Spain
September 1535, 1-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Pascual de Gayangos (editor)

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1886

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535-544

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'Spain: September 1535, 1-30', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 5 Part 1: 1534-1535 (1886), pp. 535-544. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=87924 Date accessed: 27 November 2014.


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September 1535, 1-30

3 Sept.199. Count Cifuentes to the Same.
S. E., L. 863,
f. 22.
B. M. Add. 28,588,
f. 18.
His Holiness tells me that the king of France has answered with much goodwill that he is ready and willing to help the Holy Apostolic See in the execution of the sentence against the king of England, but that Your Majesty ought to begin first, since the affair concerned you principally. After that, he (the King) would do anything His Holiness asked him to do. There can be no doubt, and the Pope himself believes it, that king Francis, while he affects to please His Holiness in this affair, is trying to throw all the responsibility of the act on Your Majesty. Indeed, I hear from a confidential and trusty correspondent that the King said the other day to one of his favourites, "Let the Emperor begin to execute the sentence against the king of England; I will come next, and act as is best for my interests." I dare say this is no news to Your Majesty, and that you know king Francis too well to be deceived. In the meantime, acting on my instructions, I will not press too hard for the executory letters, or so relax in the affair as to make these people think that we do not want them any longer.
The Pope repeated, the other day, the very same words which his predecessor, Clement VII., said once to me: "I think that if the Emperor and king of France unite against the king of England, this matter of the sentence may easily be arranged. (fn. 1) My answer was, that. I had no commission from Your Majesty to enter into the question.
The Venetians are much hurt in consequence of one Laforesta (La Forest), who resides at Constantinople, for the king of France having said to the ministers of the Grand Turk that it was their fault if Your Majesty had attacked Barbaroja, and invaded the coast of Greece. The Signory having complained of this to king Francis, his answer was that if La Foresta had said as much, it was on his own account, not because he had orders to do so: he would write to him to be more guarded in future. The truth is that the King has often complained of the Signory, because, he says, they are Your Majesty's allies and confederates. Indeed, on one occasion he is known to have said to the Venetian ambassador in France that the Grand Turk would next year fit out a powerful fleet, which, joined to that of Barbaroja, would cause Your Majesty much trouble and anxiety, and that though he himself would not make war, he was glad to see Your Majesty spend your money, &c.
His Holiness left this morning for (Perosa) Perugia. He still asserts that on the 8th or 10th of next month he will be back in Rome. As to me, I intend leaving the day after to-morrow.
Pier Luigi [Farnese], as I am told, will depart on Monday next to go to Your Majesty. Indeed, he would have left much sooner had he not been indisposed. He takes with him a number of briefs and commissions from His Holiness for Your Majesty, and among them one requesting your presence here at Rome. I beg leave to recommend the said Pier Luigi, whom I have known long, and is one of Your Majesty's most devoted servants in these parts. (fn. 2) —Romæ, tertia Septembris, mdxxxv.
Signed: "El Conde de Cifuentes."
Spanish. Original. pp. 5.
3 Sept.200. The Same to the High Commander (Cobos).
S. E., L. 863,
f. 22.
B. M. Add. 28,588,
f. 16.
It has been reported here as a fact that when king Francis was lately in Champagne, he wished to take up his quarters at a place belonging to Mr. de Bussy. Having sent thither certain officers of his household (aposentadorcs) to prepare him quarters, the lord of the manor replied that he would rather not have so many people on his estate: if the King chose to come with a small retinue, he would receive him. The King, hearing the message, got into a passion, sent for troops and artillery. However, when Mr. de Bussy saw that, he placed at the King's disposal both the village and the castle, delivered up the keys, and asked for pardon. The King took the castle, and returned it to him some time after, to be held in fief with an annual pension.
Cardinal Ravena had not yet been released, but it was expected that he would be so within four or five days. (fn. 3)
The duke of Ferrara (Hercole II.) has not yet come to terms with His Holiness, as he would not give the sum that was asked of him. They say, however, that he is going to Perosa (Perugia), and that there some sort of settlement will be made.
