinople and La Belloua, coming by way of Venice or Naples confirm the fact of the Turk having somewhat relaxed in his military preparations.
The Pope has promised to see to the affair of Isabella Colonna. This very morning Don Diego and one of the Pope's chamberlains, named Mentabona, went to fetch her. She will be lodged here with the wife of Jacopo Salviati, and then apartments are to be prepared for them both in the Sacred Palace, that the affair may be conducted with greater security (caya la cosa mas segura). Here are proctors of both Ferrante and of Luigi Gonzaga, so that the case will not fail for want of pleading.
Wrote on the road to cardinal Colonna to provide the white steed and 3,000 ducats, wanted for the new census of this year. Hears that everything is now ready [at Naples], so that on St. Peter's Day he hopes the ceremony will take place.
The day after his return to Rome the abbot of Farfa (Napoleone Orsino) sent to congratulate him (Mai) upon his arrival and to offer his services. On former occasions (said the Abbot) he had been so bound by alliances and so forth that his hands were tied; now that he was free he wished to be useful to His Imperial Majesty. Thanked him for his offers, and said that if His Holiness was willing to forgive and excuse him for the past, he was sure that the Emperor would not bear him ill-will, and that in future if he (the Abbot) was such as he professed to be, he would find mutual acknowledgment on the part of the Imperial ministers. Did not say more to him because it is difficult to guess what his motives may be at the present moment in thus courting our friendship, nor does he (Mai) know whether the Abbot has actually married, as the report goes, the daughter of Julio Colonna. All he knows is that just at present he is in bad odour with the Florentines for having deserted them, and also with the Venetians, and with the whole of Italy, and some add with the king of France. Will have his eye upon him, and report about his movements after duly communicating with the Pope.
Giovan Antonio Muscetula arrived yesterday. He says that the prince [of Orange] has dismissed part of his troops, and that the Florentines are gradually losing courage through it.
Carbonell, who has done good service in Naples, and lent money in times of general distress, has applied to Fornari for payment. That banker happens to be without cash just now, and has given him instead a bond (obligation) of the brother of the late Cesar Ferramosca, count Miniano. The latter ought to be advised of this.
Has just heard that the English are trying, at Venice, to get lawyer's opinions concerning the divorce case. Has written to Rodrigo Niño for particulars, telling him to prevent it if he can, as he hears the Imperial ambassador in Paris is doing, and if he cannot succeed to report what has taken place in that affair. Yesterday a courier arrived from England. Enclosed is the substance of what the Queen and Imperial ambassador (Chapuys) write from that country. Will do his best to procure the brief they require (fn. 16) forbidding people under pain of excommunication and other censures to counsel or talk of that affair "a gratia," but only as justice and conscience demand, &c.—Rome, 12th May 1530.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "Sacræ Cesaræ et Catolicæ Maiestati."
Spanish. Original. pp. 6.
12 May.306. Muxetula to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 851,
f.G.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 23.
After holding a conference with the prince of Orange as the Emperor wished, he (Muxetula) returned to Rome and waited on the Pope, to whom he related all he had seen at the camp, and the Prince's resolution to invest Florence more closely, so that no supplies should enter it, &c. Explained to him how the loss of Volterra (fn. 17) had occurred, and that it was no fault of the Prince.
The day he (Muxetula) left the camp, some companies of Spaniards among those quartered on this side of the river mutinied for their pay, and the captain of one of them, Luys de Mendoça, was killed by the Field Master (Maestro de Campo). Another mutiny of 1,500, also Spaniards, who were to go to Empoli, has since been put down by the marquis del Gasto (Vasto).
Has written to Naples and Genoa, to Ansaldo and Squarciafigho about cashing the bills. The Pope, moreover, has already, as he says, his contingent for June ready, and therefore things will go right enough at Florence.
Thought he should have found the bishop of Burgos (Don Iñigo de Mendoza) at Rome; but it appears that wishing to arrive at Naples before the summer set in, he made a very short stay. Is sorry, for he had many things to communicate to him.
