Spain
June 1530, 21-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Pascual de Gayangos (editor)

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1879

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604-619

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'Spain: June 1530, 21-30', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 1: Henry VIII, 1529-1530 (1879), pp. 604-619. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=87711 Date accessed: 26 July 2014.


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June 1530, 21-30

21 June.357. Muxetula to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 854, f. 11.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 179.
Encloses, after having 'them deciphered, the two letters intercepted at Asti. The Pope is now convinced that all this time the kings of France and England, for their own private views, have been encouraging the rebellion of the Florentines. He now begins to see that this Florentine affair is of such a nature that if not vigorously pushed and brought soon to an end it might become defensive instead of offensive. He is further advised that this matter of the intercepted letters must be kept a profound secret, and that if it should be divulged, as no doubt it will be, the best thing will be to dissemble and pretend to believe the. explanations which the French and English ambassadors are sure to give when they hear of the arrest of Malatesta's secretary. His Holiness intends to say that he believes the letters not to be genuine, but to have been forged between Malatesta and the ambassador for the purpose of encouraging the Florentines, &c.—Rome, 21st June 1530.
Signed: "Jo. Anto. Muscetula."
Addressed: "Sacre. Cese et Cath. Magti."
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
21 June.358. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 851,
ff. 48-9.
B. M. Add.28,580,
f. 182.
Wrote on the 15th inst. what passed with the English orator at vespers, and how the auditor had revoked all the terms (terminos) that he (Mai) had made in the cause, although nothing remained but sending in the articles which were already made out, and the time was more than amply sufficient to obtain compulsory powers (compulsoriales) before the holidays to try the matter during the said season. But since the terms have been revoked it will no longer be possible to make new articles (articular) before that time.
Went to the Pope and complained bitterly. Told him in plain terms, though without passion, what he thought of the auditor's conduct. The answer was that he (the Pope) would see to it, and he accordingly sent for the commissary and ordered him to prosecute the cause and do justice. Has since done all he could with the commissary to ascertain whether this was an evasion of the Pope or of some one else, but has not been able to find out.
Some days after the Pope sent Sanga to him to say that he had spoken with the English ambassador, and saw a fair way of bringing the cause to a successful end, and that he wished him to know of it. As nothing could be done before the holidays, there being only three or four audiences, and more than 12 being required to renew the terms (reiterar los terminos), Sanga suggested that it would be better to give away graciously what could not be sold, especially as he did not believe that a commission to proceed during the holidays could be granted . This proposition (Sanga added) had been communicated to the Emperor through the Papal Legate residing at his court, inasmuch as he found that about a year ago, in England, when the King was proceeding against the Queen, the holidays had been kept, and therefore that it was but just that the same thing should be done here, at Rome, whilst proceeding as it were in favour of the Queen. Replied to Sanga by a flat denial of his assertion. Said that in England the natural holidays throughout the kingdom commenced at the time of the harvest, and had not been observed; far from that they had proceeded against her in the most violent manner, and that after that through not allowing us to summon the King, and through the non-acceptance of the inhibition by the judges, they took the precaution (cautela) of proroguing the sentence until the 1st of October. That which was then done could not nowadays be taken as a precedent, and since then in England the proceedings had continued during the holidays. His Holiness was bound to do the same now, and he (Mai) could not do less than prosecute his terms (terminos) until he had orders from his Majesty.
This he (Mai) said to Sanga for two reasons: the first and principal that he may see that we mean to follow up this affair vigorously, and will pursue it to the very last; and secondly, that the English may see that in spite of these prorogations and this weakness on the part of the Pope we are not likely to forget our duty towards the Queen.
Having said as much to Sanga, and later in the day repeated it to the Pope himself, the auditor, Aragonia, (fn. 1) sent a message to say he had spoken on the road to cardinal Ancona, who told him that he should not come to Rome this summer, inasmuch as his services would not be required owing to the holidays being about to commence. As a faithful servant of Your Majesty, the Cardinal recommended that no commission to proceed during the holidays should be applied for, because it would be highly injurious to the cause itself, as all hope of bringing the King to good terms might thereby be lost.
Consulted as to the affair with cardinal d'Osma, who advised that the Pope's proposal should be accepted, because (he said) if the commission applied for is denied nothing else can be done, and it is always prudent to grant with good grace that which we cannot prevent; especially as we have not here the copies of the marriage settlements, &c. Indeed were the opposite party to know of it at this stage of the proceedings they would apply for an "absolutoria," and in our inability to prove our right the King might thus obtain a sentence which would for the time help him considerably.
