Spain
June 1546, 1-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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Martin A. S. Hume (editor)

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1904

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399-408

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'Spain: June 1546, 1-15', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 8: 1545-1546 (1904), pp. 399-408. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88258 Date accessed: 21 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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June 1546, 1–15

June 2. Vienna. Imp. Arch.267. Van der Delft to the Emperor.
Since writing to your Majesty recently respecting the rumours that peace had been concluded, the said rumours had continued unabated at Court and elsewhere, and the general opinion was that peace had certainly been made. As, however, I had been unable to learn for certain what the conditions were, I deferred writing to your Majesty until now. The rumours have since died down, and to such an extent that all the hope of peace that existed has turned to dread of a continuance of the war. The people, gentle and simple, are quite tired of war, as was well proved by the joy they evinced at the news of peace, without caring what the conditions were. Although the conference still continues the English are not slackening in their activity in providing everything necessary for the prosecution of hostilities, and despatching the things needed to Boulogne. I hear that this King has ordered 2,000 men to be raised here, in consequence, it is said, of the continued reinforcement of the French camp. I am therefore at a loss what to write to your Majesty, with so many divergent rumours afloat. My doubt is increased by seeing that affairs are not proceeding according to the assertions made by those who are conducting them. But withal, Sire, I cannot believe that these people will do anything against your Majesty, although they say that they have been solicited to do so. I will report to your Majesty all I can learn.
The King came to London to-day and the Queen yesterday, and they are to remain here until the peace conference comes to an end.
London, 2 June 1546.
June 2. Vienna. Imp. Arch.268. Van der Delft to the Queen Dowager.
After my recent letters to your Majesty respecting the peace rumours the latter continued general, both at Court and elsewhere for two days longer, peace being then considered by everyone as certain. As, however, I could obtain no trustworthy confirmation, or learn anything of the conditions, I refrained from writing further on the subject to your Majesty. The rumour has since died down to such an extent that the hopes of peace have now turned to fear of the continuance of the war, of which everyone, noble and simple, is tired; as was well shown by the great joy that was displayed at the mere talk of peace, irrespective of terms or conditions. Although the Commissioners are still deliberating, there is no slackening in the collection and despatch of warlike stores to Boulogne. I am informed that the King has ordered a levy of 2,000 men here (i.e. London) in consequence of the statement that the French army is daily being strengthened. With all this, Madame, I know not what to write about it, being in the midst of so many changes: and especially as I find that affairs are not proceeding in accordance with the assertions of those who conduct them. But, whatever may happen, I cannot believe that these people (the English) will do anything against the Emperor, although they say that they have been requested to do so. I will not fail to report what I can learn. The King came to London to-day, the Queen having arrived yesterday. It is said they will remain here until the result of the negotiations is known.
London, 2 June 1546.
June 3. Vienna. Imp. Arch.269. Van der Delft to the Emperor.
After despatching my letter yesterday by the ordinary courier I learnt that the Bishop of Winchester and the Master of the Horse, Sir Anthony Browne, were to start the same day to cross the sea. They had kept this so secret that there was no whisper of it at Court until they were ready to depart. I have done my best to-day to find out the cause of their journey, and with this object I sent a man to the Lords of the Council on some other pretext, but still I have been unable to discover what they are going for. I sent to complain to the Lord Chancellor of the delay which was caused in the settlement of a claim made by a certain Biscayner, in consequence of the absence of the Bishop of Winchester, who had been appointed joint arbitrator with me on the matter; but the only thing the Lord Chancellor said was that the bishop had gone on the King's service and would be back in five or six days. People discourse variously of their going.
I also heard to-day from a man whom Bernardi had assured previously that peace was practically concluded that Bernardi had told him subsequently that he had but small hope of peace, and that a settlement seemed now improbable.
London, 3 June 1546.
June 7. Simancas. E. 73.270. Prince Philip to the Emperor.
Congratulations on recovery from gout, and upon the great benefit derived from taking the China water, etc., etc.