Spanish. Original.
6 Sept.201. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
Wien,
Rep. P.C.,
Fasc. 229½, i. 48.
On the 28th ult. Your Majesty's letter of the 14th July, containing the very joyous news of your glorious success at La Goulette (Goleta de Tunez), came to hand. Which news I had already received by a letter from Mr. de Likerke, (fn. 4) also dated the 14th; but as by mine of the 25th Your Majesty must have heard of the great pleasure and joy which this King, as well as all his subjects, experienced at its arrival, I will no further allude to the event than by saying that we all are praying and beseeching God perpetually to favour Your Majesty, and render you victorious over your enemies for the exaltation of our holy Faith, the repose and welfare of Christendom, and your own glory.
Having lately sent one of my men to Court for the purpose of soliciting the King to send one of his physicians to the Princess, who has been for some time past suffering from rheumatism, and likewise to guard against the recurrence of that disease on the approach of winter, of which she is afraid, I availed myself of the opportunity to enclose copies of several letters received from Tunis, at the same time giving an account of the taking of that city. These I forwarded to Cromwell for inspection, at the same time begging for an answer to the two points still pending; and Cromwell wrote me a letter, of which the enclosed is a faithful transcript. (fn. 5)
While my man was (fn. 6) at Court, a servant of the English ambassador residing in France arrived with the news of the taking of Tunis; but, as the King himself remarked to my man, the intelligence coming only from Rome, some sort of official confirmation was required, and therefore it was better to wait for letters from Your Majesty before attaching implicit faith to the report. He, therefore, begged me to let him know as soon as possible whether it was true or not. After this, Cromwell, having gone to the King's room, and told him that the news was perfectly correct, and that he ought to have no scruple in believing it, advised me to ask for an audience, explain my news, and show the letters I had received thereupon, at which, he said, the King, his master, would be singularly pleased, and he himself much obliged.
This King has lately ordered three of his best ships to be equipped and manned to sail for the ports of Lubeck and Denmark, under the command of the same master gunner (fn. 7) who last year visited those countries. The better to conceal the object of the expedition, it is here reported that the said ships are bound for Holland, and so has the gunner told one of my men; but I hope shortly to be able to learn what their real destination is, and also ascertain other particulars, for the gunner in command of them has many a time assured people of my own household that ere he departs from these shores he will certainly come to dine with me once, and take leave. The ships take a number of pieces of ordnance, powder, spears, and arquebuses, and, as I have heard from authentic quarters, upwards of 60,000 ducats in ready money; besides which, I have been told that the last embassy that went to Lubeck took also 30,000.
The King has also just countermanded certain English vessels which had been ordered to sail for France, owing, as I presume, to the fear there is of their being captured at sea and sequestered, in consequence of the decree His Holiness the Pope has lately promulgated against this King and his subjects. And surely there is nothing this King, and those who take part with his mistress, fear so much as Your Majesty's subjects obeying and executing the Papal injunctions in that respect; for that would be the cause of great revolution and confusion in this kingdom as Cromwell himself has many a time owned to me,—now more than ever, for the harvest has been very scanty indeed this year, and there is every appearance of a famine; owing to which Your Majesty cannot form an idea of the continuous importunities with which I am daily assailed on every side, soliciting the execution of the Apostolic censures, all people here believing that such a resolution on Your Majesty's part would be a sufficient remedy, considering the great discontent prevailing among all classes of society here at this King's disorderly life and government. London, 6 Sept. 1535.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Addressed: "To the Emperor."
French. Original, mostly in cipher. pp. 2.
6 Sept.202. Viscount Hannaërt to the Empress Isabella.
P. Arc. Nat.,
Neg. et Pap. de S.
1484, 131 olim
B. 3. 11.
B. M. Add. 28,588,
f. 20.
Her letter of the 26th July, by Mr. de Laynixa (?), gentleman in waiting to Her Most Christian Majesty, the queen of France, was duly received, &c.
