Spain
November 1531, 26-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Pascual de Gayangos (editor)

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1882

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296-316

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'Spain: November 1531, 26-30', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2: 1531-1533 (1882), pp. 296-316. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=87753 Date accessed: 16 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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November 1531, 26-30

27 Nov.839. Martin de Salinas to king Ferdinand.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.,
Salazar, c. 71,
55 v..
Received on the 25th inst. in the morning His Highness' despatches of the 16th, and delivered the letters that came for the Emperor, and which His Majesty read in his presence, stopping from time to time and answering its paragraphs one by one. With regard to his journey [to the Diet], and the difficulties detailed in the memorandum, the Emperor observed that His Highness was quite right in his suspicions. So great have hitherto been the obstacles by which His Imperial Majesty has been surrounded that he has actually been prevented from going to Germany, as he fully intended. This, notwithstanding, he has now sent the marquis of Brandemburgh (Frederic) to the prince-electors to inform them of his speedy departure, and sound them as to their intentions. All have answered through the said Marquis that they are ready to accompany and escort the Emperor, and that they will meet him at any town on the road. This offer of some of the electors to make part of the journey with the Emperor naturally entails upon him the duty of conversing with them, respecting the affairs to be discussed at the Diet, and for this reason he wishes to know as soon as possible what His Highness' views are on those matters, and whether the Lutherans are to be dealt with mildly or with rigour, and to ascertain also in cither case how far the electors are prepared to follow his steps, because should their views coincide with his own the Emperor will not hesitate to grapple at once with the difficulty.
Respecting the Swiss, the Emperor does not seem to agree entirely, though he approves of the ways and means proposed in His Highness' note, yet he thinks for many weighty considerations that some modification ought to be introduced. Cornieles (sic). (fn. 1) who starts to-morrow, will take a memorandum with the Emperor's views on the subject.
To the letters received on St. Katharine's Day the Emperor did not answer as soon as he wished, being then engaged in making preparations for his departure, which will take place very shortly. He is to be at Tournay on St. Andrew's Day, stay there eight days, and then come back to Brussels. This seems to be the route decided upon, for he intended at first to return by Bruges and Enberes (Antwerp). At any rate he will pass the Epiphany at Cologne (Kohl).
Delivered his letters to the queen of Hungary (Mary), and also to Monsieur de Nasao (count of Nassau). The latter had on that very day received his brother's answer respecting the governorship of Wurtemberg offered to him, and had forwarded it to Rocandorf. (fn. 2) The substance of which answer is that the Count's brother does not find it easy to do what is asked of him, principally for fear of the landgrave [of Hesse] who might easily destroy him. It was then agreed that Nassau, Rocandorf, and he (Salinas) should meet at Tournay, and there discuss the matter together. Will do so when he next joins them.
The queen of Portugal (Catalina) has been confined of a son. To-day, Monday [the 27th], he [Salinas] intends leaving for Tournay. The Emperor has given orders for the whole of his household to be ready to start on the 15th of next month.—Brussels, the 27th of November 1531.
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 3.
28 Nov.840. Dr. Ortiz to the Emperor (?)
S. E. L. 854,
f. 114.
Has received the Imperial letter of the 22nd of October.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 45.
Great progress has been made since the holidays in the matrimonial cause of England. The King's irreverent letter has nowise been accepted as sufficient credential for his envoy. The Rota, by a majority of votes, has declared the opposition of the King to the Pope's orders for the advocation of the cause to be null and void, and that the person sent to excuse his nonappearance at Rome is not to be heard. These decisions have not yet been published because they must first pass through a Consistory of Cardinals and be approved. The debate and pleading to begin as soon as the Consistory has given its verdict on this point, and the whole cause may soon be finished. There never was a more just case than this one of the Queen, and its final decision can hardly be doubtful.
Has duly received the second part of the apology of the bishop of Rochester (Fisher) on the divorce case. His opinion is distinguished by great learning.
The servants of Don Martin de Mendoza have, he hears insulted the Papal Nuncio. Begs that prompt satisfaction be given to that functionary.—Rome, 28th November 1531.
Signed: "El Doctor Ortiz."
Addressed: " To His Imperial and Catholic Majesty the Emperor and King, our Lord. (fn. 3) "
Indorsed: " From Dr. Ortiz. 28th November."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 2.
30 Nov.841. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 853, f. 98.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 69.
Received on the 16th inst. his Majesty's letter of the 31st ult. and 6th inst. Three days after the servant of prince Bisignano came with the duplicates of the same date.
After communicating with cardinal d'Osma and Mugettola (sic) he (Mai) waited upon His Holiness, and gave him the Emperor's message. He was very glad of it, and said at once that he would willingly go on with his monthly contribution towards the expenses of the Imperial army. If he had at times delayed the payment it was no fault of his. If we could only point out to him whence he could draw money it should not be wanting.
With regard to the 2,000 hackbutiers for the Swiss there is no difficulty at all; the Pope will pay one half and His Majesty the other. To his demand that captain Zuccharo should at once take the command of them, he (Mai) objected that it had been agreed to keep the matter secret, and make as if the whole of the contingent were defrayed by the Pope; for this reason it was preferable that the nomination should come from him through Caracciolo, who is still at Milan, and will know perfectly well how to conduct this business. But His Majesty should know that this affair cannot be a secret in Italy, because the Legate has already written about it from that Imperial court; the Pope himself has told some of the foreign ambassadors of it, and has besides applied to Venice and Milan for help. He himself (Mai) has written to Rodrigo Niño about it, and, therefore, the secret is by this time in everybody's mouth. That ambassador, however, writes that the Venetians refuse to help, pretending that His Majesty had already attempted to have these matters settled pacifically at a Diet, but had failed, and also that the duke of Milan intended trying to adjust the differences of the Swiss cantons. With these and other like excuses Venice shirks helping the Catholic cantons of Switzerland against the Lutheran.
(Cipher:) Since the receipt of these last letters from His Majesty, the Pope fancies that the negotiation now being carried on with the duke of Milan [Francesco Sforza] is not to his advantage, and though he does not entirely disapprove of the proposed marriage it is easy to perceive that he dislikes it.