Notes that the Emperor continues in his resolve to carry through the enterprise against the Protestants, and was making preparations for it. The writer has therefore no more to say, as he concludes that the Emperor will have considered all the objections. The writer can only pray to God to prosper an undertaking so entirely in His service. Nevertheless, it must not be forgotten that the season is far advanced, and winter lasts longer in Germany than elsewhere. Please God, however, your Majesty will overcome this difficulty by your celerity; and that He will supply all shortcomings.
Notes the Emperor's remark that money is the first thing needful for the raising of troops, and that the Emperor has drawn two bills of exchange. The High Commendador (Cobos) will write on these points, as he has already done in previous letters. The sum requested will already have reached his Majesty's hand. “With regard to the indispensable supplies needed for Spain, we must consider what means can be devised for obtaining them. I am extremely anxious at the impossibility of supplying your Majesty with all that you require from here; and especially if the King of France makes any attempt on our frontiers, as we fear he will, as soon as the enterprise is made public and the English and French come to terms to your Majesty's prejudice. Our needs here are so great that we could hardly resist. I can only trust in God to aid your Majesty in frustrating your enemies.”
Spanish prelates ordered to go to the Council of Trent. Excuses, old age, sickness, etc. alleged by some of them (named) for not going. Inquisitor for the Kingdom of Sicily, etc. Dr. Sebastian has been appointed, and has accepted only with much reluctance, as the salary is very small.
With regard to the 2,000 men for Lombardy, since our letter of 18th May, we have arranged that the five companies raised in Aragon and Valencia shall be embarked at Tortosa, and the two companies from Villena and Murcia at Cartagena, this being the advice of Don Bernardino de Mendoza, Captain General of the galleys of Spain. The 2,000 quintals of biscuit ordered to be made for them are promised for the 8th or 10th instant. The captains report that the men are assembled, and we ordered the paymasters with the money to hurry thither at once. We are confident that by the 20th or 25th the companies will be mustered and the first wage paid; so that they may be embarked by the end of the month. As your Majesty did not write to Prince Doria he only sent 12 of his galleys with John Doria to drive off the corsairs, who are infesting these coasts. Doubtless when, Doria gets your Majesty's subsequent orders, he will send the rest of the galleys, as the 12 already here with our own will not suffice to convey these 2,000 men. The men will receive one wage in money, and one in stores. The arms they need will be served out to them, and part of the amount will be discounted from the first wage here. The statement of the deductions afterwards will be sent with the men. Details of the movements of galleys and troops ordered, to defend the Spanish ports and convey the troops, supply of barley for garrisons, etc.
The advance of the Sheriff of Morocco to conquer the Kingdom of Fez. The King of Portugal requests permission to raise troops in Andalusia for the purpose of sending succour thither. We will do our best to aid him in this, as it is important to Spain that the Sheriff should not dominate the fortresses on the coast.
Proposes several appointments to vacant pensioned knighthoods, one of which he desires should be given to “Don Alonso de Tovar my carver.” “The prior and consuls of the Guild of Merchants of Burgos sent one of their members hither, respecting the means to be adopted to prevent the molestation of your Majesty's subjects at sea by the French, English and Scots. He handed to me a memorandum of these proposals which I have had discussed in the Royal Council and the Council of War. Although the memorandum was generally approved of it was decided to refer it to your Majesty's consideration before taking action upon it. I beg your Majesty to have it examined and send orders. (fn. 1) In the meanwhile, in accordance with the Council we have despatched letters to the justices at the ports on the west coasts, ordering them to inspect all ships about to put to sea, and if they find them unprovided with means of defence to forbid their sailing, until others may accompany them better furnished.”
Begs the Emperor's favour for a pensioned knighthood for Don Alonso Osorio, now in Germany in the Emperor's service. He is the brother of a gentleman in his Majesty's service who died in Ratisbon and of another, a knight of St. John, whom the Turks killed in Algiers. (fn. 2) Begs church preferment for the singers in his (Philip's) chapel, who serve so well, and receive so little.
Madrid, 7 June 1546.
June 8. Paris Archives Nationales. K. 1486.271. St. Mauris to Prince Philip.
