Spain
November 1534, 21-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Pascual de Gayangos (editor)

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1886

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326-335

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'Spain: November 1534, 21-30', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 5 Part 1: 1534-1535 (1886), pp. 326-335. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=87909 Date accessed: 22 October 2014.


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November 1534, 16-30

18 Nov.111. Eustace Chapuys to the Same.
Wien,
Rep. P.C., Fasc. 228,
No. 54.
Monseigneur, the Admiral [of France], arrived nine days ago at Dover, and is not to enter this city till to-morrow, the 16th. (fn. 1) The cause of his tarrying so long on the road being that he is waiting for his train of 350 horse, and likewise that he wishes to give these people time to make the necessary preparations for his reception, which, if I am to believe this King's public demonstrations, will be as honourable as possible. Indeed, among others already made, the detail of which I omit not to trouble Your Majesty with excessive prolixity, the King has summoned to Court a good number of pretty ladies (force belles dames), and besides that, has caused to be proclaimed by public crier and sound of trumpets, that no one should dare, under pain of death, commit the least offence against, or address injurious or angry words to those of the Admiral's suite, even on provocation, for (says the proclamation) it behoves people of all ranks to exercise forbearance and patience in view of the arrival [in England] of so high a personage as the Admiral, who comes here expressly for the welfare, advantage, and honour of the whole kingdom. (fn. 2) A ban has also been published intimating that, in the event of the said Admiral repairing to Court, no gentleman unless he have the title of Milort (Lord) shall dare penetrate below the lower hall [of the palace], or precede in any way the French noblemen coming in the Admiral's suite; of which two prohibitions, and especially of the former, people complain, whilst others are glad, since both are a proof of the hatred and enmity the English bear the French, when such precautions are deemed necessary.
Immediately after closing my last despatch, I heard from an authentic quarter that the cause of this king having despatched the secretary of the French embassy here in such haste to France, as I had the honour to inform Your Majesty, (fn. 3) was no other than to ask for the speedy coming of the Admiral. Indeed what I then suspected has turned out to be true; Cromwell furnished the money for the secretary's travelling expenses, who was, as I say, directed to repair quickly to France for the purpose of soliciting and hastening the arrival of the said Admiral, on the plea of most important and urgent communications, which, he said, could not be made to any one but him. I cannot yet say for certain, if the cause of this sudden appeal to France be, as I informed Your Majesty at the time, to make some fresh proposition of marriage with a view to stimulate the sending of the Admiral, and counteract the negociations of Monseigneur de Nassau. Many worthy people of this city think that the real cause of the Admiral's coming is partly that this King wishes to preserve his credit with his subjects, inasmuch as both commoners and gentlemen begin already to mistrust the French king, in consequence of his still adhering to the Church, and having refused the proposed interview. If Monseigneur de Nassau (they say) has gone to France, as rumoured, with a mission from the Emperor, it can only be on most important grounds. If so, the king could not think of a more efficacious means to mar the negociations than to hasten the arrival of the Admiral, and try and see what could be done to counteract Your Majesty's plans. We may easily believe that one of the principal matters to be communicated to the Admiral will be for him to exert his influence over the king of France, so as to alienate him from the Church, and shake his obedience to the Pope, this king knowing very well that unless that point is gained, their friendship cannot last long. No doubt this king thought at the time, that no better opportunity than the present could offer itself of urging the Admiral's mission, for it was generally believed that Pope Clement was then dying, and it was also firmly stated, that upon the death of that Pope, there would inevitably be a schism in the Church, especially when it was ascertained that the French cardinals, who might perhaps have prevailed upon Francis not to follow the lead of this one, had taken their departure for Rome. (fn. 4) Even at that time, the King used at dinner to boast that he would soon put such order and reformation in the Church, that in the end the whole of Christendom would thank him for his labours, and he himself gain imperishable fame through it.
I intend sparing no trouble to get at the truth of this affair. Should I succeed, I will not fail to apprise Your Majesty. I have not done it before, principally because there has been no trusty messenger since my last. Let this be my excuse for otherwise I should have fulfilled what I consider to be my duty.
Some one has this moment come to tell me that this very morning the King, by a solemn act and ordinance of his Parliament, has been declared and confirmed Sovereign Chief of the Anglican Church; and that as such head of the Church he has a right to the tribute in money, which the English did periodically pay to the Apostolic See in token of obedience, and that Parliament has likewise ratified every one of its acts against the Apostolic See, doing away with the conditions and amendments of former sessions.
The great press of affairs, increased no doubt by the arrival of the French Admiral, has probably taken up so much of Cromwell's time, that he has hitherto been unable to appoint a day and hour, as he fully promised to do, at which we might discuss the future treatment of the Queen and Princess, in which I can see no prospect of improvement at all, not even as far as the latter is concerned, whose hopes of something better have lasted but a short time. In consequence of which the Princess has just now suffered a slight indisposition, of which she might have got rid, had it not been for the impertinence and rudeness of her governess, the aunt of Lady Anne, the King's mistress, who every day causes her some grievous annoyance in order to induce her to relinquish her title. Besides which the duke of Norfolk has lately confined to prison one of her maids of honour,—the one who did most service and in whom the Princess trusted implicitly,—on the charge that she had, against the royal ordinances, addressed her by her title. And I hear that among the many questions put to the said maid of honour by the duke of Norfolk himself, one was "who had informed me of the day and hour at which the Princess was to go [to Greenwich], that I might wait on the bank of the river on her passage, as I have had the honour of informing Your Majesty in one of my despatches."