He (Mai) has at other times spoken his mind openly. He cannot help thinking that these Roman ecclesiastics seem very much inclined, to this war between the Swiss cantons, and that the warmth they shew is more owing to other causes than to their zeal for the Faith. However, should war be rekindled among the Swiss, and should the Lutherans have the best of it (which God forbid), they of themselves will do little towards the protection of the Catholics, &c. (fn. 4)
Asked the Pope, according to His Majesty's commands, what his wishes were in this particular matter. His answer was that since the enterprize (empresa) had commenced it was necessary to persevere in it. Having on another occasion inquired what he meant by persevering, he answered: .I mean going on upon the terms the Emperor wishes," and upon my again entreating him to specify those terms as Your Majesty desired to know how to act in the matter, he returned the same answer, namely: " Let the Emperor's commands be done," from which he (Mai) concludes that the Pope would be glad of succour being sent to the Catholic cantons. Another day he said he was sorry that the 5,000 men enlisted for the Danish affair had been dismissed, because, he said, with that force and that which could be recruited here [in Italy] the Swiss Lutherans might easily have been kept in check.
(Cipher:) The copy of the letter of the Imperial ambassador in France, which His Majesty forwarded no one saw but cardinal Osma. Everywhere the restless ambition, bad intentions, and folly of the French shew themselves. Their ambassador here is continually asking the Pope why he gives money to his enemies, meaning His Majesty, and his brother, the king of the Romans. They believe that His Holiness is only your friend in appearance, and because he cannot help himself.
The Emperor must have been informed that the galleys and other war ships of France are now stopping all Spanish vessels at sea, and robbing the passengers of their goods and merchandize on the plea that they are Genoese and belong to that port. He (Mai) happening the other day to mention this subject before the Pope he said: "There can be no doubt that the intentions of the French are very evil; before March next we shall hear what they are about." Hearing this he (Mai) asked him whether he had any particular information to go upon; he said he had none, but that such was his impression.
Told him also that the king of France and his sons would infallibly come to a bad end, for he had lately seen it in an astrological prediction (pronosticos de astrologia) which he promised to shew him, though what with his mourning [for his brother], and the Pope's own illness (for he has been five or six days laid up with the gout) he has not yet been able to do so.
(Common writing:) The king of England has here among his ambassadors a lawyer (letrado). the same who accompanied Your Majesty from Bologna. They say that he enjoys the confidence of his master, and that he has now sent for him. Some say that it is for the purpose of ascertaining the real state of the matrimonial suit, and what they think of it, both here and in the rest of Italy. The Pope has sent by him several briefs to the King, exhorting him to adhere to the cause (al bien de la causa). The Englishman is an honest man, and I am sure will do all he can for the good issue of this affair, though, at the same time, I am afraid because hitherto my anticipations in such matters have always been disappointed. And I say this that Your Majesty may be informed that when the French ambassador heard of these briefs—which the Pope is now sending to the king of England —he went up to him and complained bitterly of his writing to the King, and, moreover, dispatching the English ambassador with letters without acquainting him of their contents, or letting him know of the ambassador's departure. The Pope excused himself, saying that the ambassador was going back to England at the King's summons, and that the briefs were only answers to certain letters from the King. Still the French ambassador grumbled, and said that it the Pope wanted anything from the king of England he ought first to acquaint his master with it; in that manner and through his means he might obtain what he wanted, otherwise he would never get anything from the English.
A post has lately arrived from France. All he brings are complaints of the Duchessina's contemplated marriage [to the duke of Milan], and the proposal of an interview between His Holiness and the Most Christian King. This interview has been solicited no less than 11 different times in this year, and I recollect that about eight months ago speaking to the Pope about it, he said to me that on no account would he·consent to it. He is still in the very same mood, and continues to think that these insane Frenchmen will one of these days commit some extraordinary act, and that we ought to be prepared, &c.
Cardinal Osma is urging the Pope to arrange the Milan marriage, and although His Holiness is continually promising that he will see to it, I am afraid that he will do nothing of the sort, for in this matter he is likely to gain by delay, as he once did with the French. I will, however, go on with my solicitations as if I were ignorant of the Pope's intentions.
Cardinal Colonna promises to send shortly from Naples, not only the pay for the army, but also the 4,000 ducats for the Swiss, and whatever else may be needed for the hackbutiers. All that is required, for the marquis del Gasto (Vasto) writes from the camp very much disgusted at his not having received funds.
Contract with Ansaldo Grimaldo not approved of in Naples.
The Pope is urgently asking for the auditor from Castille, who is to fill the vacent seat here in the Rota.
The duke of Milan is pressing hard the castellan of Mus, which, joined to the rumour that was spread the other day of the Imperial army being about to enter the Val Tellina, has caused the Grisons to withdraw from the Swiss Lutherans, with whom they had formed a confederacy.
The duke of Mantua (Federico Gonzaga) has arrived in Rome with his wife, the Duchess. The river had flooded its banks much more than last September, the consequence being that the damage caused by the inundation has been very great.
P.S.—After the above was written, I had again occasion to confer with His Holiness on the affairs of France. He told me that the count of Geneva was about to institute a law-suit against the duke of Savoy, his brother, claiming for himself one half of Piedmont; lawyers on each side were to meet, and some excitement prevailed. (Cipher:) The Pope told me that all this was owing to the king of France stirring up (solevanta) the Count, and that he had heard some one say that he wanted to become a "condottiero." (fn. 5) Having asked him whether it was the Count, he said " No, another man," but he did not say whom. He also told me that the duke of Savoy had signified to cardinal Ybrea, (fn. 6) who belongs to the French party, that he was not much pleased with cardinal Moriana, who is now Papal Legate in Savoy, and that if he wanted to become such he would have the former recalled and himself appointed in his room; which intelligence, if true, seems likewise rather strange.
As it is publicly stated in the streets of Rome that the king of France has summoned (citado) the duke of Savoy, I asked him what for, and what he knew of it. He answered that he was not aware that he had done it yet, but that certainly he was threatening to summon him, or seize Nizza, which he says was pawned [by a king of France to a duke of Savoy], and that he now wishes it back. The Pope then added that the Most Christian King was doing all this out of spite for the cession of Asti to the Duke.
(Cipher:) I also asked him what had been the result of the negotiations of which he spoke to me some time ago as having been entered into with the people of Nüremberg, the duke of Saxony, and others who had forsaken the Faith, His answer was that he had very recently received letters from the person in charge of the said negotiations, saying that the inhabitants of that city, and others he had spoken with, were ready to treat, but had referred him to what the duke of Saxony himself would say, and that he had accordingly gone to his court to inquire.—Rome, 30th November 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To the Sacred Majesty of the Emperor and King, our Sovereign Lord."
