July 1544, 1-5


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Pascual de Gayangos and Martin A. S. Hume (editors)

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'Spain: July 1544, 1-5', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 7: 1544 (1899), pp. 224-232. URL: Date accessed: 16 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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July 1544, 1–5

3 July.139. Eustace Chapuys to the Queen of Hungary.
Wien, Imp. Arch.“Madame,”—After expressly informing the King and his Privy Council of the many reasons and remonstrances contained in Your Majesty's letter of the 26th ult., and giving them to understand the danger to which the Royal agents and ministers, and even all classes of English subjects trading with the Low Countries, would be exposed from Landenberg's band unless that captain and his men, now dismissed from the king of England's service, were promptly paid up, I could get no final answer from the latter to my representations save to say that the King, their master, wishing, as I wrote last to Your Majesty, to have a body of German cavalry in his service, had to that effect sent [to Flanders] a sum of 4,000 ducats, which his commissaries (commis) had paid down to them in advance. (fn. 1) As to the infantry (gens de pied), their demands were so unreasonable that he would not engage them. Nor could he have done so if he chose, for having received notice from His Imperial Majesty not to give them a larger stipend than that which their countrymen received from the Emperor, he found that their demands were unusual and most exorbitant. As to his paying money to Landenberg's men on their dismissal from service and consequent return home, that he obstinately refused to do, and I have in vain tried to persuade him that in all contracts of the kind there is a clause stipulating that men serving in German infantry and cavalry are to be paid their wages from the day they leave home and pass muster until they return home, the privy councillors alleging that the King had remitted to Landenberg a sum of 18,000 ducats, independently of what he (the King) had paid for the marching bounty. If the men had not received any portion of that money, they could, and ought to, apply to the captain for their due, and call on him to render an account. (fn. 2)
There is nothing more for me to advise, save that the King intends sailing for the Continent on Monday next. May God be pleased that nothing occur to prevent him!—London, 3 July 1544.
Signed: “Eustace Chapuys.”
French. Original. 1 p.
3 July.140. The Same to the Same.
Wien, Imp. Arch. Rep. I., Fasc. C., 234.“Madame,”—A Piedmontese named Jehan Mary Toullant, residing here, in London, stole some time ago, from a certain Baptiste Barron, some gold rings of the approximate value of 1,500 ducats. As Toullant was about to cross over to France with his theft (larcin), he was stopped at the frontier of Luxemburgh by Monsr. de Villemont on suspicion of his being a Frenchman—a spy—not on any other particular charge. The said Jehan Mary had previously entrusted the stolen rings to a priest, who, hearing of the former's arrest, consigned them for greater security to Maitre Jehan Chevallier, nephew of Jehan Tirry (Tierry), both of whom, uncle and nephew, after closely inspecting the rings, and finding by the description and particulars given by Barron that they originally belonged to him, now offer to restore to him the stolen property on condition that Mr. de Villemont will no further molest the priest or them, and desist from the prosecution. It appears, however, that though Your Majesty has written to Monsr. de Villemont in favour of the detention, the judicial proceedings are still going on, and Barron does not get back his rings. As the duke and duchess of Suffolk, whose jeweller (argentier) the said Barron seems to be, have strongly recommended this affair to me, I cannot do less than repeat their joint prayer, and beg that Monsr. de Villemont be made to desist from the prosecution, and Tyrry (sic) ordered to restore to Barron his property.—London, 3 July 1544.
Signed: “Eustace Chapuys.”
French. Original. 1½ pp.
3 July.141. Eustace Chapuys to the Queen of Hungary.
Wien, Imp. Arch.“Madame,”—I have nothing to add to my inclosed for the Emperor, save that I have not forgotten to thank these privy councillors for the sending off of Octavian Bos, at the same time telling the King what Your Majesty's intentions are as to the manner of treating that prisoner, all of which the King has taken in very good part.
Nor will I omit to say that I have not failed to remonstrate again with these councillors on all the points contained in Your Majesty's letter to me, supplementing them, as is my duty, with such arguments and remarks of my own as I thought advisable; and in the end, after some debate (estrifz) he has shown not only contentment at Your Majesty's doings, but also commiseration at the state of perplexity and trouble in which Your Majesty must now be owing to the annoyance caused by the soldiery (gens de guerre), as well as by the provision of victuals arid other necessaries for his camp.—London, 3 July 1544.
Signed: “Eustace Chapuys.”
French. Original. 2 pp.
