Spain
January 1554, 1-10

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Institute of Historical Research

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Royall Tyler (editor)

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1949

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'Spain: January 1554, 1-10', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 12: 1554 (1949), pp. 1-20. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88534 Date accessed: 24 July 2014.


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January 1554, 1–10

Jan. 1. Simancas, E. 879.Don Juan Manrique De Lara (fn. 1) to the Emperor.
I have already written to your Majesty about the goodwill displayed by the Pope (fn. 2) where the marriage between the Prince (fn. 3) and the Queen of England is concerned. My words were certainly too feeble to depict the joy he showed to-day, January 1st, for I believe he was never so much pleased about anything in his life, though his election delighted him greatly at the time. Nothing I could say would be too strong. When I was introduced he had just finished saying mass and was preparing to go down to chapel. He immediately commanded the brief to be drawn up, and he has thought of nothing all day long but of having it composed in a way that shall be wholly satisfactory. Your Majesty may make sure of obtaining anything that either you or the Prince may need, for I have never seen anything so obvious as his goodwill in this matter, for he says he verily believes that God is reserving the Prince to do Him great service, and to make him the greatest prince in the world.
I promise your Majesty that I might let my pen run on without fear of exaggerating. There are various reasons why the Pope should be pleased, but what concerns your Majesty and the Prince is the chief cause. I implore your Majesty to show him that you are aware of it. and that you are grateful for his attitude, as well as because of the creation of the two cardinals, without delaying so long as to miss making the favourable impression that would be caused by a prompt reply.
He (the Pope) is busy sending off the nuncio, who is a member of the Order of St. Dominic, a man of birth and a great scholar. Formerly he (fn. 4) was Master of the Sacred Palace, and he has now received the archbishopric of Conza in the kingdom (of Naples) and the title of nuncio. I believe that your Majesty will find it agreeable to negotiate with him, for he is a good man and true, who proceeds in an open manner with all comers, besides which he is devoted to your Majesty.
If English affairs made it possible to allow the Cardinal (fn. 5) to continue on his journey, if not as far as the kingdom (of England) itself, at anyrate to your Majesty's Court and remain there for some time, he deserves that favour, and would be very glad of it, for his reputation suffers by his remaining so far away from your Court. I beg your Majesty to be pleased to order replies to be sent on private affairs for none of them have received the slightest attention all the time I have been here.
His Holiness was deeply grieved to hear of your Majesty's bad hand and accepts the excuse. To-morrow I shall lay before him the report you sent me so that he may see that you have acted from the best motives and oblivious of self-interest in this matter. Up to the present he seemed unable to believe that that kingdom (England) was really going to be led back (into the Catholic fold), but he now looks upon it as an accomplished fact, such is his opinion of your Majesty's zeal. He is writing you a congratulatory brief, besides which the dispensation is being sent off, and the copy need not be signed. The leaden-sealed Bull is to be drawn up, and I believe the nuncio will take it with him. I will try to obtain a copy of the brief and send it by another messenger.
Rome, 1 January, 1554.
Holograph. Spanish.
Jan. 1.Simancas, E. 807.Treaty Of Marriage between Philip, Prince Of Spain, and Mary, Queen Of England.
(Abstract.)
It is agreed between Stephen, Bishop of Winchester; Henry, Earl of Arundel; William, Lord Paget; Robert Rochester Kt.; and William Petre, Kt.; and Lamoral, Count d'Egmont; Charles, Count de Lalaing; Jehan de Montmorency, Sieur de Courrières; Philip Nigri (fn. 6) , and Simon Renard (fn. 7) ; Commissioners for the Queen of England and the Emperor respectively;
That a marriage be concluded, celebrated and consummated as soon as possible, and in England, between Philip, Prince of Spain and Mary, Queen of England, in person, in virtue of which marriage the said Prince shall enjoy, together with the Queen, his consort, and as long as the marriage endures, the royal title and style. He shall assist his consort in the task of government, saving always the kingdom's laws, privileges and customs. He relinquishes all claim to dispose of offices, posts and benefices in the kingdom, which shall be bestowed upon its natives. All business is to be conducted in the languages which have been used of old in the kingdom, and by natives;