There is no particular news from Ireland, except that Lord Kildare (Thomas) is completely master of the field, and is daily inflicting damage on the king's partisans. Though some of the royal troops have actually entered Dublin, it is said by some that the inhabitants themselves have gained nothing by it, owing to the great scarcity of provisions in that city. (fn. 5) —London, 18 Nov. 1534.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Addressed: "To the Emperor."
French. Original, partly in cipher. pp.
28 Nov.112. The Same to the Same.
Wien.,
Rep. P.C., Fasc. 229,
No. 65.
The Admiral of France [Philippe Chabot] entered this city on the day mentioned in my last despatch, accompanied by the duke of Norfolk and by several other lords and gentlemen, and was honourably received and entertained by the citizens. On the morning of the next day, without waiting (as the court ceremonial prescribes) for the Admiral to present his credentials and deliver his message to this king, I myself went to call on him, and I must say that his reiterated offers of service, as well as his words on the occasion showed such readiness to be agreeable to Your Majesty, that one could not wish for more. He seemed particularly desirous not only of keeping up the old friendship between his master and Your Majesty, but also of increasing it considerably. Of which increase, he observed, there was now, and very recently too, every appearance, considering that the matter and the negociations were in the hands of so worthy a personage as Monseigneur de Nassau, who, he said, must have arrived eight days ago in Flanders, and delivered to the Queen Dowager and to her councillors the substance of his instructions. Having remarked that I was sure Your Majesty had at all times trusted that he (the Admiral) would do every good office in that respect—as one whom Your Majesty counted among the number of his friends, and as having the reputation of as good, true, and accomplished a gentleman as could be found anywhere—his answer was that the best fortune he could desire in this world would be that of deserving such a reputation and esteem on the part of so great, noble, and virtuous a Prince (fn. 6) as Your Majesty was, which would oblige him to remain for ever your most humble and obedient servant.
At last, after some familiar small talk, the Admiral said to me that if I would only take the trouble of visiting him from time to time, as I had offered to do, he should feel extremely obliged for such honour; I should be welcome at all times, and we might talk politics, whatever scruple, jealousy, or suspicion these English might feel at it, for he cared not a straw for them.
I have not returned since to the Admiral's owing, firstly, to there having been no opportunity for my visit, and secondly, because I wished to wait until this king himself had spoken to him on the business for which he has come. I must say, however, that up to yesterday evening no one seems to know here what the Admiral's mission is about, or what answer, if any, the King has made to his overtures, since not one of the privy councillors intervenes in the affair, except Cromwell. Yet there is some appearance that these people have been for some time, as I had the honour to inform Your Majesty, bringing forward some project of marriage for the second daughter of this king (Elizabeth), for not only is there a rumour of it among courtiers, but I know from an authentic source that the English ambassador, residing in France, (fn. 7) has lately written to say, that after taking the opinions of lawyers and theologians in France, in Italy, and elsewhere, it has been found that, though Henry's first marriage might be declared null, yet the Princess [Mary] would still be considered legitimate, and the succession to her father's kingdom as belonging by right to her; which official report coming from the English ambassador in France has been particularly unpleasant to this king.
Since his arrival in this city, nine days ago, the Admiral of France has been to Court no less than six different times, besides which, on Sunday last, he dined at the King's table. There has been a good deal of dancing and playing at tennis (jeu de paume), the King taking part in the one as well as in the other sport. The Admiral, though, has only gone twice to see the ladies, and then apparently more for the sake of making himself agreeable to them than for his own pleasure; the tennis court he has not once honoured with his presence. (fn. 8) Nor has he, as I am told, made much of the Lady [Anne], for when the King at his first audience inquired if he did not wish to call on her, the Admiral answered very coolly "As you please," which answer was remarked by many of those present. As the said ambassador was coming out of the King's apartments at his first audience, he ceremoniously refused to precede the Duke of Norfolk, alleging that he had already explained his commission, and that he was no longer an ambassador, which was as much as saying that he had come to London merely to hear what the King had to say to him, and that he himself had brought no message whatever from his master. To-morrow the Duke of Norfolk will entertain the Admiral, and the day after, which will be St. Andrew's festival, the duke of Richmond will do the same. There was also a talk of his going to Richmond to see the chapel of the Order [of the Garter]; but it appears that he would more willingly take the road to France, if it were for no other motive than getting an answer to a despatch which he sent home on Tuesday last by express, the only one he has drawn up since his arrival.
This king, who, as chief of the English Church, was thinking of getting into his hands all ecclesiastical property, and then distributing among its ministers that portion only which was deemed necessary for the honest, sober and frugal keeping of the same, retaining the remainder for himself, is for the present contented with allowing the ecclesiastics to enjoy their property, provided they insure him an annual income of 30,000 sterling, and besides, hand over to him the first fruits of every vacant benefice. True is it that already by apostolic privilege he (the King) has been accustomed to appropriate the first fruits or annats of all bishoprics vacant in his kingdom, but nowadays he wishes to have the entire revenue, not only of the bishoprics, but likewise of all other ecclesiastical benefices, which amounts to an almost incalculable sum of money. However this may be, since the King wished to bleed the Clergy [of his dominions], he might have done so without taking the whole of their property, thus bringing on himself the murmurs and hatred not only of that same Clergy, but likewise of all devout people, and of those even who have endowed churches, or of their successors. It would even have been far better for him, in order to shut people's mouths, as well as for several more considerations, to distribute among gentlemen and others of his kingdom the greater part of the property thus taken from the Clergy. (fn. 9)