Saw also the Pope, and told him that he had decided to prosecute his terms until an answer should be received from Your Majesty, when the prorogation, if granted, could be made with greater authority. Told him besides that he could not possibly deny us the commission we asked for. If he wanted further proof of the justice of our application he had only to tell the English to begin their allegation at once, and that we would reply. (fn. 2) Would willingly wait till October; if they had no power they might promise "de rato," and take the whole of July to send for the ratification. Should this last not come, or should they refuse to make the promise, His Holiness will know that they wanted to deceive him, and then he will not refuse us the commission. He promised that he would do so, or rather that he would propose it to the ambassadors, for the commission itself that he would never promise.
Went yesterday to Consistory with Miçer Andrea del Burgo, and spoke there about the enterprise against the Turk. The Pope made many fair promises as usual, but the cardinals seemed very indifferent. Most are discontented (resabiados); those of the French party especially, for they ask us ironically what is the reason that Florence does not surrender. Had France undertaken the job the thing would already have been done, Tarbes whispers in their ears. As to the Imperialists having, as they all had, hopes of being remunerated for their services, and not one having as yet received a token of the Emperor's sentiments in that respect, they are naturally enough very cold.—Rome, 21st June 1530.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "Sacra, Ces. Cat. M.."
Spanish. Original. pp. 4.
23 June.359. The Prince of Orange to the Emperor.
Lanz. Corresp. d.
Kays., vol. I.,
p. 390.
Eight days ago Malatesta [Baglione] sent messages to a colonel of this army named Pierre (Pirro) to send into Florence a man who could be trusted. Malatesta added that there was a plot to assassinate the Pope, and that the next day a man, whose description he sent, would leave Florence with two phials of poison, for that there was among His Holiness servants who had undertaken to administer it. The man came, was arrested, and the poison found on him, as well as a counter-poison to be taken beforehand by the person who helped the dinner. He confessed and told the names of his accomplices. The poison and confession have been sent to the Pope.—Camp before Florence, 23rd June 1530.
French. p. 1.
[24] June.360. The Emperor to Miçer Mai.
S. E. L. 851, f. 36.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 148.
Has seen all he (Mai) says about the cause of the Queen, and approves of everything that has been said or done in the matter. The Papal Legate has spoken in the same sense, and a letter has been written to the Pope requesting him, since nothing has been obtained from the King, to proceed at once and do justice in the case. Instructions have been made out and forwarded for him (Mai) to consult the counsel and lawyers of the Queen on the following measures. "You must insist upon having a commission to proceed during the holidays. If you see that you cannot get it, you may with the advice of the Queen's counsel agree to the suspension of the proceedings, provided the king of England engages on his side not to attempt anything against the Queen in the meantime, and will not dirictè or indirictè make use of the opinions of the universities, colleges, and private persons, His Holiness cancelling and annulling in the meantime anything that may have hitherto been done in that respect; the King to be formally excommunicated if he should venture to act against the Pope's injunctions."
The above seems the best course to pursue for the present, but it would not be unreasonable for the ambassador to demand that at least during the term of the said suspension the King should be bound to separate from the woman he intends marrying, and lead a marital life with his own legitimate wife as Holy Mother Church requires and commands, &c. (fn. 3)
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
25 June.361. Muxetula to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 854,
f. 14.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 185.
His last despatch must have informed the Emperor how the kings of England and France are doing all the harm they can. The former is not only encouraging the Florentines to resistance, but has actually sent them money. This appears evident from the correspondence which Escalenga (Scalengues) took some time ago from Malatesta Baglione's secretary. Since that time letters from the Papal Nuncio at the court of France have confirmed the intelligence, for he says that the Emperor's ambassador at that court has unravelled the whole intrigue.
Another important piece of news is that the said Malatesta informs Colonel Pirro, his friend, very secretly that the Florentines had attempted to poison the Pope, and had sent to Rome a man for that purpose with the necessary apparatus for poisoning. Malatesta describes the man, and says that although he himself is actually in the service of Florence as captain-general of their forces, he despises such dishonourable practices and is in all other respects a true servant and vassal of His Holiness. Pirro, who is a colonel in the Imperial army, had the man watched and seized. When searched a large number of small phials filled with poison (fn. 4) were found upon him, besides tablets of a certain mixture which those who tasted the food for the Pope had to swallow first as a counter-poison. Pirro conducted the prisoner before the Prince [of Orange], and the man confessed his guilt and named as his accomplices several amongst the most confidential servants of the Pope. The Prince sent Colonel Pirro to Rome with the poison and all the proofs. Went to the Pope, who is exceedingly thankful to the Prince and to Malatesta also on that account. Most likely the latter, who has not received the letters [from France] that were intercepted, is now ready to surrender, and wishes to secure the Pope's friendship by such a denunciation.