That the Queen shall, in virtue of the marriage, be admitted to share in the realms and dominions, present and future, of the Prince, as long as the marriage endures; for which period and also for a dower in case she survives the Prince, her husband, she shall annually receive the sum of sixty thousand livres de gros, in Flemish money, to be levied on the realms of the Emperor as follows: forty thousand on the realms of Spain and the crowns of Castile and Aragon, and twenty thousand on the duchies, counties and lordships of Brabant, Flanders, Hainault, Holland etc., in the same way in which the same sum was levied for the late Lady Margaret of England, widow of Charles, Duke of Burgundy;
And in order that no controversy may arise between the children that it is hoped may be born of this marriage, the succession is disposed of as follows:
The males or females to be born of the marriage are to succeed to their mother's right to the kingdom of England according to the English laws that regulate the succession; but as for the possessions to be left behind him by the Prince of Spain, first of all, all right to the kingdoms of Spain is reserved to Don Carlos, eldest son of the Prince, and his heirs, as also all right to the two Sicilies and their dependencies, the Duchy of Milan and the other territories of Lombardy and the rest of Italy, by whatever title held, with an obligation to pay the aforesaid dower of forty thousand livres de gros. To these dominions the children issuing from this marriage shall have no claim as long as the said Don Carlos or his legitimate descendants live; but if they fail and become extinct, the eldest son of this marriage is to succeed in them as well as the duchies, counties and lordships belonging to the Emperor in Burgundy and Lower Germany. And if Don Carlos or his descendants live, and a male heir is born of this marriage, Don Carlos and his descendents shall be excluded from the patrimonial dominions of Lower Germany and Burgundy, which in that case are to devolve upon the eldest son of this marriage. The other sons and daughters of this marriage, however, are to be supplied with suitable portions and dowers in England and the dominions in Lower Germany and Burgundy, and are to have no claim whatever, either the first-born or any other children born of this marriage, to the kingdoms of Spain or any other of the dominions reserved to Don Carlos and his heirs;
And if no male issue, but female issue only, is the fruit of this marriage, then the eldest daughter shall succeed in the dominions of Lower Germany and Burgundy, provided that she does not choose for her husband, without her brother's consent, a man who is a native neither of England nor of Lower Germany, but if this condition is not complied with the right to the dominions of Lower Germany and Burgundy shall return to Don Carlos and his heirs, though in that event the said daughter and the other daughters issuing from this marriage shall be provided with suitable marriage-portions levied on the Spanish and German dominions; and if Don Carlos and his issue fail, and none but female issue proceeds from this marriage, then the eldest daughter shall succeed in Lower Germany, Burgundy, Spain and all the other dominions, according to the particular laws of each;
And it is expressly provided, in each and all of the above cases, that those who succeed in all the aforesaid kingdoms and dominions are to leave them whole and undiminished to their heirs, cause them to he governed by natives, according to their own laws and in their own interests;
Lastly, there shall be whole hearted and sincere fraternity, union and confederation between the Emperor, his heirs and dominions, and the Queen and her dominions, which shall, God willing, endure forever; they shall stand by and assist one another according to the terms of the treaty of closer alliance concluded at Westminster in the year 1542, and the declaration of 1546.
The foregoing articles, agreed to and concluded by the Emperor in his and his son's name and by the Queen of England, shall he solemnly ratified by them as soon as possible.
The terms of the commissions are as follows:
Mary, by the grace of (rod Queen of England etc.
When we were raised by God's hand to the royal dignity, we were persuaded by exhortations and prayers to exchange the cult of virginity, which we had hitherto followed, for a wedded life, and it pleased the Illustrious etc. Charles, by the grace of God Emperor etc., to propose a match between me and his son, Prince Philip, for which purpose he sent ambassadors furnished with ample powers to treat of a marriage and other matters that might have to be dealt with.
Wherefore we, convinced of the dexterity and fidelity of our dear and well-beloved councillors. Stephen, Bishop of Winchester; Henry, Earl of Arundel; William. Lord Paget; Robert Rochester, Kt., and William Petre. Kt., do appoint them to be our commissioners and ambassadors, empowering them, or three or two of them, to contract with the Emperor, the Prince, his son, or their commissioners, a treaty of marriage between us and the Prince, and we promise and give our royal word to observe whatever they shall contract, and ratify it.
In witness of which we have signed these letters and caused our Great Seal to be appended thereunto.
Given at Westminster, 1 January, 1554.
Then follows the Emperor's power, dated 21 December, 1553, q.r. Copy. Latin. Printed by Rymer, XV, pp. 394–398.