3 July.142. The Same to Monseigneur De Granvelle.
Wien, Imp. Arch.“Monseigneur,”—Your Lordship will see by the inclosed copy of my letter to the Queen the last news of this country, as well as the King's final resolution in the Landenberg affair; but I will not omit to say that my lord the duke of Alburquerque is every day rising in reputation and credit among these courtiers, and that the King and the Queen are showing him much favour. Yet the Duke, as I gather, cares little for it, his stay here being for no other purpose than that of being useful to the Emperor. Had it not been for that, I can assure your Lordship that whatever these people might have said or done to induce him to stay here, he (the Duke) would not have remained one hour more with them upon any consideration. True it is that, as it seems to me, the Duke is pleased and flattered at the idea that the Emperor appreciates his services, and that the fact is becoming public among courtiers here and elsewhere, yet he fears that His Imperial Majesty does not really and truly wish him to remain, in this country, though he has received orders to that effect, but has only yielded to the intercession and prayers of this King. That is the reason why I humbly beseech your Lordship to write a few words to the Duke, and also to Don Bartolomé, (fn. 3) his brother, and others on the subject.—London, 3 July 1544.
Signed: “Eustace Chapuys.”
Addressed: “A monseigneur Monsieur de Granvelle, Chevalier, et premier Conseiller de l'Empereur.”
French. Original. Partly ciphered.
3 July.143. The Queen of Hungary to Ambassador Chapuys.
Wien, Imp. Arch.“Monsieur l'Ambassadeur,”—Our letters of the 24th and 26th ult. must have apprised you sufficiently of the very great damage which Landenberger's (fn. 4) men have inflicted on the inhabitants of Liège, subjects of the Emperor. Since then the men have overrun the plains round that town, living entirely upon the poor peasants, and practising all manner of extortions; so much so, that there has been some talk among the country people of rising against them, and getting at once rid of the nuisance anyhow. Meanwhile, the inhabitants of Liège and its immediate vicinity, as you may imagine, are throwing all the blame on Us, saying that it was at Our request and recommendation, and on the assurance We gave them that Landenberger's men would behave in a friendly manner and pay for their quarters and food, that they consented to their crossing the river Meuse and coming down to them, which they might easily have prevented had they only suspected what was going to happen. All this proceeds from some misunderstanding or other on the part of that King's commissaries, owing, no doubt, to their being insufficiently acquainted with the manner of dealing with recruits (pietons) from Upper Germany, who are in the habit of asking at first unreasonable prices for their services, and if they find that the contractors are inexperienced in affairs of that sort, making most excessive and preposterous demands.
Ever since the beginning of the present war with the French, no affair has given Us so much trouble as this one of Landenberger's men, whom We by no means can suffer to remain thus at large and unpaid for fear of discouraging others (fn. 5) from taking service, since after all they have been levied, engaged, and contracted for the king of England's service. We have tried in vain to persuade the King's commissaries to go to them and endeavour to arrange matters; but they will not, because they say they are afraid of being ill-treated by the soldiery. Meanwhile, His Imperial Majesty's subjects have been, and are still, despoiled, robbed, and oppressed without Our being able to prevent it, which is exceedingly annoying to Us, as we have to listen to the incessant clamouring of the Emperor's subjects in these parts without the means of satisfying their very just claims and demands, or compensating them for their losses.
We have, therefore, just cause and reason for resentment against those through whose inexperience such a set of people, as these German soldiers are, have been let loose upon these provinces under Our government, after dismissing them without their due, for We cannot be persuaded that it is the King's real intention and purpose that Landenberger's men should remain unpaid for their services up to this day. Had the Royal Commissaries consented, as We wrote to you on the 26th of June, to pay Landenberger's infantry one month's salary for the time they have served the king of England, besides fifteen days more for their return home, which is what they ask for, the men would have been satisfied, and the evils the people of Liège are suffering would have been avoided. But the King's commissaries, We repeat, would never come to terms or settle accounts with the men, and have only paid them some money on account, which after all has passed into the pockets of their captains without the men themselves receiving any portion of it, at which, as you may imagine, the latter are very indignant.
We cannot imagine the reason there may be for your not having yet replied to the urgent request contained in the Emperor's letter of the 24th ult. respecting Altesteyn, the gentleman of his chamber sent by him to Landenberger's quarters. Until your answer comes, and We know what the King says on the subject, Altesteyn cannot possibly execute his commission, which is most important for His Imperial Majesty's service and the welfare of his subjects in these countries.