The Pope has ordered a most strict inquiry to be made into this matter in order to detect the whole conspiracy. It is, however, necessary to treat this affair with the utmost secrecy not to betray Malatesta, who is still inside Florence with the rebels, and may do some good in future.
Sigismondo, formerly the lord of Rimini, and who, ever since he was deprived of his estate, has been living in the territory of the Venetians, who made him and his brothers a certain yearly allowance, has suddenly appeared at Ferrara, where they say he is now raising troops, both infantry and cavalry. The same may be said of other lords (tiranos), who once possessed estates in the land of the Church. If to this be added that the Venetian ambassador being yesterday interrogated by the Pope on his account answered that Sigismondo had been exiled (bannido) by the Signory owing to certain misdemeanours committed in their territory, but that the Signory still continued the pension to the brothers, there is reason to suspect that the said Sigismondo is after no good.
The same may be said of the abbot of Farfa (Napoleone Orsino), against whom the Pope sent the other day some troops, though I am afraid not in sufficient number to put him down. Ascanio Colonna assists the Pope in this, and will prove after all to be the Abbot's worst enemy. Nor is it to be supposed that the Cardinal (Pompeo Colonna) will dare give him help now that he knows Your Majesty's resolution about the marriage and sees the head of the family obeying His Holiness.
Signed: "Gio. Ant. Muscetula."
Addressed: "To His Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Holograph entirely in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, pp. 4.
27 June.362. The Emperor to Cardinal Colonna.
S. E. L. 1,557,
f. 191.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 201.
The greatest efforts must be made to send the prince of Orange the 16,000 ducats he asks for the pay of the troops under his order, also the money Alarcon wants for his infantry.
Affairs of the kingdom of Naples.
The ambassador at Rome (Mai) writes to say that the affair of the marriage of the abbot of Farfa is so far advanced that it cannot possibly be undone. Reminds him of his promises to oppose that marriage; he is expected to do all he can to prevent it.
Supposes he (the Cardinal) knows already that the king of England has made up his mind to be divorced from the Queen, his wife. The Pope has decided that the case shall be tried at Rome. The English, however, are doing everything in their power to procure so many opinions of universities, collegiate bodies, and learned scholars, in behalf of the king of England, that the Emperor will also be obliged to have recourse to a similar irregular proceeding. Has, therefore, had a short resumé of the divorce case drawn up at Rome. Sends it him and begs that the universities and scientific corporations in the kingdom of Naples, as well as distinguished theologians and lawyers there, be consulted upon it and give their opinions under their signature and seal, &c. Recommends great care and speed.—Augsburg, 27th June 1530.
Spanish. Original draft in the hand of Alfonso de Valdés.
27 June.363. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 849, f.26.
B. M Add. 28,580.
f. 190.
Wrote last on the 8th and 15th ulto and more lately on the 21st, and gave information of new plans to prevent or retard the surrender of Florence.
Attempt to poison the Pope.
Sigismondo Malatesta has been exiled from Venice in consequence of his having entered by force the house of a lady with whom he was in love. The Pope fears some intrigue because the mother and sisters of Sigismondo are at Ferrara with the Duke, and it is also reported that the latter is making military preparations at Modena and in the district of Rezzo (Reggio). Pero Çapata, who governs Modena, has been written to, but he says that there is no ground for fear.
Conversation with the Venetian ambassador respecting the fulfilment of certain conditions of the treaty of Worms and the intended marriage of Francesco Sforza.
Letters of Marzilla from Lucca of the 20th ulto. The duke of Milan in bad health.
The Florentines made a sally some days ago. About 3,000 of them fell upon the quarters of the Germans, and did at first some execution, but were defeated on the retreat.
Marquis del Vasto and the siege of Volterra.
Negotiations of France in Switzerland.—Marquis de Mus.
Wrote to cardinal Colonna asking him for a copy of all that had been settled or contracted between his niece Claudia and the ex-abbot of Farfa. Has sent the papers, and does not consider them as binding at all.
