Spain
July 1530, 25-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Pascual de Gayangos (editor)

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1879

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659-669

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'Spain: July 1530, 25-31', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 1: Henry VIII, 1529-1530 (1879), pp. 659-669. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=87715 Date accessed: 25 July 2014.


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July 1530, 25-31

26 July.385. Cardinal D'Osma to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 854, f. 3.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 303.
With regard to Siena he (the Cardinal) (fn. 1) is of the same opinion as his colleague (Mai). He thinks that if the Cardinal can be persuaded to act in common with the duke of Amalfi (Piccolomini), everything can be satisfactorily settled there.
Has asked the Pope whether there was anything new to write to the Emperor. He said there was not, for Mr. de Tarbes had not yet written. He feared, however, that no good resolution in that affair could ever come from France.
Respecting the Pope's contribution towards the expenses of the army before Florence, he (the Cardinal) is doing all he can. Thinks, however, that a letter from the Emperor to that effect might be useful.
Escalingas (fn. 2) has levanted with 5,000 ducats, which the Pope purposes to discount from [his monthly contribution].—Rome, 26th July 1530.
Indorsed: "Relacion de las cartas de Miçer Mai y cardenal Osma de 26 de Julio."
Spanish. Contemporary copy. pp. 2.
26 July.386. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S.E.L. 854, f. 1.
B. M. Add. 28,58[...]
f. 300.
Has recently pressed the Pope to say what he thinks ought to be done at the Diet of Germany. His answer was, that after discussing the affair with the cardinal of Sant Sixto [Gaetano], he has come to the following resolutions: 1st, that whatever is not "de jure divino" should be reduced to venial not mortal sin; 2nd, that the consecration and communion should be "super utraque especie"; 3rd, that the marriage of the priests (clerigos) should be according to the custom of the Greeks. His Holiness, however, begged him (Mai) not to write to Court, as it was better that these concessions should be made one by one. (fn. 3)
Tarbes had promised to write what his master's intentions respecting this business really are. His Holiness pretends he has not heard from him; he (Mai) suspects that he has, and that his proposition is so outrageous that the Pope wants it to be modified before it is published. (fn. 4)
The duke of Alba [Don Garcia Alvarez de Toledo] had shewn the Pope letters from the French ambassador at Venice, purporting that the Turk was making great preparations to come to Italy and Rome next year. Told him that very reassuring letters had lately been received from Rodrigo Niño, and that there was nothing of the sort going on. It was an exaggeration and intrigue of the French, who have also circulated rumours of war for the purpose of sewing division between the Pope and the Emperor. (fn. 5)
The French who are here at Rome and a good number of Italians are very much afraid that the result of this Diet will be that the Emperor will become absolute master of all Germany, and through it subdue the whole world. That is the reason why they dread it, and the Pope likewise, because they believe that out of it will spring again the idea of a general council. Is trying to comfort and encourage the Pope, who talks very well of His Majesty, of the Diet, and of the enterprize against the Turk, although here at Rome, nay, in all Italy, he is considered to be a Frenchman at heart, and that he wants to go over to France (y se quiere yr en Francia). Tarbes, by his manners, is every day losing reputation with the Pope, and also because it is said that the chancellor of France (Prat), whose creature he is, is gradually forfeiting his master's favour.
The duke of Savoy (Carlo) has lately sent here an ambassador to declare that not having succeeded in coming to terms with the Lutherans of Switzerland, he has determined to fortify four towns on his frontier; but that should the Lutherans become too strong for him, he must have at least 200,000 ducats from the Christian princes, to help him in the defence of his estate. The Pope has approved of the idea, and promised that in the case of this occurring he will write circular letters to all the princes of Christendom, and persuade Your Majesty to contribute 40,000 ducats, the king of France the same, the rest of the sum wanted for the purpose being supplied by the remaining princes. (fn. 6)
Has heard confidentially that the above-mentioned ambassador brings two projects by which the Pope could raise money; one from the abbots and priors of France, who send to oppose what Tarbes gained in the matter of the presentation; the other to establish a tithe (decima) in France. This last project must be opposed, for if the French once get into the way of extraordinary tithes, they will soon make them ordinary and expend the produce for their own purposes.