Jan. 4. Simancas, E. 807.“A writing ad cautelam, drawn up on account of this capitulation.” (fn. 8)
In the noble town of Valladolid, on the 4th of January, 1554, in the presence of me, Juan Vásquez de Molina, Secretary, member of his Majesty's Council and his notary public in all his realms and dominions, and of the witnesses mentioned below;
The very high and mighty Prince Philip, first-born and heir to the realms and dominions of the Grown of Spain, stated that his Majesty the Emperor and King, his father, had, on account of his marriage with the very high and mighty Lady Mary, Queen of England, granted certain articles, the tenor of which is here declared, and he (Prince Philip) was about to grant a power in due form to the Prince of Gavre, Count de Lalaing, MM. de Courrières, Philip Nigri and Simon Renard to enable all and each one of them to ratify and swear to observe the said articles in his name. He would thus be obliged to ratify and swear to them in the manner contained in the power and in the writing of confirmation, in the terms here set forth. Until the articles had been drawn up and granted by his Majesty (Prince Philip continued), he had not known of them, and he intended to grant the said power and swear to observe the articles in order that his marriage with the said Queen of England might take place, but by no means in order to bind himself or his heirs to observe the articles, especially any that might burden his conscience. And because by his own free will he had never agreed and never would agree to the articles, although he was about to grant the power to enable the Prince of Gavre, Count de Lalaing, MM. de Courrières, Nigri and Renard, or two or four of them, to ratify and swear to observe them, and he himself would agree to and swear to abide by them, using the customary legal forms to render the oath binding, he protested, before me, the secretary, and the other witnesses mentioned below, against the articles and everything contained therein, as if all their contents were here set forth, desiring that it should forever be recorded, as a plain, clear and certain fact to stand as long as the world should last, that his Highness had given the above-mentioned oath in order, as he had said, that his marriage with the Queen might take place, and not of his own free will. This he declared, whatever oaths or derogatory clauses might be inserted in the power and confirmation; and, wishing to make valid this protest and revocation, he protested once, twice and thrice, or as many times as it was necessary to make the act legal, and to ensure that the power and confirmation that he was about to grant should be invalid and without force to bind him, as things done against his will and only in order to attain the aforesaid object. This he swore by Our Lord, by Saint Mary and by the Sign of the Cross, as it stands here †, on which he bodily laid his right hand, and by the words of the Holy Gospel where they are set out at length: that he would not be bound by the said ratification to be made in his name, nor by his own promise to observe or keep anything contained in the said articles, especially if it went against his conscience to do so. And he was making this protest because he had not agreed to the articles of his own free will, nor would he of his own free will grant the power or take the oath, but only for the aforesaid reason and not because it was his will. This he swore to in good and true form before me, the secretary, and before the witnesses named below, and protested that he would demand of the Holy Father to be freed from his oath as often as it might be necessary to do so.
Witnesses who were present: the duke of Alba, of his Majesty's Council and his Master of the Household (mayordomo mayor); Ruy Gómez de Silva, his Highness' Chamberlain (sumiller de corps); and Licenciate Minjaca, of his Majesty's Council.
I, the said Juan Vásquez de Molina, Secretary of their Majesties and their notary public in all their realms and dominions, was present together with the witnesses, and at his Highness' bidding I here declare that the act took place as here described, wherefore I set my mark in witness of the truth. Juan Vásquez
Copy. Spanish.
Jan. 5.Simancas, P.R. 7.Prince Philip's procuration, drawn up in the words of the minute printed under the date of — December, 1553, appointing Counts d'Egmont and de Lalaing, MM. de Courrières, Philip Nigri and Simon Renard to conclude and agree to, in his name, a treaty of marriage between him and Mary, Queen of England.
Signed: Philippus; countersigned: Johannes Vásquez de Molina. Latin.
Printed, from a copy at Brussels, by Gachard, Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.
Jan. 6.Simancas, E. 103.Prince Philip to the Emperor
(Extract from a letter, the first part of which deals with Portuguese affairs.)
. . . . Your Majesty's letters and those received from Ambassador Simon Renard have informed me of the state of the negotiations for my marriage with the Queen of England, and of the assurance given by her that it shall be put into effect. This is a source of satisfaction to me, and I trust that the result will contribute to the service of God and the welfare of Christendom. I kiss your Majesty's hand many times for the care and diligence with which you have conducted this matter, and although I am in duty bound to serve you, as your son, I now feel under a still greater obligation to endeavour to deserve the favour you have shown me.
The ambassador has sent me a copy of the articles demanded by the Queen and her councillors, and the Bishop of Arras also sent me one. As your Majesty will have carefully examined them, and they will have been agreed to by now, we are raising no objections over here; but if it chanced to be possible to omit the last article concerning the observation of peace with the King of France, it would appear to me that that article is not suitable, as it is so greatly in favour of the King of France.
Besides the procuration that your Majesty commanded me to send, drawn up to enable the ambassadors, or two or one of them, to celebrate the marriage (disposarse) for me with the Queen per verba de prœsenti, the ambassador sent me another in order that it might be done per verba de futuro, saying that the English wished it so to be done so that I might swear in person to observe the articles before the marriage ceremony. On examining both powers, it seemed to me that I ought by no means to leave these kingdoms until the ambassadors had gone through the ceremony per verba de prasenti with the Queen, and the same had been done here by the English envoys, for otherwise there might be regrettable consequences, as your Majesty may well consider. Nonetheless, in order not to omit anything that might assist in carrying on the negotiations, I have granted both powers and am sending them to your Majesty, so that when you have seen them and heard the opinions formed here, you may say what is to be done. I am not entering into these details in a letter to the ambassador, but am sending the power to your Majesty by this courier, and you may have it sent on, as that will only mean a loss of two or three days.