Spanish. Oiginal in cipher, pp. 7.
30 Nov.842. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 853, f. 98.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 50.
The king of England has here now, among other ambassadors, a lawyer (letrado) who accompanied Your Majesty from Bologna to Mantua (?), and they say that he trusts him much. He has now sent for him, for the sake, as many here believe, of hearing his opinion about the state of the matrimonial cause in Italy and here at Rome. By him His Holiness is sending to the King some briefs, wherein he exhorts him to work for the good issue of the matrimonial cause. The lawyer is certainly an honest man, and I believe will do all the good he can for the affair, but I trust slightly in such hopes because I have found them often deceitful and vain.
And I say this because I hear that when the French ambassador heard that the Pope was writing, or had written to the king [of England], he was jealous, and went to the Pope and complained of his being actually in correspondence with England without his knowing anything about it. "That was a thing (he said) which ought not to be done without the knowledge and consent of his master, the king of France." The ambassador would never rest until the Pope had com pletely undeceived him, and said it was not he who had sent the English ambassador back with letters; he had gone to England by the King's commands. The dispute ended by the French ambassador telling the Pope that in future, if he wanted anything from the king of England, he had better inform him of it, that the King, his master, might intercede and get it for him, otherwise (he added): " Your Holiness will never obtain your wishes."
Lastly a courier has come from France. He only brings complaints of the Duchessina's intended marriage to the duke Sforza, and the request of an interview of the Most Christian King with His Holiness. This is not the first time that a similar application has been made this year, for upwards of eight months ago the Pope told me that he had been askedfor an interview, and that certainly he would not grant it. He seems to be now of the same mode of thinking ; he says that these madmen (locos) are sure, sooner or later, to do something strange (fn. 7) and that we must be prepared to defeat their plans.—Rome, 30th November 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To the Sacred Majesty of the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher, pp. 2.
30 Nov.843. The Same to the Same.
S.E.L. 853,
f.135.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 53.
Wrote long ago that the delay (intermedio) in the English cause had been voted; but whilst he (Mai) was contriving that the reporting officer (relator) should do his duty in Consistory, the English ambassadors presented a petition asking that the article should be disputed in public. Although this seemed to me an empty excuse (vanedad) yet, to avoid further delays, I consented to it, considering that the only harm that could come therefrom was delay, and that were I to oppose it they would still insist, and much valuable time would be lost in altercation. (fn. 8) As I am fully convinced that all the harm the English can do us in this cause proceeds from delay, I economize time as much as I can.
After this, for the English have lost all sense of honour and shame, they alleged that they wanted to send for practised lawyers from some parts of Italy, and likewise from other countries, and that four months' time was required for that work. No sooner was I apprized of this fact than I went to the commissary of the trial, and then to the Pope, and said to them all that could modestly be said, and perhaps a little more. I am now informing the cardinals one by one, and my idea is that they will allow the dispute to take place, but nowise the delay of four months that has been asked. I have been told by some of them that in three days' time there will be a Consistory, and that the decision will be as above, so that between the dispute in public and the reference to the Consistory some time will elapse, but we are sure that the article will be passed about Christmas. (fn. 9)
Dr. Benet, who was here as ambassador, has gone back to England recalled by his master. Some say that he goes for the purpose of telling the truth and informing the King that the matrimonial cause is held in different estimation here from what it is in England or in the King's Privy Council, and that he takes with him a Papal brief of exhortation to the King (lleva breve exhortatorio); but we have been so oftendeceived by such hopes that I dare not trust in him —Rome 30th November 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To the Sacred Majesty of the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Indorsed: " From Mai, 30th. November, on the affairs of England.
Spanish. Original. pp. 3.
Nov. 30.844. Muxetula to the Same.
S. E. L. 496,
f. 107.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 61.
The Emperor's letters of the 6th inst. came duly to hand. The Pope was glad to hear that the cause of the five Catholic Swiss cantons would be taken up. He immediately sent to Milan the money required for the levying of the 1,000 hackbutiers, and pressed us to do the same on our side. As the 4,000 crs. which we expected from Naples were not forthcoming, we have borrowed them from bankers of this city. They must already be in Caracciolo's hands at Milan. To the command of this infantry the Pope has, according to Your Majesty's suggestion, appointed a captain named Zucaro, and in case of his not accepting the charge—which the Pope considers improbable—a comrade of his, now in the marquis [del Vasto's] camp, called Pirro de Cipizano, will be named. The bishop of Veroli is, moreover, to go thither and persuade the Swiss to remain staunch to the Faith.
After this came letters from the Swiss themselves, intimating that their fears had been somewhat allayed. The Lutheran cantons had, as it would appear, retreated, and the Grisons, for fear of our troops in Lombardy entering the Val Tellina, had actually refused their co-operation, and therefore it might after all be that the hackbutiers from Milan were no longer wanted.
Respecting the contribution towards the Imperial army [in Lombardy], His Holiness is as inclined as ever he was; only he says he has no money at all, and that unless we point out to him the way to procure it he does not know how he can remit his contingent. We all have suggested to him that he must levy a tithe on all churches in the Venetian estate, in Mantua, Siena, Genoa, Lucca, the marquisates of Saluzzo and Monferrara, and, in short, on all those Italian estates which did not pay at first.
As the marquis [del Vasto] was continually clamouring for money, and the sums which cardinal Colonna had promised to send from Naples were not forthcoming, he (Muxetula) was obliged to borrow from Ansaldo Grimaldo money enough to pay the army for the next four months, at an interest of 16 %. Finds, however, that the Cardinal and the treasurers at Naples find fault with this contract, saying that the interest is too high, when it is known that they themselves have paid 28.
The last news from Switzerland is that the Catholic cantons have made a separate agreement with Zurich, and broken the capitulation entered into with the Lutherans (las tierras Francas Luteranas). The principal leaders of that sect had abandoned Zurich, and now the chief magistrature is occupied by a man who was a Catholic at heart, and had in former days suffered greatly for his Faith. It was also reported that the said five Catholic cantons were about to march against the Bernese and other Lutherans, and were sanguine for victory, and that the French ambassador was trying all he could to set them at peace, but that the Catholics refused.— Rome, 30th November 1531.
Spanish. Original. pp. 14.
30 Nov.845. The Same to the Same.
S E, L. 853,
ff. 102–3.
B.M. Add. 28,584,
f. 55.