His Holiness has lately sent to France one of his chamberlains, named Domenico Centurione, (fn. 7) who, on quitting Rome, declared that he was going to spend the summer at his house in Genoa. Has written to the Imperial ambassadors in France and Genoa, that they may be on the alert and have him watched.
Hears that the Pope has likewise sent his own confessor to the duke of Milan. At first it was supposed that he had gone thither to procure the liberation of the Visconti, (fn. 8) who attempted to assassinate the Duke; but since then it has been ascertained that the real object is to quiet and calm Sforza in case these last matrimonial overtures of the French should have over alarmed him.
The Pope says he has fresh advices from England, and that the King had said that if he (the Pope) wished, he might now play a good game. The Pope told him (Mai) in confidence that he thought the King's words implied that something new was in the wind. Thanked His Holiness for the intelligence. (fn. 9)
Troubles in Lucca. Has no news from Marcilla who resides there for the Emperor.
The Christians of Switzerland are holding a general Diet.
Affairs of Siena, and opinion of the duke of Amalfi thereupon. The only effectual way of stopping the continual riots there is to send thither the Cardinal [D'Osma], that he may govern the place in conjunction with the Duke [of Amalfi].
The treasury at Naples without money to pay the troops. Escalingas (Scalengues) ought to be made to disgorge the 5,000 ducats he took; otherwise the Pope says that he will certainly discount them from his monthly contribution.
Has agreed with the Pope that the Imperial army shall go for winter quarters to the territory of the Palavesinos (Palla vicini) for 20 days, and that there, and where they now are they will be able to pass 40 days. After that it is to be decided where they are to go next, whether to Asti or to other places which have hitherto been exempted.
Don Juan de Borja and the Camarino suit.—Rome, 26th July 1530.
Spanish. Contemporary abstract. pp. 9.
28 July.387. Rodrigo Niño to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 1,308,
f. 74.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 308.
Wrote on the 13th and 23rd the news of this city. Since then what has occurred is this. Last Sunday the bishop of London (Stokesley), the resident English ambassador (Casale), and Ricaldo (Richard Croke) went to the College-hall to ask for an answer to the king of England's letter, and the application made in virtue of it. The Signory replied that they had conferred with their Council of Ten, and with the "Pregadi," as usual, and had read to them the King's letter, and that there was no one present but wished to gratify the king of England in that respect. The Council, after mature deliberation, thought that the whole matter was against the authority of the Holy See, and highly injurious to the Emperor, he being nearly allied to the queen of England, to the king of Portugal, and to the Empress [Isabella], through her father [Dom Manuel], who had all married under similar (fn. 10) dispensation, and that the thing was so scandalous that they dared not meddle with it themselves, or give orders to their doctors at Padua to do so. The king of England, they added, ought to be satisfied with this decision, inasmuch as orders should be issued for the doctors of the University not to give opinion one way or the other, (fn. 11) at which His Holiness and the Emperor might have reason to complain. The Bishop and his colleagues expressed so much dissatisfaction with this reply, and made so many exclamations, that the discussion lasted upwards of two hours, and would have lasted the whole day, had not the Signory determined to rise. Words of menace were not wanting on the part of the English, nor able men either on the part of the College to give them such an answer as they were not pleased to hear. At last the Bishop declared that he would not take this as the Signory's final answer, but begged them to reconsider the matter well, and observe that it was the king of England who made the petition, and that they had no right to be offended, any more than His Holiness and the Emperor, at their master's inquiring into the truth of an affair which touched him so nearly; upon which they parted in anger.
Yesterday the Bishop and his colleagues returned to the College-hall, where substantially the scene of last Sunday was re-enacted, as he (Niño) was informed, by one who went thither on some other business. Was told that the Bishop had made a last effort; he would not (he said) leave the Hall without a further request that they would re-consider the matter, declaring that he would return again for the answer. They have all promised him, however, that they will remain firm, even should the king of England come himself to make the request.