Yesterday afternoon your letter of the 27th ult. came to hand, in which you try to persuade Us to allow and give license for the export of 200 Flemish mares stopped at Dunkerke, and which, you say, had been purchased for that King's service, as the privy councillors have officially informed you. We wrote to you on the 24th of the said month of June that a secretary of the late English ambassador (fn. 6) at this Our Court had also applied for a license to export to England two mares, which license We had refused to grant on certain considerations of Our own. The same ambassador's servant (serviteur), the day after Our refusal, applied for passports for 200, which he, in a note of hand, stated were wanted for the King's stables. We found it strangely ridiculous—nay, almost an ironical joke—that the very same man who had applied for a license to export two mares, and had been refused, should now apply for two hundred for the Royal stud. We, therefore, ordered Our councillors to tell the man that even if the mares were really and truly destined for the King's stables, he (the late ambassador's servant) was not, in Our opinion, the fit person to make the application. The demand was important, and required more ample and official formalities than those used. After this the Royal Commissary, who came here to procure carts and waggons for the English army, has renewed the application for the said 200, though without exhibiting credentials or other papers showing that they are really intended for the King's own service; and the commissary, hearing that We refused his application, has, We are told, made use of words highly inconsiderate, saying that perhaps this refusal on Our part might give occasion to, and be the cause of, mightier things being prevented. In short, the same commissary has presented in Our Council a copy of your letter to Us of the 27th of June, by which We are apprised that the mares are already at Dunkerke, which We find very strange, considering the circumstances of the case. But, as We say, there is in all this just cause for Our refusing a license for the export of such a number of mares, lest these provinces under Our government, whose principal industry consists in the breeding of horses, should get depopulated, which would soon be the case if the Flemish mares—an article the export of which has always been expressly forbidden—should be allowed to go out of the country so frequently as has been the case of late. To those prohibiting ordinances We must particularly adhere, the more so now that We are informed that in the hulks or transport ships which left lately the ports of Flanders and the Low Countries for the passage of the English army to France, no less than 700 Flemish mares—many of which are not yet fit for breeding—were embarked without Our license. We do not presume that it is the King's intention thus to deprive these countries of their resources, since he himself wishes the merchants of these countries to behave honestly, and not to export from his kingdom prohibited articles. We have not failed to supply as many horses as the King wanted for his camp, although it has been to the great regret of the inhabitants of these provinces, who would have much preferred to grant a large sum of money towards the expenses of the war than have their horses and waggons pressed for the King's service. Indeed, We are told that the people of Flanders in particular have offered to contribute with 100,000 crs. towards the expenses of the war, provided they are exempted from the requisition of waggons for the English army, and the great number of draft-horses required, which, according to calculation, amounts to upwards of 8,000. Whenever the king of England has applied to Us for horses for himself or his courtiers, We have granted licenses for the passage thereof without the least difficulty, and now, only for his sake, We have given orders that the 200 mares detained at Dunkerke be shipped for England, on condition, however, and with the hope, that in future the King's ministers and officials will not apply by themselves for similar concessions—a thing to which We could in no wise consent to. Since you say that the King's Privy Council has informed you that the Dunkerke mares are really intended for the Royal stables, We should like to know whether it realty is so, and whether the King is aware of it, and has given orders for their purchase for this present enterprise, since there are some among them which are not serviceable for the purpose.
You will thank the King for his having sent Us Octavian Bos, on whom exemplary justice shall be such as the Emperor's service and his own demand.
After the above was written yours of the 29th ult. comes to hand, together with another for the Emperor, which We forwarded to him immediately. In answer to yours, We can only say, for the present, that We are much concerned at the grievances (cryerie) of the Emperor's subjects here, who certainly regret more the damage caused to them by those whom they considered their friends, than all the harm they might have received from the hands of the enemy.
From another side We have news that some German cavalry for the king of England's service is coming from Utrecht without Our having been informed of it beforehand, and that both men and horses on their passage through that district are living entirely at the expense of the country people—so much so, that a deputation has come here to complain. Generally speaking, We cannot do less than blame the conduct of the Royal commissaries in this and other cases, for We cannot believe that it is the King's intention to treat them and the Emperor's subjects in this way.
As We were writing the above, news has been received that the strong place of Ligny has surrendered at discretion to the viceroy of Sicily, and that both the counts of Ligny and Rochy (fn. 7) (sic) are prisoners of war.—[3 July 1544.]
French. Original draft. 4 pp.
5 July.144. The Emperor to Eustace Chapuys.
Wien, Imp. Arch.“Venerable chier et feal,”—Your letter of the 29th ult. (fn. 8) came to hand yesterday, the 4th inst. Since then, perceiving that notwithstanding all your remonstrances the king of England persists in his refusal to employ Landenberg and his band, We have been obliged to take them into Our own service in order to avoid in future the great damage they have been inflicting on the inhabitants of the Low Countries, and chiefly on those of Liège and its district. This measure of Ours was the more necessary on account of Landenberg's foot making common cause with the cavalry, and threatening, if they were not paid, to go over to France. You will represent to the King that this will become a heavy charge for Us to support, owing to the very great number of men We have already under Our banners, and that if We have taken the said foot and horse into Our service it has been merely for the sake of avoiding their unruly conduct, and preventing them from passing over to the enemy. If the expense is to fall upon Us alone it is unjust, since Our army already exceeds by much the stipulated number. As to the privy councillors telling you that they care not whether Landenberg's men go over to France or not, alleging for it the reasons specified in your letters, We really do not know what to make of it. At times, when it suits their purpose, the English will say, by way of argument, that king Francis' forces are insignificant and good for nothing; whereas, at other times, they seem to dread them, as if they represented the power of all the World put together. (fn. 9)
With regard to the King's final determination to cross the Channel and come personally to the undertaking against Montreuil, well and good; but you must take care that the English advance into France without stopping on the frontiers of Picardy, as they have done hitherto, and as We have informed you by Our letters.