Five or six days ago the Pope sent Ascanio Colonna to Vicovaro, where the Abbot was; he did not wait for him, but took to flight with about 25 mounted followers. Ascanio took possession of all that country, and reduced it under the obedience of His Holiness. The Abbot in his flight fell in with a division of the Papal troops, who made the whole of his 25 men prisoners, he himself escaping with another man. He lost on the occasion his mistress and his sons. It is generally believed that he has gone to Montefortino, the residence of Julio Colonna, (fn. 5) the brother of the Cardinal. (Cipher:) Others say that he has gone to Venice, which seems most probable, as that city is the refuge of all political emigrants, and especially of this one, who, being an Orsino, is in particular favour with them. Another division of the Papal troops has taken possession of all his castles and towns, with the one exception of Bracciano, which still holds out but is expected to surrender in two or three days, for although strong by nature the absence of the Abbot must make some difference.
The Abbot sent me a man to beg me to interfere in this affair, and be the mediator between His Holiness and him. He offered to throw himself at the Pope's feet and implore his mercy. Salviati, who happened to be at my house at the time, approved of the proposal; the Pope next day sent Mentabona to me, and I have since written to Venice. After this one of the Abbot's secretaries called, saying that he believed his master to be now at Montefortino, but that as to placing his person in the hands of the Pope, that he would never do. He has no objection to trust Your Majesty, but the Pope never. If so, it is to be expected that one of these days the Abbot will surrender into my hands both his own person and his castle of Bracciano.
On St. John's Day the Pope sent for all the ambassadors and very discreetly proposed to them the enterprize against the Turk. Tarbes again repeated what he once said at Piacenza, namely, that if 500,000 crs. were deducted from the two millions of gold his master had to pay the Emperor for the ransom of his sons, they (the French) would willingly spend one million of their own in furnishing 3,000 men-at-arms, 3,000 light horse, and I cannot precisely recollect whether he said 60,000 or 80,000 foot, but as ho (Tarbes) went from Bologna to France and returned [to Italy] in order (as he said) to arrange an interview between his master and Your Majesty, and that came to nothing, it may be fairly concluded that his promises of help are only made for the purpose of obtaining the revenues of the "quarta" and "cruzada" in France.
The ambassador of England observed very coolly on the same occasion that whenever the plan of campaign came to be discussed his master would not be wanting, but that as long as generalities only were talked of he did not consider himself obliged to give a categorical answer. That of the king of Hungary (Andrea del Burgo) spoke well and very apropos. That of Portugal said that he had neither instructions nor powers, but expected letters from his master to that effect within a fortnight. The Milanese (fn. 6) declared that for this year his master would not be in a condition to contribute, as he was very much in debt, &c.
Cardinals Farnese and Monte repeated the same arguments brought forward at Bologna, namely, that the chief remedy lay in the union of the Christian princes, a true union, not a feigned one, (cipher:) hinting, though they did not positively declare it, at some modification of the treaty of Cambray. (Common writing:) In fact the former of those cardinals insisted so long and so much on the necessity of such true union, that Tarbes had to rise and assure him that there was no reason to express a doubt on that subject, which assertion he (Mai) and the Hungarian ambassador fully confirmed. It was at last resolved that we should meet every Sunday to deliberate upon it.
States his fears that nothing serious will be done, &c. The news of the Turk is that about 6,000 of their "nassadites" had arrived at la Belona, intending to attack the people of Cemarra (Chimara), and that last month, in the sea of Provence, 45 Turkish sail, of which 11 were galleys, had attacked and taken a place on the coast called la Pola.
Muxetula left yesterday for Naples to procure money to pay the troops before Florence. —Rome, 27th June 1530.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To the Sacred Majesty of the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 14.
27 June.364. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 849,
f. 28.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 197.
(Cipher:) His Majesty's letter of the 14th came to hand on the 25th. The Pope and cardinals were much pleased with the announcement of the Emperor's ready entry into Augusta (Augsburg), which was afterwards confirmed by a letter from the archbishop of Bari (Fr. Estevan Gabriel Merino) since received.