Your Highness' letters of 10th and 18th ultimo received. I have diligently enquired into the proceedings of M. d'Albret (fn. 3) against (Spanish) Navarre, and I have been unable to learn from anyone that he can raise war this year. He has not a doit, nor the King of France either. The latter has been forced to try to make peace with England for absolute want of money. If any troops are being raised on the Bayonne frontier or in Gascony it is asserted here that they are simply to withstand the Spaniards. Your Highness will see by the statement enclosed that the King of France addressed me. personally to this effect. This is confirmed by what a servant of the King of Portugal who came hither by post told me, and also a Spanish courier, to the effect that on the frontier and in Gascony all the talk was that a Spanish force was coming against them. They were all in great alarm; and the King of France had caused proclamation to be made by a herald that every person was to make ready to join M. d'Albret when he should summon them. This is as much as I have been able to ascertain up to the present. The same cry about the Spanish force is prevalent here (in Paris). Nevertheless, to prevent our being caught unawares by any such talk, I am of opinion that the most efficacious means of frustrating the design will be the knowledge that your Highness has placed the frontiers in a state of defence, supposing that the design exists. I will do my best to get to the bottom of the business and will report to your Highness.
With regard to the peace with England, the people here look upon it as settled. The substance of the arrangement is that Boulogne with the whole county of Boulognais remain in the hands of the English for eight years; after which time they are to be surrendered to the King of France, on the payment by him of two millions in gold in one sum, besides the pensions of 120,000 crowns a year. (fn. 4) The peace is generally considered shameful and injurious to the King of France, but he was obliged to consent to it for want of money. He will therefore be quite unable to aid M. d'Albret with funds.
Since the peace has been regarded as concluded, these people here have spread the intelligence that the French galleys in the western sea will start for the Mediterranean with the first fine weather. I believe this is true. There are 36 of them, though it is said that the English recently captured one, which they may return, as a consequence of the conclusion of peace. They may sail by the 15th or 20th June.
The remedies to be adopted against attacks and robberies at sea are still in suspense: but as peace is made with the English all such troubles will cease for the future, and we may confine our attention to the redress of past injuries. I have written this hurriedly to convey the news to your Highness, and will shortly write again in fuller detail. I must not omit to mention, however, that since they have become confident of peace, they have announced that many Normans were putting to sea in armed ships for purposes of plunder, their pretence being to go to Brazil. They expect the gold from the Indies will soon be on the way.
Melun, 8 June 1546.
June 9. Vienna. Imp. Arch.272. The Queen Dowager to Van der Delft.
The English ambassador resident here has just come on behalf of the King's Commissioners at Calais for the negotiations with the French, to inform us that peace was concluded between the two kings on the 7th instant, the King of England having reserved intact the treaty existing between him and the Emperor, with whom he wishes to remain in perfect accord. The ambassador said that he had no information beyond this, as to the terms of the peace treaty, and we thanked him for his communication. You will at once request audience of the King on our behalf and thank him for the information he caused to be conveyed to us, and also for his desire that the friendship now existing should be maintained between the Emperor and himself, which desire shall fully be reciprocated by us. We asked the ambassador whether the King's army was dispersed; so that in such case we might give orders for the transit through these territories of the soldiers whose road home led this way. We were told that the army had not yet been dismissed. You will therefore enquire of the Council when the forces are to dispersed, as we shall require to take measures to prevent any damage being suffered by subjects here during the transit of the soldiers. You will communicate to us also from time to time what the English are saying, now that they are at peace: whether they bear any rancour towards the Emperor for leaving them alone in the war; and let us know the conditions of the peace, which we hear are greatly to the honour and reputation of the King of England; in which case the English will he all the more ready to make them known.—9 June 1546.
June 10. Vienna. Imp. Arch.273. Van der Delft to the Emperor.