The Most Christian queen of France (Leonor) and the dowager queen of Hungary (Maria) met at Cambray on the 16th ult. The former was accompanied by the King's daughters, by his daughter-in-law, and by Mme de Vendôme, and several other ladies and gentlemen of the highest nobility, among whom were cardinals Borvon (Bourbon) and Tournon, the admiral [of France], the duke of Albany, and the marchioness of Zenete, who arrived in time to compliment both queens.
The news of the Emperor's glorious victory at Tunis has been received with the utmost joy. When he (Hannaërt) reported it to the king of France, he could not help observing that of all the conquering and victorious princes, both over Infidels and Christians, His Imperial Majesty was certainly the greatest; and that if he wished to persevere in that line he had only to make closer alliance with him, to which he is always disposed on certain conditions proposed by him. Your Majesty must already have been informed that the king of England has formally separated from the Roman Church, and insists upon calling himself the Head of the English Church after God, and that he has inflicted most cruel death upon several persons, who refused to approve of and obey the statutes made by him. Indeed, since the execution of cardinal Rufensis (Fisher) and chancellor More, no less than 27 persons more have died on the scaffold; among them nine Carthusian monks, whose house in London the King has given to his new wife, that she may turn it into a palace, besides those he has given to his own daughter Elizabeth, and to his father-in-law (the earl of Wiltshire).
The king of Scotland has sent here ambassadors to ask for the hand of the daughter of Mme de Vendôme, (fn. 8) and take her to Edinburgh. The offer has been accepted, and the marriage is to take place soon.
Intelligence from Italy has been received that the Emperor on the 10th ult. embarked for Sicily and Naples.
The King is shortly going to Burgundy. Thence he will go to Lyons.—6 Sept. 1535.
His own private affairs. Begs for a reminder to treasurer Alonso de Baeza, who has not paid him his salary for some time.
Signed: "Jo. Hannart Visconde."
Addressed: "To the Sacred and Catholic Majesty of the Empress, and most powerful Queen, our Lady."
Spanish. Original. pp
13 Sept.203. Eustace Chaputs to the Emperor.
Wien,
Rep. P.C.,
Fasc. 229½, iii. 22.
Immediately after closing my despatch of the 6th inst., Your Majesty's letter of the 23rd ult., with the news of your miraculous and immortal victory over Barbarossa, and triumphant entry into Tunis, came to hand; of which I failed not to apprize this King, who, as appears by the inclosed copy of Cromwell's letter to me, was particularly joyful, and ordered eight ducats to be given to my man by way of reward. (fn. 9) God knows how many more .ducats the King would have given him if the news had been the reverse; for whatever the King's satisfaction may have been apparently, certain it is that neither of those good ladies, the Queen and the Princess, has hitherto experienced the least change in what concerns them, their treatment being exactly the same as it was, without any sign of improvement.
As to the ships which this King was about to send to the ports of Denmark, it appears now that they are to sail for a castle on the coast, on the frontiers of Sweden and Norway, which the Lubeckian captain who was knighted is to deliver into his hands, having already taken possession of it in this King's name. The said captain, as Your Majesty must already have heard, being a prisoner of the king of Sweden (Gustavus) in the aforesaid castle, managed to slay the guard and make himself master of it; but, not thinking himself powerful enough to keep possession of it, has asked the King to help him. The said ships, besides considerable war ammunition and stores, are taking a quantity of bows, although the number of English soldiers is not to exceed one hundred. They passed muster some days ago, and a more miserable set of men could not be imagined. They have no gunners here to be sent along with the ships, and, I hear, they are trying to press a Flemish carpenter and a farrier into that service; but I shall do my best that they are, not ruined in their respective avocations, and that their families do not die of hunger. The ships, after all, are only two; one of about 200 tons burden, the other of 60; but it is generally believed that they take a good deal of money.
The bailiff (bailli) of Troyes has not yet arrived, though he has been expected from day to day for the last fortnight. The French ambassador cannot tell me what the cause may be of his tarrying so long.