Such is the state of this business at present; and, moreover, the Emperor must know that these English are very much ashamed (corridos) of the opinions they procured at Padua from the 11 friars, because those who gave them happen to be among the lowest and most despicable of mankind. That is the reason why they are now trying to repair their error, and insist so strongly upon having the authority of the Signory to that effect.
Scarcity of corn in Venice.—Humbly request the Emperor to allow them to take 100,000 "salmas" from Sicily on the the payment of all duties, those of exportation included.
It is rumoured here that the duke of Milan is negociating a marriage with the sister of the marquis of Monferrara [Bonifacio VI.] with a view no doubt to succeed to that estate. If so, the uncle's feeble health gives him a very good chance of inheriting the estate. (fn. 12)
The ambassador who went from Arreso (Arezzo) in Tuscany to the Imperial court came back the other day much discontented, and consequently begged this Signory to take the inhabitants of that place under their protection. Their application, however, was refused. They afterwards went to count Guido Rangone with a similar petition, inviting him to become their captain, with as much pay as he would like to have. He answered that lie himself was a vassal, and cared not to become a lord. The ambassadors then went away quite in despair, threatening to form an alliance with the Florentines and pay them 12,000 ducats every year on condition of their being free, with only a governor in criminal matters appointed by Florence. They pretended that in the meanwhile they would assist that Republic with 3,000 men, and be able from Arezzo to cut the supplies going to the Imperial camp.
The Florentine agent residing in this city assured the Mantuan yesterday that the ambassador of his Republic in France had begged the King to help them with money, and that the King had answered that he could not possibly assist them now; upon which the Florentine ambassador had requested the payment of 350,000 (fn. 13) ducats the King owes them, and that he had answered: "I will think about that."
It is here reported that king Francis has sent count Pietro Francesco Pontremoli (fn. 14) to Rome for the purpose of obtaining terms for the Florentines. If, therefore, the answer which he is reported to have made to the ambassador as above be true, it is to be hoped that the surrender of that city will take place soon.—Venice, 28th July 1530.
Signed: "Rodrigo Niño."
Spanish. Original. pp. 6.
28 July.388. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 1,308,
f.75.
B M. Add. 28,580,
f. 311.
In consequence of his frequent communication with the general of the Augustinians on this English affair, he (Niño) has contracted such friendship for him that scarcely a day passes without his seeing him. As he is honest and learned, and a native of this city, and his cell is much visited by many gentlemen belonging to this government, he very often furnishes him with very good information. The other day he said: "I want to tell you a secret much more important than the English business itself, but you must first promise me upon your oath not to reveal it to anyone, for were these Venetians to know that I disclose their secrets to you I should certainly be stoned (apedreado).
Relates the conversation he had respecting the Turk and the news from Constantinople of the 17th June.
Spanish. Cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 6.
29 July.389. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 1,308,
f. 73.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 314.
Has done his best to ascertain which way these English agents wrote last, that he (Niño) might intercept some of their letters and learn what they are about; has in this manner obtained possession of those which are enclosed. (fn. 15) Not choosing to trust them to any person here who can read English, begs that they may be translated by some one learned in the English language, and a copy of the Spanish translation sent to him (Niño), that he may see how the English conduct their business, and what hope they have of gaining their end, and whether this Signory is deceiving us, and favouring the English more than they say, &c.—Venice, 29th July 1530. (fn. 16)
Signed: "Rodrigo Niño."
Addressed: "A la S. C. C. M.."
Spanish. Original. pp. 1½.
30 July.390. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 851,
ff. 50-1.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 321.