Besides my despatch of the same date which goes with this I consider it my duty to inform Your Majesty of the following facts:—
(Cipher:) Since the receipt of Your Majesty's letter of the 6th inst. I have never ceased whenever an opportunity offered itself to press His Holiness respecting the Milanese marriage. I have explained to him that what the king of France wants is to create disturbances in Italy. I have told him that the offers of the French could not be sincere and were only made with a view to disturb the peace of Italy. That peace he and Your Majesty were bound to foster and protect; and certainly the marriage of his niece to the duke [of Milan] and that of his nephew, Alessandro de' Medici, to Your Majesty's daughter (Margaret), which had already been arranged, were in my opinion the most efficacious means of ensuring it.
His Holiness took time to answer, and some days ago told me confidentially that he was of the same opinion as Your Majesty in these matters; he thought that the French were after no good, and said he approved thoroughly of the Milanese marriage, provided Your Majesty undertook the protection of that estate against the French; he alone was not strong enough to defend it. The Venetians (he said) might also help, the more so that they evidently disliked the other marriage of the duke of Orleans. He thought, however, that until the Diet of Ratisbon was at end, and Your Majesty came to Italy, not a word of this ought to be said, and that in the meantime, without altogether dismissing the proposals of the French king, he (the Pope) might go on temporizing with him and raising difficulties so as to get out of the engagement.
The king of France meanwhile has instructed his ambassador to ask for an interview. The Pope has answered that he will with great pleasure meet the Most Christian King at any place that may be agreed between them, but must first apprize Your Majesty with whom he has made a leaguethereof. He could not but use towards you the same courtesy you had used towards him when you announced the interview you intended holding with the king of France. Besides, Your Majesty had promised to come to Italy after the Diet, to discuss with His Holiness the affairs of the Lutherans and of the Turk, and that seemed to him the fittest time and place to hold an interview, the more so that king Francis might then see the Emperor also. It appears that when the French ambassador heard this answer of the Pope he begged him not to write or mention the thing to anyone, as it might happen that his master after hearing His Holiness' reasons would no longer wish for the interview. However this may be, His Holiness is thinking of sending the abbot of Nero to France that he may verbally explain his objections to the proposed interview.
His Holiness also told me that from certain expressions of the French ambassador, as well as from advices received from other quarters, he concluded that the king of France would not let matters rest in Italy as they were at present, but would try to create all manner of troubles. The other day he told me: "The Emperor and I must see what is to be done with this terrible man (meaning king Francis). We must consider war as already commenced; I am sure we shall have it soon, perhaps before the year is over, for the king of England is continually importuning him to break the present peace."
The Swiss Catholic cantons, &c.
The man who went to the duke of Saxony has already done some good at Augusta (Augsburg). He hoped to prevail upon the inhabitants of that city to recall the Dominicans and the Franciscans, who had been expelled therefrom.
Count of Geneva and his quarrel with the duke of Savoy.
French intrigues to get possession of Genoa.—Rome, 30th November 1531.
Signed: "Muscetula."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 3.
[Nov. ?]846. The Emperor to the Pope.
S. E. L. 854,
f. 153.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 82.
Expecting that some resolution would be taken in the matters of the Faith, I have delayed writing to Your Holiness, as Miçer Mai, my ambassador, has no doubt already informed you. Now that all hope of success is lost, I take up my pen to say: that I have seen and much applauded the honourable determination taken by Your Holiness and the cardinals appointed to look into this matter, of allowing the convocation of a General Council Although many obstacles stood in the way of its celebration, as Your Holiness rightly observes, I always thought that, however great the difficulties, Your Holiness would surmount them, &c.
I had some hopes from what many people here, and the Christian princes, who remain true to their Faith, tell me that the promise by Your Holiness of a General Council wouldhave been the means of recalling the heretics from their errors and inducing them to live in the Catholic creed; so at least they asserted by word and writing. Your Legate thought so, that being the reason why I pressed Your Holiness to allow the celebration of a General Council. The result, however, has been contrary to our expectations; the Lutherans persevere in their errors, as Your Holiness will see by the enclosed memorandum. I am, as Your Holiness may imagine, sadly grieved at this result, and at the danger which threatens the whole of Christendom, in a case closely connected with our Faith, which we are all bound to observe. And although no other remedy is, in my opinion, available in this case but the one so often thought of, namely, the convocation of a Council equally demanded by the generality of both Catholics and Lutherans, I have not dared take any engagements respecting this matter owing to the rejection by them of some of the conditions, as for instance that our Holy Mother Church shall be again united, and that they will live and continue in the Faith until the determination of the Council by those sectarians. Which Council, I repeat, all parties are anxious for, and demand—the good Catholics as well as the bad ones—for though the latter asked at first that it should he held with certain conditions of continuity (con algunas calidades de contino) they have since desisted upon being told that it will be celebrated at the place and in the manner most befitting Your Holiness' authority, with your perfect will and consent, and with the approbation and advice (parecer) of all the princes of Christendom. (fn. 10)
Since Your Holiness asks my advice on these matters I do not hesitate to say that the only remedy to the present evil is the convocation of a General Council, for, in my opinion, the inconveniences pointed out as likely to arise therefrom would certainly be much less than those which are sure to spring up without it. As to the objection that this is not a fit time for such an assembly on account of the war threatened by the Turk, which will require all the attention of the Christian princes in that quarter, it seems to me, on the contrary, as if it had no force whatever. I think the circumstance of Your Holiness meeting in the Council all the princes or their representatives would afford greater facilities for the defence of invaded Christendom.
I, therefore, beg and entreat Your Holiness to agree to the speedy convocation of the said Council, and write letters to that effect to the kings and princes of Christendom. As to the place of the meeting, any of those designated by Your Holiness is good enough for me. Let the other Christian princes be also consulted about it. The general opinion here is that the most convenient spot would be either Mantua,already named by Your Highness, or else Milan, as being nearer to this Germany, and to the cradle of most Lutheran errors (fn. 11) . . . . . . . . . . .
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 6.
30 Nov.847. The Council of War in Spain (fn. 12) to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 496, f. 87.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 14.
Have read his letter to the Empress dated Brussels the 18th of October.
Galleys to be fitted out for the Algiers expedition.
Since flour or wheat cannot be procured in England, as was expected at first, it must be got somewhere else. In Spain the harvest has been very indifferent, and consequently the prices are high. A " fanega" of wheat sells in Malaga and other ports of the Mediterranean coast for 7½ reals, and perhaps for more. In Sicily, they say, wheat abounds.
All fortresses on this side of the Pyrenean chain shall be attended to.