The Princess has been visited by the King's physician as well as by that of the Queen, and, thank God, she is now in good health; yet they think that most likely this next winter she will be worse than she has ever been. Detesting, as she does, all sorts of medicine, they know of no other remedy to her complaint but her removal from where she is and her being sent to some place where she may get recreation and pleasure,—as, for instance, with the Queen, her mother, or elsewhere,—and not live under the servitude and captivity in which they both are. (fn. 10) I have already, as You r Majesty knows, worked for that removal, but hitherto without much chance of success.—London, 13th Sept. 1535.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Addressed: "To the Emperor."
French. Original, partly in cipher. pp.
23 Sept.204. The Same to Nicolas de Granvelle.
Wien,
Rep. P.C.,
Fasc. 229½, iii. 23.
The English have greatly rejoiced at the news of the Emperor's victory over Barbarossa, all except the King, the concubine, Cromwell, and a few of their adherents, who, as my secretary reports, were as astonished and displeased as dogs falling out of a window. Cromwell himself could scarcely breathe when he first heard of it.
There is a report that the earl of Kildare has been taken prisoner by a brother of his step-mother, after a proper safe-conduct to come and go.
It is likewise reported that this King intends to allow all friars and monks to quit their respective convents, and marry, if they choose, and that those who chose to remain may do so, living in Apostolic simplicity, and the King taking possession of the rest of their property.—London, 13 Sept. 1535.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
French. Holograph, partly in cipher. pp. 2.
25 Sept.205. The Same to the Emperor.
Wien,
Rep. P.C.,
Fasc. 229½, i. 51.
The [two] ships this King was sending to the ports of Denmark, as I had the honour to inform Your Majesty by my despatch of the 13th inst., and other preceding ones, were about to set sail, when the news arrived that the affairs of the Lubeckians were going on badly; that the fleet of the king of Sweden (Gustavus), and of his confederates, had actually captured 12 or 14 English merchant ships, very richly laden, returning from Dantzig, and that there was some fear of the one on board of which were the King's master gunner (Candic) and Dr. Bonard sharing the same fate. Also that the castle to which the King was actually sending the other two ships, laden with powder and ammunition, had been taken. So, what with one thing and another, this King has countermanded the said ships, and they are actually unloading the ordnance, ammunition, victuals, and whatever else they had on board. I also hear that this King and his Privy Councillors have been greatly disappointed at the news, and made use of high words against the captain who was to go in command of the ships, accusing him of misrepresentation. But all the scolding of the captain will not indemnify merchants for their losses: they will get no compensation whatever, except, perhaps, the satisfaction of inveighing against the King and his bad government, as well as against his ill-conceived enterprises.
The bailiff of Troyes arrived about six days ago. It was not his intention at first, as the French resident ambassador had been heard to say, to make a long sojourn in this city; nevertheless, I imagine that he will wait at least until the return of the messenger he despatched to France the day after he had audience from this King. I must say, however, that, according to the French ambassador's statement, the bailiff's tardiness in coming has considerably annoyed these people, and long kept them in suspense, knowing, as they knew by letter of their ambassador Valoux (Wallop), that the king of France had particularly charged him to make all possible haste, and made him start in the middle of the night. (fn. 11)
Before the arrival of the bailiff, the French ambassador did not know what he came for, or what his mission could be, unless it were to give the English some sort of satisfaction respecting this last interview of the two queens at Cambray; at least, up to the present no other conjecture has been formed. Yet I hear it reported that the bailiff has been the bearer of rather unpleasant news to this King; for no sooner had he perused the letters brought by him, than he became thoughtful and sad.