As soon as the negotiations are finished it will be well to send to Rome for the dispensation, as your Majesty says, in order that no time be wasted. You will know more than we do about the bonds of kinship that unite me to the Queen, for all that we are aware of is that she is your Majesty's and the late Empress's first cousin, and aunt of the late princess, (fn. 9) on both her father's and her mother's side.
As it seems good to your Majesty, I will not move from this place until Count d'Egmont comes to announce the conclusion of the negotiation. But I have issued orders that in the meantime the preparation of the fleet with which I am to sail shall be hastened on, and I have entrusted this mission to Don Bernardino de Mendoza, who was here, because of his great experience in such matters. Couriers have been despatched to Galicia and the coast of Biscay to find out what vessels are available, and what provisions of bread and other stores there are in the various ports, so that we may decide where it will be best to muster the fleet. A courier has also been sent to Andalucia to ascertain what ships are there and report upon the hoys that your Majesty says might be made use of on this occasion. Your Majesty shall be informed of everything that is done, and according to your commands and the requirements of the circumstances not an hour shall be lost. If things are ready for me to embark at the time your Majesty mentions, I shall not fail to do so.
Your Majesty's commands shall be obeyed as to the troops that are to go in the fleet, and also those that are to stay here; and the captains shall be appointed.
The commissions for the government of these kingdoms have been received, and shall be filled in with the names of those who appear to be best qualified. Your Majesty shall be informed, and I will send the restrictions by another courier, so as not to delay the present one whose speedy journey is so important.
I will reply with my own hand to the other points contained in the letter you caused Eraso (fn. 10) to write to me.
Spanish. Minute.
Jan. 6. Simancas, E. 808.Prince Philip to Count d'Egmont
I have received your letter of December 1st, and was greatly pleased by its contents, especially to know what you write of the state of the negotiations for my marriage with the Queen of England, and that you were going to act as his Majesty's envoy to proceed with them, for I well know the goodwill and devotion you show in all that concerns me. I was no less glad to hear that you were to come hither with the news of their conclusion, and as I trust that, God willing, I shall soon see you, 1 will not write at greater length now, but leave what else I have to say until your arrival.
Valladolid, 6 January, 1554.
Spanish. Minute.
Jan. 6.Simancas, E. 880.Don Juan Manrique De Lara to Prince Philip.
I have delayed in sending off this despatch in order not to spend money on another courier, but now that I am told that one is starting for Spain I am writing. On New Year's Eve a messenger arrived from his Majesty, to come and go and tell me to get out a dispensation for your Highness's marriage with the Queen of England. On New Year's Day I went to his Holiness, and he had been well prepared by Cardinal Morone, and was happy in the knowledge that I had received a messenger with news greatly to the advantage of all friends of your Highness. He not only granted me the dispensation immediately, but sent it to my house. It would be impossible for me to exaggerate his contentment and the hopes he founds on your Highness, for he says his heart tells him that God is going to favour you. To repeat all his remarks would be a long business, so I will only say that your Highness owes him much and ought to write him a most filial letter with your own hand, for it will be very welcome.
It would be well to send the mules, for he (the Pope) thinks more of such trifles than of silver or gold. I thought that if your Highness commanded Don Bernardino de Mendoza to buy some in Valencia he might obtain fine ones, which will be able to carry him from his palace to his vineyard. I also mentioned some pairs of good horses, light in colour—as the mules must also be, and on no account black—and he (the Pope) certainly needs them, for he has not a single good beast in his stables. So he was longing after one Spanish mule, but it would be quite unsuitable for your Highness to send one only. May you be pleased to issue prompt orders so that Don Bernardino may bring them. I only spoke of one mule, but that would really be no better than nothing at all.
May your Highness enjoy the kingdom of England many years, and reduce it to the faith and obedience of the Church, for this will be the greatest victory of all, and the means of winning many against the French. I remind your Highness that, as they say in Castile, you must be so yielding towards them that it may seem that the husband is of the same country as his wife (se les ha de entregar hasta parecer, que es el hombre de la tierra de su muger). So gladden that kingdom and be happy there in the company of its sons, employing them in all offices and posts. Thus your Highness shall win the goodwill of the English as well as that of the Flemings. For the love of God, appear to be pleased, of God is nothing that could be of greater effect in the service of God or against the French! Fulfill the expectations the world has formed of you! Your Highness will better know how to do this than I can advise you, but he who gives all he has, does all his duty.