Indorsed: "The opinion of the Council on military matters and provisions for the Fleet."
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 7.
Nov.848. Memoranda on the matter of the Swiss cantons given by the Papal Legate at Brussels.
S. E. L. 854,
f. 152.
B.M. Add. 28,584,
f. 75.
His Holiness must be aware that Miçer Stephano [dell' Isola], ambassador of the five Catholic cantons of Switzerland, is as devout a servant of the Holy Apostolic See as myself, and has stated with entire accuracy whatever he had charge of representing [at Rome]. Indeed I can bear witness that whilst discussing with him the occurrences of every day among the Catholics and Lutherans of Switzerland, and the chances of the war, even that of the latter remaining masters of the field (which may God forbid), the said Stephano has given me ample testimony of his sincere attachment to Mother Church, and of his perfect willingness to set the Swiss at peace, and re-establish the old confederation, if the means could only be found of accomplishing so desirable an end. (fn. 13)
Persuaded as I was, however, that the intentions of the said five cantons were anything but pacific, and that they had decided to make war upon their neighbours—in which opinion Stephano himself and prothonotary Caracciolo concurred—I advised the former to return to Switzerland and tell his people to desist altogether from the undertaking. This I did for the reasons specified in cardinal Salviati's letter of the 16th ult., and accordingly Stephano left for home. But I advised him to tell his countrymen that our advising peace instead of war was not so much owing to our own particular view of the case, as it was to the necessity in which the Emperor found himself of waiting for the issue of certain negotiations (pratiche) being carried on in Germany for the purpose of putting down without bloodshed the dissensions of princes and free cities. That, and no other, was the reason for our advice, for blood once spilt there would be no resource left but that of arms. Should the German troubles be appeased they (the Swiss) would soon be obliged to return to the confederation, or else be vanquished and subdued. (fn. 14)
To this plan of ours His Holiness willingly assented, inasmuch as he will never consider it wise or consistent with his own authority and power to trouble himself with negotiations which neither His Imperial Majesty, nor his brother, the king of the Romans, with all their greatness, has yet been able to bring to a satisfactory issue.
Miçer Stephano's objections, however, which I once transmitted to Rome, are chiefly founded on fear of rebellion on the part of the Swiss, (fn. 15) who, it appears, are daily getting more and more contaminated with the Lutheran heresy ; for after trying, by Zwingli's orders, all possible experiments to reduce to their own heretical sect the five Catholic cantons, the Lutherans have as a last resource procured (or they themselves have come of their own accord) orators from Argentina (Strasburg) and Constantia (Constanz), two most Lutheran (lutheranissime) cities, to go and preach their damnable heresies among the Catholics. For the sake of obtaining more credence and for the better accomplishment of their mission these orators have taken with them others from Friburg and Soleure, cantons which still adhere to the true faith. (fn. 16) They are to propose to the other five such conditions as will most please them, namely, that each man and woman remain in their Faith and practice it in public unmolested until the festival of the Resurrection. Through which terms, if accepted, the five Swiss cantons are afraid that feeling themselves secure, and living as it were in domestic intercourse with the other eight, these latter being chiefly, if not entirely, composed of Lutherans, will little by little induce the Catholic ones to forsake the Faith of their fathers, and rise against their superiors and lords, compelling them either to embrace the false Lutheran creed, or run the risk of being slaughtered or sent into exile. That the fears of the Catholics are well founded there can be no possible doubt, as we daily hear of the rebellion against them of their own castles, with which, and with the closing of the passes and stopping of provisions the said five cantons have been reduced to the verge of despair. (fn. 17)
Owing to these considerations, and fearing lest the defection of their subjects should leave them no hope of safety, and that consequently the Lutherans should proudly raise up their heads, the Catholics are obliged the sooner to take up arms and to proceed at once to chastize their said rebellious subjects, the more so that the canton of Urania (Uri) has already begun to listen to the above-named Protestant orators, saying that the proposed agreement for each canton, whether Catholic or Lutheran, to retain its own free usages, and for each man to have full liberty in matters of Faith, is acceptable enough, and that since they have till next Easter for deciding they had better take that offer into consideration and repose meantime without fear of war. (fn. 18)
In this manner have the four [other] Catholic cantons (fn. 19) discovered that many among the principal inhabitants of Urania (Uri) are already contaminated with the Lutheran heresy, for they openly entertain hopes " boni et pacis," saying that in order to obtain that desirable boon it behoves them to avoid a rupture with their Lutheran confederates, and acquiesce, if possible, in some of their demands.
As by means of such stratagems and treasons the Lutherans have gained over to their cause almost the whole of the other [cantons], and finally created such rebellion and disturbance among them that governors have been deposed, and others appointed from the lowest ranks of society—by which means they have annexed Raspuil, a territory for the recovery of which, as it might be a sort of bridle upon the Zurichians, (fn. 20) the five cantons would willingly spend a mine of gold—it is high time to put a stop to this threatening evil. In these dangers, as represented by Stephano, his Reverence Prothonotary Caracciolo could not make up his mind to believe; I myself should have agreed with him had not the enclosed letter been received from a chancellor of the duke [of Milan], who happened to be at Zurich at the time, and who afterwards came here and confirmed the alleged facts. He says that there is no other question in that town save gaining over the five Catholic cantons to their side. Zurich would then become the head (la testa) as it were of all the princes and free Lutheran towns, who have promised to take that city for their capital, and hold there all their meetings, boasting among themselves that had they been able to reduce the five Catholic cantons before the Diet of Spires they might easily, on the Emperor's arrival, have marched against that city and besieged him in it until he had fallen into their hands, vaunting also that they had as much money and men as they wanted for the purpose, as they were able to dispose freely of the purses of princes and merchants.
During the siege of that city (they said) they could easily promote rebellion in the empire from Basilea (Basle) to Spires, then turn towards Italy, enter Rome, and do with His Holiness (fn. 21) and the Pontifical estates what it is maddening only to hear.
A good Christian has given me to understand that I ought to warn His Holiness of the fact that Zurich is nowadays the head and capital of the Lutheran sect, and that its citizens have intelligences with mighty princes, one of whom, according to one of Zwingli's principal followers, is the Grand Turk. For the present they (the Lutherans) will not declare themselves openly, but should they succeed in gaining the five Catholic cantons to their sect we should see such a fire kindled [in Europe] as was never seen before, for they [the Lutherans] would at once contaminate with their heresies the rest of Germany, and perhaps also the whole of Italy.