Yesterday, a courier arrived here from Calais for the King (of England) bringing the news that peace had been concluded, and Secretary Paget arrived the same evening. Various statements are current as to the conditions, and consequently I can still only write to your Majesty that it is said that Boulogne with the territory to the river remains in possession of the King of England, although many persons assert that this is the case only for a given time, until the King of France has paid a great sum of money. This I think most likely to be true, as the plenipotentiaries at the conference have been so long disputing the point whether the Englishmen or Picards were to be allowed to cultivate the territory of Boulogne. Up to the present no communication has been made to me. I will use every effort to discover the particulars, and will not fail to advise your Majesty immediately. The rumour is that the Admiral of France is coming hither, and that the Lord Admiral is to go to France.
The intelligence current here recently of the death of the Cardinal of Scotland still continues, and the news is now regarded as true. It is said that he was killed by the relatives of a man who had been executed by his orders for heresy. Some people still assert that the Cardinal was only wounded.
London, 10 June 1546.
June 10. Vienna. Imp. Arch.274. Van der Delft to the Queen Dowager of Hungary. (fn. 5)
In accordance with the letters from M. de Bevres and M. D'Eick, respecting the passage of Magnus David with your Majesty's safe conduct to Scotland, I sent to the Lords of the Council, who expressed their surprise at this dealing with their enemies, and at the large number of safe conducts that are being granted. They (the Council) were shown that your Majesty was in no way infringing upon the treaties in what you did, and that they themselves (the English) acted similarly. They replied that they would consider the matter, and would communicate their decision to me in two or three days; but up to the present time I have received no message from them. Magnus David himself has since arrived in London with the captain who captured him, though I have not yet seen him. I will not fail to render him such aid as I can. (The writer begs for consideration in the matter of his pecuniary affairs.)
London, 10 June 1546.
June 12. Vienna. Imp. Arch.275. The Duke of Alburquerque (fn. 6) to Henry VIII.
A soldier who was formerly a servant of mine arrived yesterday from England, and told me that when he left there, there was a Spaniard imprisoned in the Tower of London, who claimed to be a cousin or a nephew of mine, and who, to give colour to his falsehood, brought letters ostensibly from me begging your Majesty to favour him. These letters having been thought genuine, the man has been well received and admitted to your Majesty's presence. I am, and shall always remain, grateful that your Majesty considers me so faithful a servant as for you to extend your favour to anyone bearing a recommendation from me; but I can assure your Majesty that in this case I did not write the letter, which is a forgery effected in order to prejudice your Majesty. The greatest favour that can be done to me in the matter is that the man should be severely punished as a warning to others not to go to England as spies under cover of my name and signature. Your Majesty may be perfectly certain that such persons will never be accredited with genuine letters of mine, for I am the last man to countenance with my aid anyone capable of going to England to the disservice of so good a friend and brother of my King, by whose orders I served your Majesty to the best of my ability. I am not surprised that the French should have invented this device to deprive me of the reward that my service merited, for they have shown their resentment against me for my action in the campaign by their treatment of me in the matter of my property; (fn. 7) but I wonder that anyone in England should have so bad opinion of me, as to think that I could send a kinsman of mine on so evil an errand. As the Spaniard in question was rogue enough to bring a forged letter bearing an imitation of my signature, it is possible that others may have carried thither similar forgeries for various objects, and I therefore think necessary to assure your Majesty that the present is the first letter I have written to you since I left your realm. I have refrained from doing so, because I am aware that frequently monarchs are pestered with letters from those who have served them, even though the latter are as powerless, as I am, to serve them again; though in my case, to be sure, the will is not wanting, and no journey would seem too long for me to take, if I could be useful to your Majesty, and had permission of my own King to serve you.
I have received news of your Majesty's recent victories, which have rejoiced the hearts of your servants, etc. etc.
Cuellar, 12 June 1546.
Endorsed:—Copy of the letter that is being sent to the King.
June 12. Vienna. Imp. Arch.276. Van der Delft to the Emperor.