The good prelates are now debating with the doctors, whom this king summoned from Germany, on the sacrifice of the Mass, and the question whether faith alone without good works is sufficient for our salvation or not. The debate is carried on in writing, and should the said German doctors come out of the contest victorious (which may God forbid) the whole of this country is sure to be infected thereby.
Since writing the above, at this very moment, some one has come to tell me from two reliable sources that the Admiral of France, two days ago, requested this king to decide and give effect, according to the letter of the treaties, to the consummation of the marriage between the Princess (Mary) and the Dauphin, his son, protesting at the same time that King Francis, his master, did not in anywise insist upon it, as in case of refusal he would try to marry his son either to the Infanta of Spain, (fn. 10) or elsewhere. Nobody knows yet how the King has taken the ambassador's overtures; but certain it is that the Lady is exceedingly annoyed at them. I am the more inclined to believe the truth of the report, that I am now told as a positive fact, that the message that came from the English ambassador in Paris referred entirely to that point, namely to a sort of consultation as to the legitimacy of the Princess, the better to justify the strict adherence to the treaties. Many of those, who are in the Admiral's suite, have assured friends of mine that there had been no question at all of a marriage between the said Infanta and the Dauphin of France. I will take great pains to ascertain the truth of the whole matter, that I may inform Your Majesty thereof.—London, 5th December [corrected 28th November], 1534.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Addressed: "To the Emperor."
French. Original. pp. 5.
[— Nov.]113. The Emperor to Count de Cifuentes.
S. E. Rom., L. 28,
f. 179.
B. M. Add. 28,587,
f. 147.
....................
As His Holiness seems to have some inclination towards the said Cardinal and Duke, as well as towards the means which the Cardinal has at his disposal to carry out his plans, whether he has intelligence with the French, considering he makes much of Strozzi, who is a Frenchman at heart. Anything else you may happen to hear respecting this affair you may let us know, at the same time keeping up a good understanding with Antonio de Leyva and Andrea Doria.
(Cipher.) Of what you said to the Pope respecting Sir Gregory Casale's visits, warning him that all that ambassador said in the English business was calculated merely to lengthen and protract the execution of the sentence, and reminding him of the quality and importance of the affair, and the injury and offence done to the Queen and to the Princess, We entirely approve. You must go on acting in conformity with our last instructions sent by Mr. de Waury, and kiss his Holiness' feet for his good will to do justice in this affair, begging him to have the executory letters taken out. For the present, until it be seen what results from the message by Mos. de Waury, it will be expedient not to make much haste, dissembling, however, in such a manner that it be not known that there is any relaxing (tibieza) on our part.
(Cipher.) Of the French it may reasonably be inferred, as you say in your despatch, that far from discontinuing the practices and secret intelligences, which they were carrying on with the late Pope, they will now try to renew them with his successor. You must, therefore, take good care to watch their movements at that court, and if anything should turn up likely to disturb the peace of Italy, let us know immediately.
We have already informed you through Mr. de Waury of the negotiations which Mr. de Nassau carried on in France, and what their issue has been. We have nothing new to say on this subject. You did well in re-assuring the Venetian ambassador and calming his suspicions respecting Mr. de Nassau's mission. The Signory's ambassador at this our court has received similar satisfaction, and besides, Lope de Soria has been instructed to afford any explanations that may be required.
(Common writing.) Assistance by the prelates and clergy of our (the Emperor's) dominions as well as by the Military Orders against Barbarossa.—Glad to hear of the restitution of Novi to the Duke of Ferrara, but very sorry to hear of his death. The Duke [Ercole II. d'Este] his son has sent an ambassador to inform us of his loss, and offer his services. Intending to make much of him, as We did of his father, We command you to take care of his affairs, and follow strictly the instructions We sent you by Mr. de Waury.
Glad also to hear that his Holiness is willing to have La Mirandola restored to its legitimate owner. As you already know our views in that respect, you will help his Holiness in the execution of justice.
With regard to the Papal Nuncio, who is to reside at this our court, you may say that our only wish is that he be such as befits His Holiness' service and the welfare of Christendom, and one whom We may trust. Whoever unites the above three qualities will be equally acceptable, and His Holiness may at once proceed to his election. The truth is that knowing, as We do, Juan Pogio (Giovanni Poggio), for a good servant of his late master, and a well-meaning man, We should be glad if he were appointed. You will tell His Holiness as much whenever an opportunity occurs, and in the manner you may think proper.
Respecting the bills of exchange, which you say Leyva, Doria and Caracciolo drew upon the Strozzi of that city, as bankers to the League, for money advanced to the Italian infantry at Genoa, when in dread of an attack by Barbarossa. which bills those bankers resolutely refused to pay on the plea that they had not been presented during Pope Clement's life time, alleging that if they were paid out of the general fund the League would also have to pay all the expenses incurred by the Church at Rome, Civittà Vecchia, and Hostia (Ostia); and besides that two lawyers had been appointed to look at the papers, and decide whether the bankers were obliged to pay that sum or not, We can only say that We disapprove entirely of the transaction, and are surprised to hear that you gave in as to that. It is not a case for dispute whether the bankers who have the League's money in deposit, are to pay or not; if Leyva and the commissaries have decided that the 3,000 ducats should be paid, it is not for the bankers to refuse payment. That is no affair for the Strozzi and the lawyers to settle among themselves; they (the bankers) must needs pay, for were We to charge the League with what We have already spent and are still spending to keep up our infantry for the sole benefit of the League, our claims would exceed by far the amount of money contributed for that purpose.
The death of Gritti is confirmed in letters from Germany—1,000 ducats to be paid to Andrea Doria as the remainder of what he spent on the Genoese galleys, armed on account of Pope Clement VII.
We are aware of the great trust which his Holiness places in his secretary Miçer Ambrosio.
Spanish. Original Minute. pp. 6.