It is natural that Zwingli, perceiving his increasing credit among these people, who already call him a second Moses ; finding that he has a good game in hand, and perhaps fearing that should the five Catholic cantons ultimately prevail, (fn. 22) he himself will inevitably be cut to pieces, will principally seek to persuade the people to follow his tenets, as he is now doing; but as this he cannot achieve by moderation, he will certainly attempt it by violence and force of arms. In consequence of which (sollevamenti) the elders of the five cantons have come to the resolution that rather than be slaughtered by their own people—as in that case they would undoubtedly be— they will attack the Zurichians in their city, and die like brave men and not give the enemy time for gaining greater credit with their subjects and vassals.
Notwithstanding the above stated reasons Miçer Stephano has taken his departure, and will do all he can to restrain his countrymen. He has requested me to put down the above statements which, His Holiness may believe me, contain the sentiments of all good and devout Catholics. (fn. 23)
By letters of the 12th of October addressed to the bishop of Veroli (Ennio Filonardo), of which we have seen a copy, a great battle had been fought the day before between the Catholic and Lutheran cantons, in which the former were victorious, notwithstanding which they asked for a succour of 200 or 300 hackbutiers, good soldiers, and paid punctually. (fn. 24)
Battista da Insola (Isola) writes also to the bishop [of Veroli] on the 12th that the battle was fought at a place called Capel (fn. 25) over the cantons of Zurich, at two and a half Lombard miles from Zug. (fn. 26)
The bishop [of Veroli] himself writes in date of the 15th ult. that Caracciolo's advices from Milan are that there is no need of Spaniards as many Italians had already enlisted, more than could possibly be wanted. He also writes to Jacopo Salviati on the 28th: "Miçer Stephano da Insola (sic). the ambassador of the five cantons, tells me that had it not been for the delay caused by the agreement between the cantons, which was to last until Easter (la Pascha). and the overtures afterwards made to the Catholics through the instrumentality of great princes, the capitulation would doubtless have been accepted. Every Swiss would then have remained at liberty to believe what he pleased; and as immediately after this the Lutherans would naturally have become the friends and confederates of the Catholics, it was to be feared that the plague of heresy would soon have corrupted the whole. (fn. 27) Yet not only had these terms been rejected, but irritated and in despair the Swiss had actually set on the mediators with the intention of murdering them. Macreti, (fn. 28) the ambassador of France, was in greater danger than the rest of losing his life. That these were the true facts no one could doubt who was acquainted with the state and condition of the Catholic cantons, for the elders among them knew very well that if ever the Lutherans got the upper hand they themselves would be cut to pieces (tagliati in pezzi). and that besides when people saw the efforts that were being made to alienate them from their Faith, rebellion would most infallibly break out. Whilst they were preparing to chastize the people of Zurich (i Zuricani) they had themselves been attacked. It seemed, therefore, as if one of two expedients should be adopted, either to furnish the Catholic cantons with the means of prosecuting the war against the Lutherans, or else help them to obtain an honourable peace.
The captain (governor) of Lugano on the 17th ult. writes to the bishop of Veroli (Filonardo), in the name of the said five Catholic cantons, and asks for money and hackbutiers.
On the same day the Bishop wrote to Jacopo Salviati that prothonotary Marino [Caracciolo] having informed the Emperor of the state of affairs in Switzerland, he (Salviati) had addressed a letter to cardinal Campeggio with all the particulars, adding that if it were true that Marco Demps (fn. 29) and the men of the Black Forest had decided to assist the Catholics, there was a good chance of their coming victorious out of the contest, and perhaps, too, of their attacking afterwards the German Lutherans, that is provided they were opportunely helped with money and men.
It; was confidently expected that the Valesians, who were not present at the defeat of the Lutherans at Capel, would not be wanting in the hour of need, provided the Catholic cantons were helped with the said 2,000 hackbutiers. If these could be raised to the number of 4,000 no doubt would remain as to their success.
Captain Zuccaro (fn. 30) would willingly accept the command of the light horse, but required an experienced officer under him to be his lieutenant.
On the 18th Miçer Stephano da Insola wrote to Jacopo Salviati that his countrymen pressed urgently for assistance, for the Bernese were soon to invade the canton of Lucerne. And on the same day the bishop of Veroli (Filonardo) wrote: "If the five Catholic cantons are not speedily succoured against the Bernese about to invade their territory they will be in great danger of being destroyed. Marco Demps, with the people of the Black Forest, should make a diversion against Zurich, whilst a band of at least 2,000 hackbutiers from the Imperial army should shew itself towards the Val Tellina and the Grisons, so as to prevent the Bernese from effecting their junction with Zurich; or else they might come down by the route of Belinzona, as from thence they might easily turn their arms against the Grisons, or succour the Catholics. If there be no means at present of recruiting the said number of hackbutiers let us at any rate have 500, and 200 light horse under captain Zuccaro; that will be enough for the present." (fn. 31)
Indorsed: "The memorials of the Papal Legate."
Italian. Contemporary copy. pp. 13.
30 Nov.849. The Pope to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 853,
f. 110.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 52.
Has had great pleasure in learning that His Imperial Majesty has decided to help the Catholic cantons of Switzerland. It appears to him that the victory they have recently obtained over their enemies, (fn. 32) besides contributing to the preservation of the Faith in Switzerland will also powerfully help in the settlement of the affairs of Germany. Should, moreover, the Swiss come to an agreement among themselves it might be advisable to temporize with them, as cardinal Campeggio will explain more at length, and transfer the Diet to Ratisbone for a time, where it could be held with better result.—Rome, 30th November 1531.
Addressed: "Charissimo in Christo filio nostro Carolo, Romanorum Imperatori semper Augusto."
Indorsed: "To His Majesty from the Pope, and in his own hand. Last day of November 1531. Answered."
Italian. Holograph. p. 1.
30 Nov.850. Muxetula to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 853,
ff. 102–3.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 47.
Has seen a letter from the man who said he had intelligences among the Lutherans. He has written to the Pope, and gives hopes of some good being possibly worked in that quarter. It appears that he has already gained over an Italian preacher, Bartholomeo (fn. 33) by name, and a native of Venice, who, being a staunch Lutheran, enjoys great credit among his countrymen for his extreme hostility to the Pope, who has exiled and expelled him from his order [de la religion]. This preacher (he says) can and will secretly do good work in matters of Faith. He is first of all to try the destruction of the Zwinglians by means of the Lutherans, and then persuade some of the latter to return to the Catholic Faith and Roman Church. He seems pretty sure of his affair, but wishes it to be kept a secret, because were his plans to be divulged, all schemes would be put an end to, and he himself perhaps lose his life through it.