By another lengthy despatch, which goes along with this, I have advised of general news. Will now treat exclusively of the English suit. The bishop of London [Stokesley] has worked so hard in Padua that 11 friars, not very highly esteemed as to doctrine or piety, met the other day and passed by vote, on behalf and in the name of the theologians of that university, the opinion "that the Pope could not dispense for the marriage of the king and queen of England." This opinion is founded upon arguments of easy refutation and altogether false, which will be of no avail here, though they may possibly make an impression on those who bear no good-will to the Emperor. The same has been done at Paris, as appears from letters received by His Holiness from Alberto di Carpi and from his Nuncio, as well as from Garay to me, though the last-named insists upon the Pope sending thither a commissary to look into the affair and punish the guilty parties, (fn. 17) (cipher:) for it would appear after all that the most qualified among the Paris doctors voted in our favour. The fact is that had the Pope issued the brief he promised two months ago, commanding the universities not to deliberate in a body or take part in the affair, nothing of the sort would have happened either at Padua or Paris; but notwithstanding my entreaties and solicitations His Holiness carried the draft in his pouch (bolsa) all that time, and could never be persuaded to sign it. I am still requesting him to send it on; whether he will or not remains to be seen.
(Common writing:) The opposite party are now very busy trying to have the brief which our people applied for from England, soon after my arrival in Rome, revoked, or at least declared null and void; but as such a declaration would not suit our purpose, His Holiness, Sanctiquatuor, and I have now been disputing about it for upwards of ten days, (fn. 18) though it must be owned that the Cardinal (Sanctiquatuor) shews good disposition to serve His Imperial Majesty; and it is to be hoped that when the case comes to be tried, all these cardinals will be staunch (haran bondad), since not only is justice on our side, but the affair is one which touches on Papal authority. Meanwhile attested copies of all papers and documents from Spain or England ought to be sent to me, for should the proceedings begin after these vacations, and the Imperial lawyers not be in possession of them, I should be really ashamed (corrido) of myself. The memorandum of the doubts and objections [raised in England] has already been received in Naples. (fn. 16)
(fn. 19)
Respecting Isabella Colonna, the Pope, after hearing what his commissaries had to say in the matter, examined her himself, and some days ago asked my advice in the case. Answered that I could not give my opinion in a matter which Your Imperial Majesty had committed to his decision, as well as the selection of the person who was to marry the lady. The only thing I could do or say in this matter was to request that he would make a declaration as soon as possible. The Pope answered that he had already written to his Legate to talk it over with Your Majesty, and, therefore, that most likely it had been done by this time.
Letters from Naples have been received stating that Hernando Gonzaga is about to many a daughter of the duchess of Termini.
Ascanio Colonna came about a fortnight ago to Rome, and called upon me. Whilst walking together in a garden, [adjoining the embassy,] he said that he was very contented and happy, and as good a servant of the Emperor as ever, although his having been denied certain favours (mercedes) at Bologna might induce people to imagine that he was disappointed and angry. Told him that nothing of the sort existed. Your Imperial Majesty had always spoken of him in terms of gratitude and affection; besides which he (Ascanio) could very well see how you had behaved in this affair of Isabella Colonna. Orders had been issued that in case of the lady not being married to Luigi Gonzaga, his own son [Fabricio] should be preferred, and if this marriage could not be effected, that she should be for Fernando Gonzaga. His answer was that he cared not to whom Isabella Colonna was married; he (Ascanio) considered that alliance as quite unfit both for his son and for himself, owing first to the disparity of age, and secondly because he (Ascanio) objected to have as daughter-in-law a great lady possessing large estates (una nuera grande y señora entretanto). "Besides," said he, "I do not think that you would wish to see my family richer and more powerful than it is now, (and he said you out of courtesy, meaning no doubt Your Majesty). I am already rich enough, and possess more estates than all the Roman barons put together." Replied that he was not to think of that; never in all my experience of Imperial councillors had I found one of them influenced by such considerations. Your Imperial Majesty was far too great and too powerful to descend to such trifles. "If I wished at one time for this marriage," retorted Ascanio, "it was for the sake of the country people and vassals (villanos y vasallos), for the preservation and care of the Colonna family, and of those connected with it, and that I might avoid law suits, for everything this lady has a right to is really inherited from her forefathers, at least the estates in the Roman territory, for as to those of Naples the Emperor actually refused them to me at Bologna, though I consider myself entitled to them by my long services to the Empire. Not one of my predecessors ever served out of the kingdom of Naples itself; whereas I am the only one of my family who took service and came to Rome in the Emperor's interest, and bad enough it was for me, for all my towns were burnt, and my lands sacked in consequence."