I am sending you copies of the dispensation and the congratulatory brief sent to his Majesty, and the bull is drawn up in most solemn terms. Your Highness may be certain that the Pope was as pleased as he could have been when elected Pope, or even more, and all on account of your Highness of whom he has the greatest opinion, which God will show to be correct. The courier who took the despatch that the Emperor desired did not wait here twenty-four hours, and his Majesty was so anxious lest there should be a delay that he ordered me to advise him as soon as it were granted. Everything is going admirably so far; for God's sake thank his Holiness for it and do not spare words, for he is most tenderly disposed (de bonisimas entrañas) towards you. And although your Highness's writing is as bad as my own, let him have a letter in your own hand, for when your Highness means a thing you know how to say it better than any man.
Rome, 6 January, 1554.
Holograph. Spanish.
Jan. 7. Simancas, E. 808.Prince Philip to the Imperial Ambassadors (fn. 11) in England.
Letters from my Lord, the Emperor, have apprised me of his choice of your persons to undertake the conclusion of the marriage that is being negotiated between the Queen of England and myself. We are very glad to hear of it, for we know that you will behave with all the prudence and tact required in a matter that promises so much for the service of God and our own prosperity, and lies so near his Majesty's and my hearts. I shall be happy to hear of your arrival in England and success in your negotiations, which we trust will not be slow, with God's help, to ensure it as it will be used in His service and for the benefit of Christendom. We request you to send us detailed accounts; and in the meantime all necessary preparations are being made for my crossing, as I have written to Ambassador Simon Renard, to whom I refer you. You may be certain that I highly esteem your services, which shall receive the reward they so well deserve.
Valladolid, 7 January, 1554.
Spanish. Minute with corrections in Philip's hand. The signed despatch exists at Besançon (C.G. 73). Printed by Gachard, Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.
Jan. 7. Simancas. E. 808.Prince Philip to Simon Renard.
We have received with great joy your letters of October 29th (fn. 12) and December 11th, (fn. 13) and we were anxiously expecting them, for since the arrival of Don Diego de Acevedo, master of our household (mayordomo), we had had nothing from you. From them and the copies of those you had written to his Majesty we saw what had happened in the marriage negotiations and learnt the Queen's determination that they should succeed. We were very glad to hear this and all the other information you send us, and I am certainly greatly obliged to the Queen. I trust in the Lord that this match may contribute to her prosperity and repose, and the happiness of both parties. We are sure that your diligence and skill have greatly contributed to this result, for which we give you many thanks. You may be sure that although I was ever minded to favour you, you have now obliged me more deeply and given me urgent cause so to do. (fn. 14)
I have seen a copy of the articles you sent to his Majesty, and the power I am to grant for the betrothal, and I thought it well to send it off by this same courier so that his Majesty might send it on to you, as it is right that all should pass through his hands. You greatly pleased me by sending copies of everything; and as the articles have been seen by his Majesty I have no call to hesitate over them, but I shall spend the time until the arrival of Count d'Egmont, after the treaty has been passed, in preparations and making ready the ships, so that my journey may be as rapidly accomplished as could be desired. No time shall be lost; and you did well to tell me of the port where we shall land. We have sent a personage to the coast of Biscay to welcome the ambassadors whom you say the Queen is going to send, and receive them in a befitting manner. We will frequently advise you of our doings, and charge you to do the same for us. In due time I will send someone to visit the Queen and take a present to her, since you think it ought to be done.
We readily believe what you say about the anxiety of the French to put a stop to this negotiation; but as long as the Queen's and her Councillors' wills are steadfast, as you say they are, the French will not be able to accomplish much. I request you particularly to express my thanks to each man who has performed good offices.
Valladolid, 7 January, 1554.
Minute. Spanish. Printed by Weiss from an original at Besançon (C.G. 73), Documents Inèdits, Vol. IV.
Jan. 7. Vienna, Haus-Hof-und Staatsarchiv. (fn. 15) E. 22.The Ambassadors in England to the Emperor.