The French ambassadors told the Pope that their master had been obliged to melt down a good portion of the coin destined for the payment of the ransom owing to the Emperor's commissioners having rejected it, by which operation he has lost upwards of 60,000 crowns. Many other things have they told him, more or less false, and made many offers in order to detach him if they can from the Emperor's alliance. Only the other day they proposed to him a marriage between his grand-daughter (nieta) and one of the sons of the king of France; (fn. 18) but the Pope does not believe them to be in earnest, and wishes to know Your Majesty's will before he answers.
The abbot of Farfa has gone without the Pope's consent to take possession of certain towns and villages belonging to his brother. The Pope is very angry and intends to assert his rights.—Rome, 12th May 1530.
Signed: "Jo. Anto Muscetula."
Addressed: "Sacræ Cesæ multumque Cathæ Mti."
Spanish. Original. pp. 8.
12 May.307. Rodbigo Niño to the High Commander.
S. E. L. 1,308,
f. 39.
B M. Add. 28,580,
f. 29.
Wrote last by Don Miguel de Velasco, who left Venice on the 28th ulto and since then by a courier of the German merchants in this city. (fn. 19)
(Cipher:) Has no further news of the Turk than those communicated in his despatch of the 7th. Suspects that the Venetians do not report to him what they know of the Infidel's real movements from fear of compromising themselves. Strongly recommends the Emperor to procure information from other quarters.
(Common writing:) Will gladly comply with the Emperor's instructions about the affair of the queen of England. The King's conduct towards her is so highly disapproved by this Signory and the whole of the Republic, and appears so bad to them and to him, that no opinion, he is assured, will be given in the King's favour by the university of Padua. Seeing that such was their determination the English ambassador has gone thither to take the private opinions of the principal doctors, making considerable offers to each of them, which offers, as may be supposed, will prevent the parties from deciding according to justice and conscience. On being informed of this, he (Niño) went to the College and reminded the Vice-Doge of the exposition made by the Prothonotary (Caracciolo) and by himself of the justice of the Queen's cause, advising them as their servant, and not as ambassador (for he had no commission on the subject), to forbid the professors of the University to give an opinion in the matter without orders from the Signory.
This advice was accepted thankfully, and he is assured it would be followed.
The bishop of Quieta (Chieti) His Majesty may be sure can do much good in this affair. He (Niño) is continually telling him that he will do well to leave his retirement and go to England to exhort the King to desist from his error. Has strongly urged this case upon him, pointing out the arguments he might use from the examples of kings who have ruined themselves and their kingdoms for less occasion, especially in England. Told him that he was more bound than any man in Christendom to take this task upon himself, for he knows the Queen personally, and is well aware how little she deserves such treatment at the hands of her husband; moreover the King has sought his counsel about the matter, and it would be more acceptable to God to do what he could in this cause than remain in religious seclusion.—Venice, 12th May 1530.
Spanish. Original. pp.4.
13 May.308. J. de Balbi to the Emperor.
Lanz. Corresp.
I., p. 385.
Has mentioned his departure for Persia guided by some trusty guides "mores fiables" procured by Andrea Morezin, but soon after was obliged to change his plan and take another route owing to the Arabs he met at Cans (sic). After two months travelling arrived at Babylon, a city belonging to the Sophi of Persia. Spoke to the Viceroy, who offered to forward his letters, and give him an escort to the court of the Sophi. Has already got a favourable answer, from which he concludes that His Majesty's affairs in this country will have a favourable issue. The Sophi is now at the head of an army against the king of Tartary. Will make all haste to go thither, but is afraid that he (the Sophi) will no longer be at Tauris when he arrives, and that he shall be obliged to go to his camp, which is 40 miles from this place, and in these countries there are no post houses or relays of horses.—Babilone, 13th May 1530.
French. Original in cipher.

Footnotes

1 "Y pues que agora cessa lo del estado de Milan."