Footnotes

1 There must be error, for the despatch is certainly dated the 18th.
2 "Que sur peine de la vie yl ny eust si ose ne hardy de fere le moindre oultrage ne dire parolle iniurieuse ou faicheuse a personne de la compagnie du dit admiral oerez quil en fust donnee quelque legitime occasion, la quelle conuenoit dissimuler et souffrir en contemplation de la venue dung tel personnaige que le dict admiral, veu mesme quil venoit pour le bien, prouffit et honneur de tout le royaulme."
3 See above, No. 102, p. 302.
4 "Considerant aussi que les cardinaulx de France que eussent peu destourner (?) le roy de lintencion de cestuy estoint partiz pour aller a Rome."
5 "Excepte que le sieur de Childara est maistre des champs et que iournellement yl fait dommage a ceulx de ce roy, et que quelque secours de ce roy est entre dans Dublin, mais aucungs disent que tant pis pour ceulx de la ville a cause de la grande disecte de vivres."
6 "Il me repondit que le plus gros heurt (bonheur?) qu'il penseroit avoer en ce monde seroit de pouvoer meriter destre en telle reputation et extime vers ung si grand, si noble et si vertueux prince."
7 Wallop or Gardyner?
8 "Yl a este question de dames et de jeu de paume, et sest le dit roy exercite en lung et en lautre; mays le dit admiral ne sest trouvé que deux fois a voier les dames, encoirez sembloit yl que ce fust pour complayre plus que pour playsir, et ce honneur na yl voulu fere au dit ieu de paume."
9 "Yl a[uroit] trop mieulx fait den user ainsy que de prendre tous leurs biens pour eviter la murmure et la hayne, non seullement du clerge, mais aussy du people devotz, mesmes de ceulx quont doue les eglises, ou de leur successeurs, et si eust convenu pour boscher les bochez de pluseurs et maintz autres respectz donner a gentilhommes et autres la, pluspart des biens."
10 "Et quil protestoit quil ne tenoit au roy son maistre le quel en cas de refuz procureroit de marier le dit Doulphin ou avec linfante despaigne ou ailleurs." The Infanta alluded to can be no other than Maria, daughter of Charles and Isabella, then seven years old, having been born on the 28th of June 1528.