The said man writes that he intended shortly to go to the duke of Saxony's court, and that he was in hope of doing some good there. At Augusta (Augsburg), whence he wrote, some good had already been effected in matters of Faith by conversing with a certain provost (preposto) of that city, who would endeavour to induce the inhabitants to recall the Franciscans and Dominicans, whom they had expelled.
The Pope does not trust entirely in this man's professions and promises, and yet feigns to listen to them until more is known about him.
The king of France has induced the count of Geneva (fn. 34) to institute a law-suit against his own brother, the duke of Savoy [Carlo III.], on the plea that one half of Piedmont belongs to him. He says that he does it merely to annoy the Duke and compel him to meet his wishes, especially since he has accepted the county of Asti from the Emperor. He intends, moreover, to take Nizza away from him, because he says it was only mortgaged to him, and that on the plea of assisting the Count, if necessary, he is collecting troops on the frontiers of Italy.
Hears besides from His Holiness in a most confidential manner that the said king [Francis] is continually intriguing either with Andrea Doria, or with the Genoese opposed to the rule of this latter, in order to find the means of getting possession of that city. He flatters the Genoese by telling them that he does not want to exercise dominion over them, but only to become their protector, &c.—Rome, 30th November 1531.
Spanish. Original. pp. 5.
30 Nov.851. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 853,
f. 107.
M. Add.28,584,
f. 61.
Since his despatches dated the 7th, 9th, 10th, and 14th inst. he (Muxetula) has had occasion to write once more by a courier who came through Rome from Naples. Has since received the Emperor's letters of the 30th of October and 6th instant, and hastened to communicate their contents to the Pope, and do what else was required for the better issue of pending negotiations.
An agreement has been entered into to assist the five Catholic cantons of Switzerland against the other eight who profess the Lutheran doctrines. The Pope has handed over to him (Muxetula) 4,000 crs. for the pay of the hackbutiers, and captain Zuccaro had been written to inquiring whether he or his lieutenant, Pirro di Cipizano, (fn. 35) would take the command. Just as this was done, and the money remitted to Caracciolo at Milan for the enlistment of the hackbutiers letters arrived from the Catholic cantons, stating that they were no longer in want of that force owing to the Lutherans having retreated hastily, and the Grisons not choosing to move in consequence of the rumour that the Spaniards of Milan were soon to cross the Val Tellina and fall upon them, &c.
With regard to the contribution the Pope says he is willing to fulfil his engagements, and furnish the 100,000 ducats which he promised to the king of the Romans for the defence of his dominions in the event of their being invaded by the Turk; but the money, not the will, is wanting. The ambassador (Mai) and he have suggested to His Holiness that if he applies to that purpose the new tithes lately laid on the Italian churches, namely, those of Venice, Siena, Genoa, Lucca, the marquisates of Saluzzo and Monferrara, and others, the thing might be accomplished, inasmuch as the said churches have not been subjected to the payment of the tithe for the last six years. As to Milan, Naples, and Florence there is no question, the two former having already paid more than their quota.
The marquis del Basto [Vasto] complains that his men are not paid, &c.
The bulls imposing two tithes upon the Venetian clergy are ready, and will be sent in a couple of days. It is stated in the preamble that for the peace and welfare of Italy and in order to counteract the malice of the Lutherans, it has been deemed necessary that the Imperial forces now in Lombardy should be maintained. That until now His Holiness had contributed largely for the general weal and the preservation of peace, but that he was unable to bear the expense any longer, &c. (Cipher:) Meanwhile the French, who would like to see the Imperial army fairly out of Italy, are telling the Pope that he is feeding his mortal enemies, and creating fresh difficulties for himself.
That His Holiness has already destined the Parmigiano as quarters for the Spanish infantry under Vasto is a fact of which the Empress must already have been apprized. Fourteen companies out of the 24, and those the most complete, they say, are already on the spot, and the remainder will go thither almost immediately.—Rome, 30th November 1531.
Signed: "Jo. Ant. Musectula."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher, pp. 4.

Footnotes

1 Cornilles or Corneil, that is Peter Cornelis Duplicius Scepperus, about whom sec vol. iv., part 2, pp. 577–9.
2 "Y este mismo dia hera (sic) benido el criado que avia embiado a su hermauo sobre lo que se le avia escripto sobre la gobernaciou de Biertanberge, la qual respuesta abia ynviado a Rocandorf."
3 So in the indorsement, but most probably to the High Commander, since its contents are nearly the same as those of No. 836.
4 "Yo por mi sé decir que me paresce que estos clerigos van muy encaminados á esta guerra, y el calor que muestran para ella es mas que no el zelo de la fe, y si la guerra, lo que Dios no quiera, engrossasse, ellos seran muy poca parte para ello, mayormente teniendo Vrã Magd. tantos principes enbidiosos de su grandeza; y como quier que todas las vitorias sean gloriosas, principalmente contra sus subditos, y mucho mas las que son por servicio de Dios y por la fee, tambien suelen ser dubias y á lo menos trabajosas, y crea Vrã Magd. que los de aca no tienen fin sino á lo que les está. bien, y pienso que seria buen seso hacer lo mismo, y asi no podria sino mucho aprovechar este bollicio, y este socorro de los cinco cantones pues que con el perderan animo los desviados de la fe y Vrã Magt. podra tomar con ellos el asiento que fuere servido syn esperar de llegar las cosas al extremo." The whole of the paragraph is in cipher.
5 "Y mas dixo; que un otro lc avia hecho entender quo se queria 1cvantar por capitan aventurero. "
6 Philiberto Ferrcrio, bishop of Ibrea, and cardinal from 1518 to 1551.
7 The words in Italics are in cipher.
8 "Y si lo pusiera en disputa si [se] deve hacer o no tambien dixeran que se hiziesse, y perdierasse el tiempo en la altercacion."
9 "Pienso que entre desputar este articulo en publico y referirlo despues en Consistorio, para la Pascua de Navidad ternemos este articulo deciso."
10 "Donde y como convenga á la autoridad de Su Mayd.," says the text, which I have not hesitated to change into V. Sd.