Is awaiting the Emperor's answer to what he (Mai) wrote about the English affair. Has since learned that the English ambassadors had written to London that the revocation of the terms (terminos). as announced in his despatch of the 21st, was made with his (Mai's) consent, and that if they asked for it their application was intended merely for the good of the affair, and to see whether the negociation could not be conducted in milder terms for their King. Is very much surprised at their daring to make such a false statement. Thinks they did it either to gain credit with their master for diligence and so forth, or else to discredit the whole affair in England, pretending that neither the Emperor nor his ministers care a straw about it. (fn. 7) That this may not be the case, he (Mai) has purposely written to the Imperial ambassador [Chapuys] to inform the Queen, and all others he should think fit, that the assertion of the English ambassador is completely false and wicked.
In proof whereof he (Mai) intends to urge the proceedings as much as he can these two or three terms before the vacations, that the English may know that if the other previous terms were revoked it was without his knowledge and consent.
The promise made by the Pope that he would write to the king of France to prevent the discussion of this affair in the university of Paris, has been of very little use; for advices from that country state that the English, far from desisting from their purpose, are trying to gain as many votes as they can there, as well as at Bologna, and for the second time at Padua. Has solicited the Pope for a brief to that effect, and it has been readily promised to him.
The English are very much hurt at the Papal brief which was lately obtained, that no one should judge nor give an opinion in this cause of the queen of England "a gratia" except according to God and conscience, and common right (los derechos). As the brief, moreover, adds "according to canon law," the English say that this is tantamount to deprive them of their legal rights (quitarles la justicia), which they pretend in this case are closely allied to Theology. These are things to make one lose patience; for if the matter be rightly understood, the brief makes provision for all cases.
They have also declined the offer made to them, namely, that if they would submit to the Pope's judgment, the cause should be prorogued until the end of October (hasta todo Octubre); which refusal on their part, as he (Mai) has informed the Pope, is a proof that it is principally his authority that they want to attack in so doing.
Cannot say whether His Holiness will grant the commission recently applied for or not; rather fears he will not, to judge from the little warmth (poco calor) there is in him. The English complain bitterly of him, but he (Mai) is afraid all this is a feint, not of the Pope, but of theirs, that he may not give us by fear (atronandolo) what we ask as justice.
Hears that the Auditor of the Chamber (Ghinucci) has written [to England] that all the good lawyers [in Rome] and most of these cardinals are of opinion that the King is in the right, and that if he (Ghinucci) were a cardinal and the matter came to be discussed in the college, no one would contradict him. The Auditor of course is working for a cardinal's hat. Has warned the Pope, who seems to be ashamed now at his having given one to Tarbes. (fn. 8)
The letter for cardinal Egidius (fn. 9) will be of much use because some time ago it was reported that he had some doubts about the case. Another one should be written to cardinal Gaetano of San Sixto. The coming of Ortiz will also be much to the purpose.
The English are still procuring votes in this country by dint of money, thinking no doubt that Italian votes will be of greater value in a question of this kind on account of their supposed neutrality. Thinks that 1,000 ducats at least ought to be spent here for the service of the Queen, and is pretty sure that more could be done with that sum than our opponents could achieve with 25,000, for all good and honest people, who have hitherto declined to state their opinion, would then give it for us. Has already written to Her Highness the Queen suggesting this course.
Will attend to the Emperor's orders respecting Isabella Colonna and Don Diego.
Bishopric of Salamanca.
Having heard that Luther has gone to Augsburg, the Pope is of opinion that all disputation with him should be avoided.
Imperial canal of Aragon.—Rome, 27th June 1530.
Signed "Mai."
Addressed: "S. C. & Cath. Mti".
Indorsed: "Deciphering of letter of Miçer Mai."
Spanish. Original. pp. 5.
28 June.365. Rodrigo Niño to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 1,308,
ff. 61-2.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 202.
The Imperial letters of the 14th were duly received on the 22nd. Has communicated their contents to the Signory, who were pleased to hear the explanation of the causes of the delay, and were persuaded that if the restitution of the sons of France had not yet taken place, it was no fault of His Imperial Majesty.
Wrote on the 10th all he could then learn about the arrival in Venice of the Turkish ambassador. Has been unable since to obtain further information. The ambassador left on the 22nd with a fine present worth about 1,500 ducats, besides dresses for himself and all his family, of mauve velvet with a stripe of brocade, and his family and servants of red cloth with stripes of green damask. The Signory sends the Turk a gold vase, inlaid with precious stones and pearls, which, as the general report goes, is valued at 10,000 ducats, though if the truth be told it is only worth 3,000 or 4,000 at the utmost. A Venetian galley only is to escort the Turkish ambassador as far as Ragusa, as it was thought that he would be sufficiently secure with the brigantines that brought him hither.