Told him not to wonder at the Emperor's resolution, because, there being one party interested in the affair, he could not possibly grant his request without previous inquiry. "That is not the way" he replied, "to treat a man of my condition and parts. I myself in my humble sphere treat those who serve me in a very different manner. I give them favour, not merely justice. I speak openly to you; seeing the manner in which I was treated, and how little I was to expect from yonder court, I came to Rome and made myself the Pope's intimate friend." "The Emperor," I speedily observed, "will not mind that, as long as His Holiness is a good father to him." Upon which Ascanio begged and entreated me to keep this conversation a secret and not to write to Your Majesty about it. If he had said thus much, he added, it was merely to unbosom his grief, and complain of what he considered to be an injury to his reputation and honour. I have mentioned it because I have long suspected that Ascanio was discontented, as I had occasion to write in my last despatch, and also because I think it important for Your Majesty to be acquainted with these facts for the future, not that I am afraid of Ascanio forgetting his duty, for I believe him to be a man of honour.—Rome, 30th July 1530.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To the Majesty of the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on the margins. pp. 4.
31 July.391. The Emperor to the Empress Isabella.
S. E. L. 635,
ff. 87-88.
B. M. Add. 28,580,
f. 355.
Her letters of the 22nd June, 9th and 14th inst. were duly received after he, the Emperor, had written through Anton de Vedia, her gentleman usher (uxier de camara). Has felt the loss of the Infante Don Fernando, their son, more than she can imagine. Sends now Don Enrrique de Rojas with instructions to inquire particularly about her health, and bring back news from Spain.
Here [in Germany] We are still deliberating as to the best remedy to be applied in these matters of the Faith, and though up to the present time no final decision has been taken, We trust to God that some means will be found for the speedy settlement of these German dissensions.
The Pope's friendship for us is on the increase. Italy is in peace, and Florence so invested and reduced that the citizens begin already to speak about its surrender.
In France the most Christian Queen, our sister, has been received in pomp, and the marriage consummated. Great rejoicings and festivals have been made, of which a full account has been remitted to Spain. The King, moreover, seems determined to keep this peace, and preserve our friendship. We have sent Mr. de Rroucarme (fn. 20) to visit the King and Queen in our name, and if somebody has not been sent from Spain to congratulate them, it is important that some person of quality should be dispatched on a similar errand.
The Turk, We now know for certain, is not to invade Germany this year, but all the same is said to be making great preparations for the next.
To establish well the proceedings in the case of Her most Serene Highness the queen of England, it will be necessary, as they write to me from Rome, to examine the treaties of league and confederacy made at the time when the Queen's marriage, first with prince Arthur, and afterwards with king Henry, was negociated. (fn. 21) Let search be made for them, and authentic copies forwarded with all diligence to Mai at Rome.
Fifty thousand ducats to be paid to his brother, the king of Hungary, upon the revenue of the "Cruzada y Quarta" of that year.—Augusta (Augsburg), the last day of July 1530.
Signed: "Charles."
Countersigned: "Covos."
Spanish. Original. pp. 4.
—July.392. Clement VII. to King Francis.
S. E. Rom. L. 849,
f. 73.
B. M. Add. 28,580
f. 353.
Exhorts him to attend in person, if possible, or otherwise by means of his ambassadors, the Council which is to be held in Italy, in the most convenient place, for the purpose of arresting the progress of heresy, (fn. 22) as his Nuncio, the bishop of Como,† will verbally inform him.
Addressed: "Christianissimo Regi," Rome, &c.
Latin. pp. 2.