2 A Burgundian (or Albanian ?) captain in the service of the Emperor, elsewhere called Zuccaro, Suchero, and Chucharo.See vol. iv., part 2, pp. 223, 560, 946, 1012, and part 2, p. 281.
3 About the meaning of this word "Quarta," See vol. iii., part 2, pp. 931,976.
4 Elsewhere "di Prato."
5 Catharina Cibo [di Massa], sister of cardinal Innocencio Cibo; both were the children of Francesco Cibo, natural son of Giovan Battista Cibo, better known as Pope Innocencio VIII. Catharina married Giovan Maria Varana, after whose death, in 1527, their daughter Giulia, became possessed of the estate of Cumerino. What may have been Juan de Borja's claims to the duchy of Camerino is difficult to say, unless the short possession of it in 1502, by his ancestor Cesar Borgia or Borja be considered a lawful title.
6 "Que le gentilhomme quil envoye pour residcr ambassadeur en la court de Votre Maieste, nomine Elbi, partiroit dans cinq jours." Elbi may be for Sir Nicholas Hervey.
7 See above, p. 510.
8 "Et quil me asseuroit sur son honneur que la dite assemblee n'estoit en nulle sorte pour cella, ct quil ne s'en parleroit ainsi, tant seullement pour remedier que ceste peste lutherienne nentre en ce royaume, et que pour ce effayt et non autrc estoit ici venu le Roy que deslibcroit journellement assister avee les dits prelatz et docteurs, comme celluy que sentent (s'entend) en cieulx afferes."
9 "La Royne craign quil ne procedent a quelque chose en son preindice; a ceste cause pour plus grand seurte jay envoye en diligence a madame pour avoer des copies du brefz en forme auetentique pour en fere foy au Roy en cas quil en fust necessayre."
10 "Et quant cella aduinsc que Dieu ne veullie [je ne doubte quil ne sen repentit incontinent, et que pour rompre ce second mariage il retourneroit volentiers au premier] . Et de cest opinion ont este [le Cardinal] et plusiers autres, et vouldroit [le dit Cardinal] quil luy cust couste [son archeucsche] que cela cust este attente yl y a deux ans cart mieux n'eust yl peu estre [vange de ceste guerre qui le deffait (sic)]." The words between brackets are in cipher.
11 "Sur louverture quil avoit fayt diusister tant seullement a la probation si la Royne a este cogneue ou non du prince Arthur ;pour ainsy n'a este question den parler."
12 "A la reste que le pays dexcosse luy estoit mervellieusement tenu puys quil avoit plus grand respetz a non le destruyre quil navoit a ses gens quil pourroit perdre venant les cas en telz termes."
13 "[Et dit lon quil en est banny pour quelquc temps a cause quil reuela au Roy quo la dame avoit este trouvee au delict avee ung gcntilhomme de court], que desia en avoit autrefoys este chasse par suspicion, et ceste derriere foys lon lavoit aussy vuyde de la court a linstance de [la dite dame qui fagnoit estre fort courrource] contre luy; mays enfin le Roy a intercede [vers elle que le dite gentilhomme retournast a la court]."
14 "Et encoures dernierement partant duinsor (sic) yl la fist monter a la croppe de son cheval que [a] este chose bien nouelle, et fort nottee du peuple."
15 "Ahunque se açoten cada dia veynte vezes."
16 "Para que nadíe aqui aconseje ui hable en este articulo a gratia sino solo lo que sintiere por la verdad y por la justicia so graves censuras." The rest to the end as in his despatch to the King No. 290.
17 The town was taken on the 28th of April by Ferrucci. Sec Varchi's Storia Fiorentinap. 392.
18 Catherina de Medici, daughter of Lorenzo, duke of Urbino and Maddalena di Bologna, who was ultimately married to Henri III. of France. She was the niece, not the granddaughter, of Clement VII.
19 Probably a gentleman of the family of Velasco.