The Grand Master of France [Anne de Montmorency], and the Grand Constable of Castille [Don Pedro Fernandez de Velasco] had made up their quarrel, and it was expected that on the 15th the restitution of the hostages would take place.
On the 18th informed Your Majesty of the arrival here of the bishop of London (Stokesley), and how until that day he had not gone to the College-hall. He was here six or seven days, during which time he held communication with two Jews of this city, whom he consulted as to whether the Pope could or could not dispense, and if in the case of his having the right to do so, the dispensation could be considered valid. Having obtained their opinions on this subject, the bishop and the ambassador (Casale), who resides here for the king of England, left for Padua. No sooner did he (Niño) hear of this than he went to the College-hall, and told them how the bishop of London had been here [in Venice] for the sole purpose of asking permission to assemble their doctors, and consult them on the matter of the divorce, and get also an order for those of Padua to give their opinion; how, finding the Signory would not consent to anything so wicked, they had gone to Padua to obtain a vote from the professors of that university. He (Niño) had no doubt that the English would use there all manner of persuasion to gain their end, and therefore he had come to let them know. The answer was that he (Niño) might be sure no doctor would give in his opinion; but that for further security, as this was a State affair, they would call together the Council of the "Dieci," which was done, and after deliberating for awhile, he was positively informed that on no account would their doctors be allowed to give their opinion on this case. The Doge then asked him whether he (Niño) was aware that the College at Bologna (fn. 10) had delivered an unanimous opinion in favour of the king of England. Replied that he was ignorant of the fact, and could not believe that in a college founded by a Spaniard, and in a city within the territory of the Church, so unjust a cause could have any partizans. The Doge retorted: "I can assure you that it is so; I have it from a very good source, and that those very conditions you speak of make the vote obtained at Bologna more valuable in the eyes of the King and of his agents." This the Doge said in a most solemn tone, as if he wanted to give additional value to what the Signory propose doing in our favour. Has written to Mai [at Rome], relating word for word his conversation with the "Dieci" and Doge, and wondering how a thing of this sort can have taken place without his (Mai's) knowledge. Has not yet received an answer, but whatever the Doge may say to the contrary, he (Niño) cannot persuade himself that in a college where there are some Spanish scholars, who, though unable perhaps to argue in a question of this kind with sufficient learning and letters, might and ought at any rate to defend it with their swords, such a thing should have happened.
Wrote on the 19th that Renço de Cherri (da Ceri) was at Vicença with most of the "fuorusciti" of Naples, and also that the duke of Ferrara (Alfonso d'Este) was expected in Venice, As to the duke of Milan, he is not coming here till September, and intends going to Padua first in fulfilment of a vow. He of Mantua is also to come, on his way to certain mineral waters which the physicians recommend for the disease he is suffering from.
Affairs of the king of Hungary with the Signory.—Preparations of the Turk.—Barbarossa, the Jew, and another corsair have united their forces, and have now a fleet of 40 galleys, with which they intend attacking Andrea Doria.
In answer to His Majesty's inquiries respecting the ambassadors and agents accredited to this Signory, and what they are all about, his (Niño's) answer is this: The Papal Legate lives most of the time at a house he has in the Paduan. The Frenchman goes once a month to the College-hall to transact business, and that since Your Majesty has been at peace with this Signory, for before he went rarely. The English (Casale), they say, has been here without having anything to do; however, since this affair of the divorce began he has been very active in promoting the King's interests that way, though owing to his being a vassal of the Pope suspicion generally attaches to him. As to the Milanese, all his occupation is to procure money for his master, with which to pay his debt to Your Majesty. The Florentine limits himself to recounting the troubles and privations which his countrymen are suffering, and lauding their determination to die rather than submit to Papal tyranny. Those of Ferrara and Mantua only care about sending information to their respective masters of what they can learn here, and as to the agent of the duke of Urbino (Francesco Maria della Rovere), he is simply here for the purpose of receiving his master's pension, which (he says) is not paid as regularly as he might wish. All are in expectation waiting for the restitution of the sons of France, which they say has already taken place. As to what may be the conduct of Francis after that restitution politicians differ much in opinion; the wisest, however, think that France has been left in such a weak condition, without money or men, that the King will be obliged to keep the peace.—Venice, 28th June 1530.
Signed: "Rodrigo Niño."
Addressed: "S. C. C. Mad."