Sire; In execution of your Majesty's orders, we arrived on the 2nd of this month at the Tower of London, where we found many great and noble personages waiting for us, who received us with all honour as your Majesty's representatives. And at the entrance of the city we found the Earl of Devonshire, Courtenay, who advanced to meet us with several other earls and lords, welcoming us with kind expressions. There was also a great gathering of people, who seemed to us to rejoice at our coming. When we had dismounted the members of the Queen's Council came to salute us, all except the Chancellor, and professed themselves anxious to please us and be our friends. Shortly afterwards we sent two gentlemen to the Chancellor to ask when the Queen would be pleased to allow us to kiss her hand and give us audience. It was replied to them that her Majesty would hear us the following day, at two o'clock after dinner. We accordingly made ourselves ready, and several lords of the court and of the Council came to lead us thither. We presented your Majesty's letters and your cordial recommendations, and solemnly demanded her Royal (reginalle) Majesty in marriage for his Highness, our Prince. Then I, Lieutenant of Amont (i.e. Simon Renard) declared in brief words the sincerity your Majesty had shown in all your actions, and especially in the matter of this match. I recalled the reasons that had recommended it to you, which were none other than the welfare of Christendom, the continuation and confirmation of the ancient alliances, amity and confederation that had always existed between your Majesty's dominions and those of England, and the repose and tranquillity of the subjects of both countries. In conclusion, I remarked that as the articles of the marriage-treaty had been seen, examined and discussed, all that remained was to draw them up in writing and pass them. Might it please her Majesty to give further proof of the goodwill she had always borne towards your Majesty, and bring this matter to a conclusion, for we had full powers and special mandate to conclude and pass the alliance with her or her Council, and we would exhibit our powers whenever her Majesty desired. The Queen read the letters, asked after your Majesty's health and that of the Queens and the Duchess of Lorraine, (fn. 16) and said it was not seemly for a woman to speak of or negotiate her own marriage, so she would not meddle with it, but would depute her councillors to treat with us, and see to it that her kingdom's rights were respected. She had already espoused her kingdom, she said, showing us the ring on her finger, where the Bishop of Winchester put it on the day of her coronation, and she again repeated that she was bound to her realm, and that she must also thank your Majesty, for the alliance was a very honourable one. On hearing this we thanked her, assuring her that your Majesty meant no harm to the kingdom, but rather desired to favour and help it, as you had done in the past. We then took our leave, and entered another chamber with the Council, with whom we made an appointment for the next day at two o'clock after dinner to meet them at court, show them our power, read the articles that had already been decided upon and pass them. We also delivered our private letters to the Chancellor and other members of the Council, in the Queen's absence, and thanked them for their good offices in favour of the match, which we said your Majesty and his Highness meant to remember.
On the fourth day, at the appointed hour, a great number of lords and gentleman came for us, and took us to Court, and among them was Courtenay. At Court we met the Chancellor, the Lord High Treasurer, the Earl of Arundel, the Admiral, Paget, Petre and others of the Council to the number of fourteen or fifteen. We went over in brief the cause of our meeting, and handed over to the Chancellor our power, which he read at length, and was satisfied with it. So we gave him a copy, and requested him to show us their (i.e. the Council's) power. The Chancellor replied that we had heard the Queen say. on the previous day, that she would depute her Council to treat with us, which they were ready to do; and they would show us their power when we came to the conclusion of our negotiation. As they requested us to proceed to the reading of the articles, we declared ourselves to be satisfied in order not to prolong the affair, especially as the Queen, who could immediately ratify what was concluded, was at hand. Then we read out the articles: and when the first was read, the Chancellor said that we were agreed as to the substance, but the Council would like to think over, until the next day. the possibility of certain additions calculated to facilitate and expedite the matter; and he said something to the same effect to the other members of the Council who understood no Latin. He made the same reply to the second and third articles that treat of the succession of the children that may be born of this marriage, and of the alliance of the two countries. As for the particular points which his Highness is to swear to before the solemnization of the marriage, he asked whether they should not be inserted in the treaty. We replied that it had been decided, for very good reasons, that they should form the object of another treaty, separate from and having nothing to do with the treaty of alliance. Nonetheless, they appeared to wish to insist, asserting that as the last article of the treaty stated that the two countries were to help one another, if the article were not made clearer it might be interpreted to mean that England was to join your Majesty in your war against France, which they had no intention of doing. Finally they said that on the morrow, the 5th, they would come to see us at two in the afternoon, and would give us an ampler account of their intentions. They added that they would make no alteration as to the substance, as we were already agreed, but only meant to throw more light on the question and obtain the necessary guarantees. And I, lieutenant of Amont, had already succeeded in obtaining a minute of the power they are to have from the Queen, which gave us some idea of what we had to reply, and a copy (fn. 17) of which is being sent with this letter. Your Majesty will learn from it what securities they desire, and that they wish to obtain the approval of the Estates.