On his arrival at Winchester, where he is now holding his court, this King had an inventory taken of the treasure in its cathedral church, and appropriated to himself certain very fine and rich "licornes," besides a large gold cross set with precious stones. (fn. 12) He also took from the Bishop certain mills to give them away to the community, and thereby gain the people's favour. Wherever the King goes, Cromwell, who accompanies him, goes about visiting the abbeys [and convents] in the neighbourhood, taking inventories of their lands and revenues, amply instructing the people in this new sect, and dismissing from the said abbeys, convents, or nunneries all those men or women who had professed before reaching the age of 25, (fn. 13) the rest being at liberty to quit or remain, as they please. Though not positively ordered to quit, certain it is that both friars and nuns are given to understand that it is to their interest to leave their houses, inasmuch as a reformation of all religious congregations is shortly intended, so very rigorous and strange that most likely all will have to go; which is what this King is trying to bring about in every possible way, that he may have better occasion to seize the whole of the Church property without provoking the discontent and murmurs of his subjects.
Monsieur de Childara (Kildare) arrived here five or six days ago, conducted by Monsieur Leonard, (fn. 14) the brother of the late Marquis and of the Earl's mother-in-law. It is generally believed that although on Kildare's first arrival Master Cromwell gave him no great hope of the King's pardon, or fulfilment of the promises once made to him by the said Leonard, yet it is thought that the King will pardon him; for an audience has already been granted, and he has seen the King, and has been allowed to circulate freely about Court. Most likely the disheartening words in which Cromwell addressed him on the first occasion were intended to intimidate the Earl, and enhance the obligation under which he will stand to the King's generosity and clemency, should he graciously grant him his pardon without reference either to Leonard's promise or on any other political consideration. On the other hand, it is to be feared that the moment the King's authority is fairly re-established in Ireland, that the Earl's castles and towns are in the hands of the English, and the country itself completely pacified and its allegiance to this King restored, some new quarrel will be picked up, and a fresh action instituted against the said Kildare, through which he may be put out of the way, as was once the case with Blanche Rose, and others. It has been stated that Leonard actually left hostages in Ireland for Kildare's security; but the wife of one of the King's Privy Councillors sent me word, not later than yesterday, that her husband contradicted the above statement, saying that Kildare had voluntarily left his own retainers, and gone to meet Leonard on the road, without the latter making any promise or taking any engagements. (fn. 15) I will do my best to unravel this mystery, and ascertain if any one of Kildare's uncles is prepared to hold out, as many here affirm, and, as is likely enough, considering that none of the Earl's castles have yet been taken possession of.
Whilst writing this dispatch I hear from an authentic quarter that a servant of the French ambassador (La Morette) has said and affirmed as a positive fact that the bailli (bailiff) de Troyes' mission was for the exclusive object of asking this King to consent to the marriage of the Princess and the dauphin of France, according to the promises and agreement made thereupon, and likewise to protest energetically against any bad treatment or coercion likely to impair her health. (fn. 16) It cannot be long ere we know the whole truth one way or other, and for my part I will spare no trouble in ascertaining what has been the bailliff's mission to this King.—London, 25th Sept. 1535.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Addressed: "To the Emperor."
French. Original, mostly in cipher. pp. 2½.
25 Sept.206.The Same to Nicolas de Granvelle.
Wien,
Rep. P.C.,
Fasc. 229½, iii. 25.
All honest people here are in despair, seeing that the Pope does not act with more energy, and that trade with England is not prohibited. Things have now gone so far that the Emperor would really do a good deed by interfering, which would be inexpensive, and at the same time prove a bridle to France.
Recommends his own private affairs.
A courier lately sent to France in order to ascertain whether English ships could or not go safely to French ports, has just returned with an answer; in consequence of which the English ships, which had been stopped, are now allowed to sail for their destination in that country.—London, 25 Sept. 1535.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
French. Holograph, partly in cipher. p. 1.
26 Sept.207. Nicolas de Granvelle to Eustace Chapuys.
Wien.,
Rep. P.C.,
Fasc. 229½, ii. 50.