Since I despatched my letter to your Majesty announcing the conclusion of peace, the Bishop of Durham (fn. 8) came to me, as he said on behalf of the King and Council, to inform me that peace had been concluded between his master and the King of France, in which peace your Majesty had been included; and all the treaties existing between your Majesty and the King expressly reserved and maintained in force. This, he assured me, had only been effected with great difficulty, owing to the opposition of the French, who were not less troublesome on the question of Scotland. The King (Henry), however, had firmly refused to agree to anything to the prejudice of your Majesty, or in contravention of the treaties with you; and the negotiations were almost entirely broken off in consequence. The King therefore placed no trust or confidence in the offers and promises of the French, until he saw the peace treaty actually signed by them; this being the excuse for their not having informed me earlier of the progress of their negotiations. In confirmation of this he (Tunstall) said that, when the King saw that, whilst the French were raising these difficulties they were constantly strengthening their forces by land and sea, he had despaired of coming to terms; and had not slackened in his preparations to continue the war. . The bishop, then, as if of his own accord, remarked that the French reinforcements still continued daily, he knew not with what object. I do not quite understand this, either, and think well to advise your Majesty of it. With regard to the Scots, he said they had been included in the peace, on condition that they fulfil their promises and obligations towards the King (Henry), failing which the English are not to be bound to anything with regard to them; and may deal with them as they please. As he (Dr. Tunstall) did not volunteer any further statement as to the conditions, I was somewhat at a loss how to reply; but merely said I thanked God for having allowed the peace to be made, which was so sorely needed by Christendom at large, and acknowledged the kindness of the King, the Council and himself, for carrying the auspicious news to me. I added that I had never had any apprehension that the King his master would consent to anything prejudicial to your Majesty; and I rejoiced greatly that my confidence in this respect had not been at fault. I had no doubt that the arrangement arrived at was an honourable one for the King. To this he made no other reply than that the French after the first conference had proposed very iniquitous conditions, injurious both to your Majesty and to the King of England. He (Dr. Tunstall) was then leaving, and I asked him if they were to retain Boulogne. After a pause he simply replied yes: and so left me.
Since then I have learnt from a sure and secret source that it is true that the French strenuously endeavoured to seduce this King from his alliance with your Majesty, and that when the King dispatched his plenipotentiaries he strictly enjoined them not to listen to any proposals whatever which were discordant with the friendship and alliance with your Majesty. He (Henry) moreover entirely struck out certain clauses submitted by the French which were directed against this friendship. With regard to Boulogne, the town and its territory on this side of the river remain in the hands of the King of England, and will be inhabited by Englishmen until the King of France provides a very large sum of money, the amount of which was not communicated to me, to cover the cost of the war and the arrears of pension, which is still to be paid. It is said that peace will be proclaimed here to-morrow, and that the Admiral of France is to come hither, the Lord Admiral going to France. The galleys and ships of both princes are being recalled from the sea.
London, 12 June 1546.
June 14. Vienna. Imp. Arch.277. Van der Delft to the Emperor.
I received yesterday letters from the Queen instructing me to thank the King (of England) for the announcement of the conclusion of peace conveyed to her by his ambassador, and also for the good desire he had shown to maintain the amity and alliance with your Majesty in the course of the negotiations. I had audience of the King to-day for the purpose, and was received by him very kindly and graciously. He said that on no account would he have consented to make peace, unless the treaties and alliances he had with your Majesty were reserved intact. The French insisted upon this being done in the same form in which he (the King of England) had been included in the treaty of peace they had made with your Majesty; and with this object produced a certain extract from the said treaty. He (Henry) had, however, considered that the wording of this extract was insufficient and unsatisfactory, and persisted in his demand that all the treaties between him and your Majesty should be expressly reserved in all their vigour and force. The French raised great difficulties to this, and it seemed as if the whole negotiation would fall through in consequence. This had been the reason why he had deferred informing me of the matter, since, he told me, he would rather have broken off the conference altogether than have waived his demand for the express reservation of the treaties. I replied that I had never doubted that the peace would redound to his honour and advantage; and he then said that by the conditions he was to retain Boulogne, with the territory lying between the river and Guisnes and Calais; the pension to continue payable as heretofore, the first payment falling due in December next. If at the end of eight years the French wish to recover Boulogne they are bound to pay two millions in gold, in a lump-sum on one day. I remarked that in that case the place would remain firmly attached to him, whereupon he smiled. I can perceive no tendency in him but towards great satisfaction at the position of affairs, and constant attachment to your Majesty. The same may be said of his principal courtiers. They had a great meeting to-day, and the Lord Chancellor (Wriothesley), amongst others, assured me that he would not fail to work for the maintenance of the old friendship and alliance. They (the Councillors) also asked me very scrupulously if I had written advice of the peace to your Majesty; and they were much pleased to hear that I had sent a special courier with the news to the Queen (Dowager). They did not mention Scotland to me, and in order to gain information I asked them if the rumour of the Cardinal's assassination was true. They said yes, it was, and that the two men who had committed the deed were of good family and now held the Cardinal's house. (fn. 9) The crime, they said, was a lamentable one, and Scotland in a bad way (bien basse). A French gentleman has come hither to invite the King to stand sponsor to the Dauphin's child. I understand that with this object he is to send a member of his order (i.e. the Garter). It is said also that Councillor Wotton is destined to be the ambassador resident in France.