Spanish. Original. pp. 8.
29 June.366. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
K. u. K Haus-
Hof-u.-StaatsArch.
Wien. Rep.P.Fasc.,
c. 226, No. 30.
As I informed Your Majesty by my despatch of the 15th inst. the King has so urgently pressed the knights of his Order, as well as other noblemen, to sign and affix their seal to those letters addressed to the Pope about which I wrote that he has actually gained his purpose. Great trouble has been taken to bring this about, for each person has been dealt with separately. No doubt it was feared that if the application were made to the whole body conjointly it would have met with either refusal or delay. When the King had thus obtained a certain number of the said seals and signatures, presuming that others would do as these had done, he no longer considered it necessary to insist on the signatories coming here with their seals, but has sent commissioners to go from house to house and obtain separately from each nobleman, whether ecclesiastic or layman, the required signatures, for which object commissioners started two days ago. There will doubtless be but few who will venture to oppose the King's will in this matter.
The King, on hearing that the civil law would, for the purpose of avoiding scandal, dispense with certain formalities, has taken the above step, that being also partly the ground on which he gave the first commission to the two cardinals. The best way to stop which proceedings on the part of this King would be for the Pope to act on the report of cardinal Campeggio, who could give very sufficient evidence upon what is going on, and assert that no scandal whatever is imminent in this kingdom unless the divorce, to which not one in a thousand here will consent, should take place, or else that His Holiness should send commissioners above suspicion to find out privately what is the real opinion of the said noblemen and of the country; or, even again, if it should not be easy to accomplish this, that His Holiness should enact that the prelates, noblemen, and municipal authorities (conseylliers des villes) should give their votes by ballot, as the Venetians do at the election of their Doge and other officers, so that every one may, without fear or personal consideration, vote in exact accordance with his convictions. I am assured that were the voting by ballot, the greater number of those who have now signed and sealed in favour of the King would be on the Queen's side. I have written to Messire Mai to take what steps he may judge expedient in this matter.
As soon as the King heard of the refusal of the University of Paris to decide in his favour, he sent for Jean Jocquin, the French ambassador, for no other reason, as I have been informed, than to complain of the said refusal, which (he said) was given in spite of the most formal promise of Mr. de Langeais to obtain for him the seals of that university. The King retained the said Jocquin for two whole days at Windsor, and made him dispatch a courier before ever he started for France. On the ambassador's return [to England] he (Jocquin) invited the Venetian ambassador to dine with him for the express purpose, as he himself said afterwards, of telling him that the King was much surprised at the Signory of Venice having imprisoned a monk whom the King had sent to Italy to obtain opinions on this question of the divorce, and also at their having forbidden the colleges and universities in their territory to debate on this question; much conversation on this point passed between the two. The day before yesterday the said Venetian ambassador was summoned to Court, as far as I can learn, on this same matter, but was only kept there two hours. The ambassador informed me immediately of the summons he had received, and had it not been for letters he got this very morning and which obliged him again to return, he would certainly have come to see me as he always does when there is anything important to communicate. The ambassador told some one that he had found at Court several noblemen whom he might have supposed to be very strongly in the French interest to be now quite the reverse, and in much greater number than he had anticipated, and that there need be no fear of war being here declared against anyone, for the mere mention of it caused considerable ill-humour, as he (the ambassador) could sufficiently gather from certain incidental expressions, and indeed, to say the truth, war is an art which has been much forgotten here and has brought them but little profit of late years.