Footnotes

1 Fr. Garcia de Loaysa, bishop of Osma.
2 Scalengues, Skalange, Escalenga, a captain in the Imperial service, about whom see Vol. iii., part 2, pp. 59 and 72. His true name seems to have been De Scalengues, probably a Frenchman formerly attached to Bourbon.
3 This paragraph has on the margin the following note, apparently in Gattinara's hand: "His Majesty would have preferred that no allusion had been made to the business to be discussed in the Diet. These are things which, if divulged, might be the cause of serious inconvenience. Let the matter drop altogether".
4 To try and ascertain what the proposal may be, and report.
5 To avoid as much as possible to mix in such affairs, or take engagements, &c.
6 As above, and whenever matters of this kind are brought forward, let the Pope and the rest consider how much the Emperor has on his hands, and that he cannot possibly attend to every quarter. Gat.
7 In the first letter to Figueroa, this fact to be mentioned. If at Genoa, what he is doing, who are his friends? If gone to France, what about? Gat.
8 "La deliberacion del visconde (?) que le quiao matar."
9 "Que el Papa le ha dicho que tiene fresco aviso de Ynglaterra que aquel Rey avia dicho que si su St. quisiese podria jugar un buen juego, y que con mucha confianza le declaró que lo decia por alguna nueva inteligenca, y quel le dió gracias."
10 King Dom Manuel had married two sisters, Doña Isabel and Doña Maria, both daughters of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. See above, p. 658, note.
11 "Que se tuviesse por contento de este estado [de cosas], en que asi mesmo con su autoridad no darian sus dottores conseio contra lo que el quiere."
12 "Por ser el tio della de la ynhabilidad que es." Bonifacio VI. who was only 13 years of age died in March (?) of this very year in consequence of a fall from his horse. He was succeeded by his uncle, Giovan Georgio Paleologo, bishop of Casale, who renounced all his benefices in order to marry, but died on the 13th of April 1533. He had been betrothed to Julia or Giulia, of Aragon, daughter of Frederic, king of Naples, before his marriage took place. Bonifacio had two sisters, Maria and Margarita. The former, who had been married to the marquis, afterwards duke of Mantua (Federigo Gonzaga) was actually divorced from him, and Margarita, her sister, became soon after the wife of her own brother-in-law (Gonzaga), who had been betrothed to the said Giulia of Aragon, thus showing how very frequently the court of Rome dispensed for such marriages, especially between princes.
13 Thus in Bergenroth's copy, but there is reason to think that there is one zero too much.
14 No doubt the same individual elsewhere called François. See above, pp. 635, 653.
15 The letters here mentioned are not in the packet.
16 In Bergenroth's transcript the date is "xix Jullio."
17 "Esto mesmo be visto que se ha hecho en Paris segund escriuen Alberto de Carpi y su Nuncio al Papa, y á mi Garay, ahunque pide (sic) que el Papa inbie alla algund comisario para castigarlos, y que conozca de aquellas differentias."
18 "Agora andan por revocar un breve que me imbiaron (sic) á pedir de Anglaterra luego que aqui vine, ó á lo menos por declararlo, y por que la declaration no me está bien ha mas de × [dias] que la andamos porfiando su Sd. y Sanctiquatro y io, ahunque en la verdad, &c."
19 "Ya en Napoles tienen las dubdas." The paper here alluded to is in Add. 28,582, f. 270.
20 Thus in the copy (p. 356), but though I have not collated it with the original, I do not hesitate to say that it is a blunder of the scribe, and that Noir-cames is the proper name.
21 "Para fundar el proceso de la Serenisima Reyna de Inglaterra, nuestra tia, me scriven desde Roma que ay necesidad de ver log tratados y capitulaciones de ligas y confederaciones que se hicieron quando se trataron los casamientos de la Reyna, primero con el Rey Artus y despues con el Rey Enrrique."
22 Copy made by Mai. The brief itself is erroneously docketed: "Copia del breve mandato per S. Sd. a lie (sic) potentati de Italia," whereas it is addressed to Francis. It has no date.