The Emperor will delay answering the despatches of Chapuys and Hannart (sic) until he knows the result of the meeting of the two queens, which he expects to hear took place on the 16th of August last. However, his (Chapuys') letters of the 5th and 8th May, 5th, 16th, and last of June, 11th and 25th July, and 3rd of August, have been duly received, and carefully read by the Emperor. All here are dreadfully shocked at the horrible cruelties perpetrated in England, and especially at the death of bishop Fisher and chancellor More. Wonders much at the behaviour of the archbishop of Canterbury towards the Queen and Princess, for when he was at this Imperial Court he greatly blamed that King's and his ministers' proceedings in the matter of the divorce.
The Emperor will shortly leave this place to proceed to Naples by land.—Palermo, 26 Sept. 1535
French. Original draft. pp. 2.

Footnotes

1 "Que juntandose V. Md y el Rey de Francia para contra Anglaterra, piensa los ha de concertar."
2 A summary or (relacion) of the same despatch, made by the clerks, to be submitted to Covos (H. 15-17), has marginal notes explanatory of the answers to be made to each paragraph. So, for instance, the one relating to Pier Luigi Farnese has the following in Covos' hand: "His Majesty might have wished that Pier Luigi had come to him in May. He wishes to see him, and will receive him with pleasure. After hearing what he has to say in His Holiness' name, the Emperor will answer him," &c.
3 See above, No. 88, pp. 257-8, where the cause of his imprisonment is related.
4 Jean Hannaërt, viscount of Lombecke, and lord (seigneur) of Likerke.
5 Not in the bundle.
6 Sir John Wallop.
7 Cavendish. See above, p. 326.
8 James married, in 1537, Magdalen, daughter of Francis, who died in the same year. 2. Marie de Lorraine, daughter of Claude duke of Guise, and widow of the duke of Longueville (Louis XI.), who became regent of Scotland in 1554, and died in 1560.
9 The Emperor's entry into Tunis took place on the 21st of July. On the 25th he wrote to the marquis de Cañete (D. Diego Hurtado de Mendoza), his viceroy of Navarre, the letter published by Sandoval (Hist, del Emp. Carlos V. lib. xxii. p. 281). One of the Spanish MSS. in the British Museum (Add. 21,526) contains letters from the Emperor to the above Don Diego, dat. Barcelona, 9 May; Sobre lo Goleta de Tunez, 30 June and 14 July; Alcaçaba dc Tunez, 25 July; and en nuestra galera cerca de la Goleta de Tunez, 16 Aug. On the 17th August, after nearly a month's stay in that capital, the Emperor returned to his ship, when the official news of the conquest was communicated to Chapuys on the 23rd.
10 "Sans estre en la seruitude et captivite ou elles sont, ie ay desia longuement travaille pour cest effect mais ie ny vois ordre."
11 "La tardance de la venue du dict ballifz fachoit merveilleusement ceulx-cy, selon qua dit lambassadeur de France, et mesmes ayant de pieça escript monsieur lambassadeur valoux que le roy de france auoit depcsche le dict baillifz a la plus grande haste du monde, et le feit desloger a la mynuict lenchargeant de toute extreme diligence."
12 "Ce roy estant arrive a vinchestre, ou il se treuve a present, il feit inventariser (sic, inventoriser?) le tresor de leglise du quel il print certaines licornes fort belles et riches et une grande croix dor enrichie dexcellente pierrerie."
13 "Cremuel par tout la autour ou va le roy, son maistre, va visitant les abbayes, inventorisant meubles et reuesnuz, les instruisant bien amplement en ceste nouvelle secte, mectant hors des dictes abbayes moynes et nonains ayant fait profession auant quilz eussent vingt et cinq ans."
14 Leonard Skeffington.
15 "Mais ung du priue conseil du roy a dit a sa femme, selon quelle me feit hier adviser, que le dict Childara se desroba de ses gens, et vint tout en chemin trouver le dict monsieur Leonard."
16 "Que le susdict baillif de troye nestoit yci venu que pour sommer ce roy de vouloir bailler au daulphin madame la princesse suyvant les promesses et convencions sur ce faictes, et ioinctement pour advertir comme demy proteste de son traictement et sante."