About eight days ago a courier arrived from the French Court at Lyons with letters for Jo. Jocquin and the Florentine consul, immediately upon the receipt of which Jocquin and the Consul repaired to Court to solicit, as is believed, succour and help for Florence. It seems that their reception at first was not encouraging, but the Florentines have since returned to make a second appeal; I think they will meet with the same cold reception. I have not yet been able to learn what is the exact nature of the Florentines' application, nor whether Jo. Jocquin has taken any steps in their favour, those who are at the head of affairs and can give me information on this point being all absent. Brian Tuck being now here I sent to ask him if he would come and speak to me, or whether I myself should go and visit him in his garden, which is quite close to my lodgings. He sent word through a merchant, with whom I have much intercourse, and afterwards by his own servant, that but for some sufficient cause he should not have delayed visiting me so long, nor waited for a summons, but that as he was a member of the King's Privy Council and I myself one of the Queen's Council here, and as the King had latterly taken up the idea that it was Chapuys who had the management of the whole affair, he had not ventured to hold any communication with me on that account whilst the proceedings for the divorce were going on. That the times were now more dangerous and critical than when there was war declared, but that he now hoped that in a few days the whole business would be concluded in a manner that should be acceptable both to God and man, and that he would then at once be at my service and that of Your Majesty. He also told the said merchant that the King had been once very favourably disposed towards me until he discovered that I was the chief leader in the Queen's case, which he said was not properly speaking the business of an ambassador, who ought rather to look to measures likely to preserve peace than mix himself up with what might trouble it. He also said to this merchant that he had very nearly thrown my last letters from Rome into the fire, fearing lest they should bring me instructions about this business. He also warned the merchant to be very careful that the letters he brought from me should not be addressed to him, as otherwise he might get into trouble, (fn. 11) and he ended by complaining that the pension which Your Majesty was in the habit of giving him had not been paid lately. I imagine this to be the chief cause of Brian Tuke's fears or rather of his unwillingness to see me, and that he thereby intends giving me to understand that it would be doubly, almost inexcusably foolish for him to put himself in danger if he is to reap no benefit from it.
About a month ago the king of Scotland assembled a great number of troops to attack and disperse the robbers and highwaymen (larrons et coureurs), who, to the number it is said of 10,000, make raids on the frontiers of his own kingdom and of England also, and pillage now one country, now the other; a motley assembly of people of every description. The said king has undertaken this work both for the protection of his own country, and also because he has heard that the earl of Douglas, formerly husband of the Queen, his mother, and who has for a long time been banished from Scotland, has an understanding with the said robbers and favours them as much as he can. As a beginning, the King has had 15 or 16 Scotch gentlemen, the favourers of the robbers, seized at the request of his own people, and two among them, formerly rather high in favour with the King himself, have been suddenly beheaded; the others are closely imprisoned. The king of Scotland has sent a member of his chamber here to explain to this king the cause of this gathering, lest it should create suspicion, and also to ask him to send orders to his lieutenant on the border lands to provide troops for the destruction and extirpation of the said bands of robbers, who have been the cause of much dissension and trouble in past times. The King's answer to this message is not yet known.
The Cardinal sent the day before yesterday to inquire how the Queen's case was progressing, and to urge strong and immediate action in it, as I had occasion recently to write to Your Majesty. He is shewing great hospitality, (fn. 12) and leading so religious, quiet, and humble a life among those with whom he now is, that he is wonderfully loved and respected, and is beginning to win universal praise.
The Queen has not yet been able to write to Your Majesty or to the Pope, as she has long wished to do so. Hopes she will be able to do so in the course of the next four days, at the end of which time I purpose to send further advices to Your Majesty.—London, 29th June.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
French. Holograph, pp. 4.

Footnotes

1 Aragon or Aragona, a consistorial advocate employed by Mai in the divorce case; he was the son of Mastro Ferrante Aragona, a physician at Rome.
2 "Que desde ahora subiessen su juicio y contestastemos al pleito."
3 No date or signature to this document, which was probably intended as the draft of an answer to Mai's despatch of the 14th June, to which it is appended That it was sent and received by Mai cannot be doubted, for, as will be seen hereafter, that ambassador makes frequent allusions to it.
4 "Saliendo aquel ombre y rreconocidas las señales le tomó y se halló las rredomitas llenas de veneno con algunas tablillas da cierta mistura que se avian de tomar primero de los que havian de hazer la salva al Papa, porque á ellos el veneno no dañase."
5 Giulio Colonna, about whom see part 1, p. 554.
6 Most likely Morone.
7 Marginal note. The Emperor is fully convinced that this is quite true, and that he (Mai) was justified in letting the ambassador (Chapuys) know. Let a memorandum of this be given to Granvelle, that he may write to the latter about it.
8 "Ya yo tengo prebenido al papa, el qual muestra estar corrido de lo de Tarba."
9 Ægidius of Viterbo, cardinal of Sant Mutheo of whom frequent mention has been made in these despatches.
10 The College of Bologna was founded in the 14th century by cardinal Gil de Albornoz, archbishop of Toledo.
11 "Il advertyt le dit marchant quil heust esguard sur non addresser mes lectres autrement yl luy en pourroit mescheoer."
12 "II fayt tres grosse chiere et vyst si religieusemant si familieremant et humblemant avec ceux ou yl est que yl y eat ayme et extime nonpareillemant et commance Ion de le louer partout."