On the 5th the members of the Council came to see us and we read over together the articles of the treaty, to which they wished to make certain insignificant additions, in no way altering the substance of the treaty, as your Majesty will perceive by the document enclosed herewith. We decided to allow the alterations to pass, so that the business might be put through more quickly and your Majesty's desires receive their fulfilment, as they were not important, except the article beginning finaliter, from the place where juxta cim famam et effectum comes; because we considered the possibilities of the future. They brought forward two difficulties outside the subject-matter of the articles; one, that we ought to devise some means to facilitate the payment of the Queens dowry, if the marriage takes place; and they thought it would be well that some assignment on merchants or bankers should be made, as your Majesty and his Highness were not convenable. The second was a desire expressed by them that over and above the ratification of the treaty, you should have drawn up and ratify another separate document, in which the conditions agreed upon in the marriage treaty should be repeated in the form of testamentary dispositions, and the said document be accepted by his Highness and the Estates of the Low Countries.
We replied that your Majesty's promise, and the confirmation of it which you were prepared to give over and above the authority we ourselves possessed in virtue of the powers conferred upon us, had greater efficacy and importance than any merchants' bank could boast, and they ought to be satisfied with that; especially in consideration of the fact that in the final draft of the treaty definite and particular mention would be made of the property to be given in dowry, as the custom is for the marriage of princes. This was the course followed at the time of the marriage of the Lady Margaret of England, wife of the late Charles, duke of Burgundy, of honourable memory. We replied to the proposal concerning the special and separate dispositions to be taken by your Majesty, and the ratification to be obtained from the Estates, that there was no need of them. The treaty rendered any other document supererogatory, and they need have no fears as to its effects. The custom of the Low Countries made it possible for your Majesty to dispose of your dominions, with the consent of your heir apparent, in any manner you saw fit, and this was effectively carried out by the terms of the said treaty, to be accepted and signed by your Majesty. We added that this was a new proposal and we had no instructions to deal with it; that the point had never been raised by them up to the present; and if your Majesty had been informed of it you would have sent us the requisite instructions.
The meeting then broke up. Some of us, however, spoke to the Chancellor and my Lord Paget, requesting them not to set the securities of merchants before the promise, assurance and faith of your Majesty, upon which they could more safely rely, as merchants often become bankrupt. They said they would think the matter over and do their best. We also asserted that it was our earnest wish that the treaty might be agreed to without more delay, while affairs were going well, without further mention of the deed relating to the partition (of the dominions in question) or the acceptance of the articles by the Estates of the Low Countries, especially as we should be pleased to insert in writing at the end of the treaty, your Majesty's promise to ratify it, and give all the securities and guarantees suitable and necessary. We said this ought to suffice; and they held out hopes that it would. Nevertheless they may still take the ground, Sire, without any evil intention, that the acceptance of the treaty by the Estates is not uncalled for. We are therefore determined, with God's help, to get the articles put through soon, and send them to your Majesty with information as to what we have done and what has actually been accomplished, so that the alliance may be safely concluded without further delays. Nothing of a really binding nature can be effected, however, until we receive his Highness's authority to contract marriage per verba de prœsenti; even if the Queen desired this to be, we could not perform our part, having no justification to enable us to do so. We remind your Majesty of this fact, so that you may hasten the sending of the said authority from his Highness, whose arrival is greatly looked for. May your Majesty be pleased to instruct us as to what we are to do once the treaty is passed.
On the day of the Epiphany (Twelfth-night) her Majesty sent us word that we should attend service at the Court chapel, and dine with her. We obeyed the summons, and were most honourably received. As we were about to finish dinner, the Admiral of England (Lord William Howard), who had dined in another chamber, came and stood before her and, seeing her wrapt in thought, said a few words to her in English, then turned towards us and asked us if we wished to know what he had said. Although her Majesty would willingly have stopped him, he went on to say that he wished his Highness were present in that place, pointing to the right of the Queen, to drive thought and care away. She blushed, and asked him why he said it, to which he replied that he well knew she was not angry, but heard it willingly. Her Majesty and the whole company laughed, and the incident was taken in very good part.
The said Admiral, Sire, is a personage of great authority in the kingdom, well-connected, and respected by many. He is a serviceable man; he accompanied us here from Calais and never left us, but gave us every assistance. He deserves to be considered and rewarded; and so do others, as for instance the Chancellor, Paget, the Controller, and a few more. Your Majesty had written to me, the Lieutenant of Amont, that you would repeat your orders on this point in the instructions sent to us, the other ambassadors. It was left out, though the matter is of importance for securing the goodwill and co-operation of those who count, and so that his Highness may be better received and find greater devotion at his coming, because these people lay store by such presents. If your Majesty were pleased to send a good sum of money across, we would divide it as we thought best according to the trust your Majesty has placed in us, for the better service of your Majesty and his Highness
We despatched a courier to your Majesty from Dover, but we do not know whether our letters were received.
If your Majesty had any news of the dispensation from Rome, we might consider what might be done in the meantime, until the power from his Highness arrives.
London, 7 January, 1554.