11 The minute, which is unfinished and undated, is placed in Bergenroth's volume immediately after the memorandum presented by the Legate (November 1531) on the business of the Swiss cantons. The last paragraph stands thus : "Y asi por lo que á mi toca me contento de qualquier de los dos que V. S. señaló; comuoiqueles V. Sd. con los otros principes, que lo que acá parece mas conveniente seria Mantua, que V. Sd. nonbra, 6 Milan, por que son las [mas] cer-canas á esta Germania asi [como] por 6er [alii] los mas herrores." . . .
12 The document itself has no date, and is placed in Bergenroth's volume of "Transcripts from Simancas " immediately after the Emperor's letter, No 846. It is quite clear, however, that as the letter of the 18th of October is mentioncd in it, and the report and resolution of the Council is based upon that same letter, this could not have been drawn before the 16th of November. As, moreover, many days must naturally have elapsed in the transmission of the Emperors orders to Valladolid, Madrid, or Toledo, the usual residences of the Empress and of her Council, and the report of that official body upon it, I consider myseit iustified in calendaring it here.
13 "La Sta. di N. S. ha a credere che M[icer] Stephano, oratore delli V. Cantoni, gli sia non manco seruo & deuoto ch'io stesso & che discutendo insieme quanto ogni di occorre tra Elvetii Christiani & Lutherani & quello possa importar la rottura loro & quando, quod absit, Lutherani restassero vincitori, esso s'é fatto ben capace del buon animo di S. Sta. et che saria tutto per pacificarli & conseruarli solum che ni fusse il modo."
14 Et che per questo si cerca farli capaci che, mitigate le cose della Germania, seriano sforzati reunirsi & tornar su la prima reputatione & grandezza, o esser battuti & soggiogati."
15 "Della sollevatione de subditi che di mano en mauo se li contaminano da Lutherani."
16 "Hanno condotti seco li oratori di Friburgo & Solodoro, cantoni che ancora tengono la fede."
17 "Et che cio sia da dubitare se ne certificano per le rebellioni delli castelli loro con li quali con serargli li pasai & uituaglie li hanno redoti alla extrema desperatione."
18 "Et con causa uoler castigar detti subditi, quanto Urania ha cominciato a prestar l'orechie a detti oratori con dire che gli piace questa proposta.
19 That is Schwytz, Unterwalden, Lucerne, and Zug, generally called the Waldstettes, or habitants of the forest.
20 "Et demum con li loro medesimi fatta tal sellovatione et turnulto in populi, che anno deposti dalli regimenti li private, et messi sue le plebei nbaldi có li quali l'hanno uinta có Raspuil qual terra per che teneua la briglia á Zuncne, li unque cantoni expenderiano un pezzo d'oro per ricuperarla."
21 "El durante questo assedio si teneuano in mano far rebellar a S. Mta. tutti li dominii de Basihea sino a Spira; poi uoltarsi contra Italia & uenir a Roma parlando publícamente di S. Sta. quanto dir se possa, minacciando di uoler venir a Roma & far di quel Regno Pontificate cosa che mi fanno desperar a sentirla."
22 "Trouandosi un bel gioccho in mano, et temendo che si le cinque cantoni preualessero."
23 "Cosi m'la pregato che per ultima sua excusatione jo faccia questo discorso quale S. Sta. puo tener che proceda àa tutti buoni Christiani."
24 "Et recercano aiuto di cc o ccc archibuseri buoni & pagati.
25 Cappel, three miles from Zurich.
26 "Per Iitere di Battista d'Ynsula di xii. al detto Vesco (sic) si da aviso di detta vittoria ottenuta in un luogo di Capel sopra'l paese de Surigani, appresso á Zug. miglia dua e mezzo Lombarde."
27 "Che se non erano questi intertenimenti fattili da Pascha en qua alli pratiche che sono girate attorno con exhortatione de gran Principi, senza dubio s'ccetivano li ultimi capitoli: che ogni homo restassi in liberta sue di credere quel che gli piaceua sìno a Pascha, et per che incontinenti si domesticauano Lutherani con li vilani loro era com' vna peste di amorbare il resto.
28 "Et chel Macretì, oratore di Franza, fu più al pericolo del resto." This Macreti is evidently the French general Lambert Maigret, of whom D'Aubigny says that he was in correspondence with Zwingli, and had been employed by Francis I. on an embassy to the Zurichians ; but whether he be the same, or only a relative of treasurer Megret "le Magnifique," mentioned in a chronicle of that monarch, who was tried and exiled to Switzerland in consequence of serious defalcations in the funds entrusted to his care, I have no means to determine. Certain it is that the names appear the same though differently spelt. Sec Merle d'Aubigny Histoire de la Reforme, translated by Davis Dundas Scott, vol. iii., pp. 440–1, 457, and Chronique du Roy François I. par George Guiffrey, Paris, 1860, 8o. p. 108.
29 "Se fosse certo che Marco Domps (sic) et la Selva Negra, &c." I have changed Domps into Demps, because the captain here named can be no other than Marc Sittig, a native of Ems or Embs, in the Grisons, about whom see vol. iii., part 1, pp. 939, &c. of this Calendar. In D'Aubigny's Histoire de la Reforme, vol. iii., p. 427 of the English translation, a certain Didier d`Embs is mentioned as being the brother-in-law of the marquis of Mus.
30 A Burgundian formerly in the Emperor's service, whose name is variously written Çucar, Zucharo, Chucharo, &c, vol. iii., part 2, pp. 59 and 72.
31 This paper must have been written at various times, probably between May and November 1531, and professes to be a summary by the Papal Legate of the various opinions entertained at the Imperial court about the help to be given to the five Catholic cantons of Switzerland. The former part seems to contain the Nuncio's opinion ; the latter refers to events after the death of Zwinglius, who fell on the 12th of October. That this conjecture is plausible is manifest from the fact of the document itself being indorsed in the hand of secretary Idiaquez. "Los Memorials que el Legado de Su Santidad entregó en Braselas sobre ia materia de los cantones Catolicos de Suiza."
32 That of Cappel, where Zwingli was slain. See above, p. 312.
33 Respecting this Bartholomeo [Fonzio], "who belonged to the Order of the Augustinians, see M'Crie History of the Reformation in Italy, p. 163.
34 This count of Geneva was Pierre de Savoie, son of Philipe sans Terre, and consequently brother of Carlo III., surnamed the Good. Francis I. gave him the duchy of Nemours.
35 Thus written both by Mai and Muxetula; but most probably Chivizzano, a small town in Tuscany, in the province of Lucca.