As to the surmise expressed in your last despatch that the King has not at present too much money to dispose of, We recommend you to make fresh inquiries, and ascertain, if possible, what means he has at his disposal, and how long he intends keeping up his army, and in general let Us know from time to time what you can learn on the subject.
We will to-morrow take Our departure for Thou[l], where Our army, still in front of St. Desir, will join Us. (fn. 10) Of whatever occurs you will be duly apprised.—Metz, 5 July l544. (fn. 11)
French. Original draftpp.
—July.145. The Answer of the Lieutenants and Captains of the German Band under Landenberg to Queen Mary of Hungary.
Wien, Imp. Arch. Rep. P. Fasc. C. 23.To the message brought by Cornelia Scepperus on behalf of the Emperor and of the Queen Regent, the undersigned answer that they have no objection to serve the king of England, provided they get two months' pay in advance, besides having their expenses paid up to the day. (fn. 12)
Indorsed: “Received at Liège on the 8th of July.”
French. Original. 1 p.


1 “N'ay finallement sçeu avoir aultre resolution sinon que le dit sr roy desirant se servir des gens de cheval, estoit en bonne esperance de les avoir, et pour cest effect ses commis avoient puis nagueres faict delivrer aux dits gens de cheval quatre mille ducats.”
2 “Disant et affirmant avoir faict delivrer au dit Landenberg XVIIIm ducats sans compter ce[ulx] du 'lauwfighelt,' (lawfgeld?) et que les dits pietons s'en pouvoient prendre au dit Landenberg et luy en fair[e] donner compte.”
3 Bartolomé Fernandez de la Cueva, third son of Don Francisco de la Cueva, second duke of Alburquerque, and brother of Don Beltran II., the third duke.
4 Christophle von Landenberg, or Landenberger, as his name is here written. See above, No. 112, p. 183.
5 “Lesquels ne pouvons laisser baillie (?) pour non descourager tous aultres,”
6 Dr. Layton, dean of York.
7 Father Daniel calls them “Brienne et Roussy.” His words are: “De là [Commercy] l'Empereur vint assieger Ligny en Barrois, ou le Comte de Brienne s'ètoit enfermé avec le Comte de Roussi, son frère, les sieurs d'Eschenais, et de Gonsoles, plusieurs capitaines, quinze cent homme de pied et cinquante gendarmes.”—Histoire de France, Amsterdam, 1720, Vol. V., p. 406.
8 No. 138, p. 221.
9 “Et quant à ce que çeulx du Conseil du dit sr roy vous ont dit quílz ne se soucirent quant oyres (sic) les dìts gens de guerre allassenten France pour les causes contenues en vos dites lectres, nous ne scavons bien entendre les propoz des dìts anglois que aulcunes fois font les forces des françois si petites quilz ne les estiment en riens, et par fois si grandes quil sembla que l'on doibve lea craindré comme ce estoit toute la puissance du monde.”
10 According to Vandenesse, the Emperor left Metz the day after. On the 6th [of July] the Emperor marched with flying colours from Metz to Pont-à-Mousson, rested on the 7th, and came to Menonville on the 8th. See Itinerary of Charles V., Bradford translation, p. 316.
11 Joined to the above letter from the Emperor to Chapuys, dated Metz, 5 July, are a few lines in Queen Mary's own hand, addressed to Lewis Schore, president of the Council of Flanders, thus worded:—“President, let this letter be forwarded at once to the Imperial ambassador in England (Eustace Chapuys), and if you deem it convenient and opportune, let Scepperus' attention be called to the paragraph relating to Landenberg's men.” The letter alluded to must be either that of the Emperor to Chapuys of the 24th of June (No. 129, p. 212), or else that of the 27th of June (No. 134, p. 217.)
12 No date. A clerk of the Imperial Archives has written, in a modern hand, 1543; but this is evidently a mistake, for Landenberg's contract for service did not begin until May of 1544. In December of the preceding year he was in London, negociating with Henry's ministers respecting a body of German infantry to be raised for the Royal service (Vol. VI., Part II., pp. 539, 542). It was in June 1544 that his men, as it appears, would not move from Liège without being paid two months' salary in advance, and that Scepperus was sent by Queen Mary. The above is their answer.