The Bishop of Winchester and the Master of the Horse have returned here.
At the proclamation of peace made yesterday both in London and at Court, where the said French gentleman was present, it was was announced that, jointly with this treaty, the friendship, alliance and confederation between your Majesty and this King remained intact and inviolate.
London, 14 June 1546.
June 14. Vienna. Imp. Arch.278. Van der Delft to the Queen Dowager.
(The information contained in the letter to the Emperor of the same date is repeated, with only a few unimportant verbal variations. The following additional paragraphs occur in the present letter.)
After dinner as I was taking leave of them (i.e. the Councillors) I asked them if the King's army was to disperse, in order that your Majesty might take measures if necessary for the passage of the dismissed men without damage being done to the subjects. They replied that the King intended to dismiss the greater part of his troops next week, and they therefore begged me to write to your Majesty, so that the men might be accorded permission to pass, as was given for their journey thither (i.e. to Boulogne). I promised to do this, and I expect they will write to a similar effect to their ambassador resident with your Majesty.
(The writer humbly thanks the Queen for the gratuity she has accorded him as some solace for the great expense he is obliged to incur in his office.)
London, 14 June 1546.

Footnotes

1 The document will be found on page 356.
2 The Prince was attached to a lady named Isabel de Osorio, who is usually referred to as the daughter of the Marquis of Astorga. The editor has been unable to trace her identity as such; and has elsewhere questioned the fact of her being a daughter of the head of the house of Osorio. It is possible that she was the sister of the gentlemen mentioned in this letter, who are also not recognisable as near relations of either of the titled branches of the house.
3 Philip had in several previous letters expressed apprehension at news that reached him to the effect that Henry d'Albret (titular King of Navarre) was planning an attack on the Spanish frontier, with the covert aid of the King of France.
4 This is a fairly correct summary of the treaty signed at Campen on the previous day, 7 June. The treaty will be found printed in extenso in Rymer's “Foedera,” Vol. 15, p. 93.
5 The first paragraphs of this letter are identical with those which comprise the letter to the Emperor of the same date, and they are consequently not repeated here.
6 Beltran de la Cueva, third Duke of Alburquerque and Marquis of Cuellar, grandson of the favourite of Henry IV. of Castile.
7 It will be recalled that after the peace between the Emperor and France had been agreed upon, the Duke, who had served as Henry's adviser at the siege of Boulogne, returned to England with the King; his horses and baggage being shipped in two English barges for England, Alburquerque's intention being to return to Spain by sea from Plymouth. The barges and their cargoes were captured at sea by the French; and Alburquerque fruitlessly claimed the return of his property on the ground that he had retired from the position of combatant as soon as his Sovereign was at peace with France.
8 Cuthbert Tunstall, appointed to the See in 1530.
9 Beatoun was murdered in his castle of St. Andrews on the 29th May. Norman Leslie, the leader of the assassins, had captured the castle and held it for five months against the forces of the Regent Arran, when a truce was effected.