French. Signed: Egmont, Montmorency, Renard, Lalaing, Nigri. Printed by Gachard, from a transcript in Brussels, Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.
Jan. 7. Simancas, E. 808.Count d'Egmont to Prince Philip.
I do not wish to omit to inform your Highness that within two days the treaty will be passed according to the articles your Highness saw, for the changes introduced are only a matter of adding a few words that do not affect the sense. The nobility of this country are much more gracious to us than I ever expected; as for the people, they are uncertain. We intend to advise the Queen to keep up some troops in order to prevent trouble, which is of frequent occurence with this fickle people. I have nothing more to say, except that it would be well to hasten your Highness's coming, which seems to me to be very necessary on account of the marriage and also because of other matters. Since I came hither I have heard that the French are arming busily on the coasts of Normandy and Brittany—be it that they wish to stop your coming or that they fear that once your Highness has landed the fleet that brings you will attempt a descent in France; for it does not seem to me that they can hope to equip a force able to oppose your Highness at sea. There is talk of peace between the Emperor and the King of France, and they say the French would like the Queen to mediate. We are awaiting your Highness's power to treat on your behalf, for all that we have done so far was effected by means of the Emperor's power, with promises to have the treaty ratified by your Highness, whose hands I kiss.
London, 7 January, 1554.
P.S. I humbly beg your Highness to consider how necessary is your coming, for many reasons which I hope to tell you by word of mouth. And may your Highness be pleased to know that the Emperor has given us no money to make presents when called for, though more is to be done with money here than in any other country in the world.
While I was writing the above the Emperor's ambassador came to me from the Queen with the message that she would give her word and her pledge for the marriage while waiting for the power, and would cause her ambassadors to hasten on their way to obtain your Highness' ratification.
Contemporary translation into Spanish. Printed in Documentos Ineditos. Vol. III.
Jan. 7. Vienna, E. 22.Simon Renard to the Bishop of Arras. (fn. 18)
People have been trying to influence the Queen to summon another Parliament during the coming Lent. The pretext has been furnished by two English lawyers who have been prompted to say that by English law, if his Highness marries the Queen, she loses her title to the Crown and his Highness becomes King, so that if children are born to the couple, the eldest will not be King, but his Highness will continue in that position. When the Queen summoned me to inform me of this matter, I told her that it was by no means desirable to convoke Parliament before the marriage had been consummated. I explained that the pretext advanced by the lawyers was a mere invention, for the treaty that had been passed provided against any such eventuality, and derogatory clauses to the same effect might make assurance doubly sure. They wanted a Parliament for another reason, and it might perhaps be to prepare the way for Cardinal Pole's coming, or to upset the alliance; and the Queen would do well to weigh the matter and find out the how and the why of it, and whether the Lady Elizabeth's friends were mixed up in it. Thus the Queen decided to hold no Parliament and to believe that even if the law invested his Highness with such a right he would never use it otherwise than the treaty provided, trusting entirely to the Emperor's word.
The Queen Dowager of Scotland is at odds with the Regent who is established in that country, and intends to take the reins of government out of his hands to give them to another Scotsman in whom the King of France has more confidence. But the Regent has summoned a number of the nobility and foremost men, and has decided not to give up his post but to hold out; and he has sent a certain bishop to the King of France to expose to him that he recognised him as Regent and issued letters patent declaring that his authority might not be taken away from him until the young Queen were married or returned to Scotland. Also that the declaration was not made as a mere favour bestowed on the Regent, but at the request of the Estates of Scotland in order to insure the country's freedom and guarantee that no foreigners should be allowed to encroach on the government. And he was to beg the King not to act in contradiction to the said declaration, for otherwise he would destroy the devotion felt for him by the Scots. The Queen Dowager believed that she would be able to corrupt the Earl of Argyll (fn. 19) and convert him into an enemy of the Regent, (fn. 20) but he replied flatly that he would never allow Frenchmen to get hold of the administration. This, added to what I have written on other occasions, would seem to show that the French are not on firm ground in Scotland, and find themselves face to face with difficulties.
The heretics are constantly trying to rouse up the people against the nobility and foreigners in order to prevent the marriage and the thorough restoration of religion. They are trying to induce Courtenay (fn. 21) or the Lady Elizabeth to act as their leader, and it has been discovered that one Carew, (fn. 22) who lives in the West somewhere between Cornwall and Devonshire, has been intriguing with the same object. The Queen's Council have summoned him and intend to throw him into the Tower, which treatment he deserves, as he is the greatest heretic and rebel in England and in Parliament plotted for Courtenay and opposed the restoration of religion.
The heretics have posted up slanderous placards against the Queen, saying she wishes to marry his Highness who is already promised and married to the Infanta of Portugal. (fn. 23)
It is said that an Italian who formerly lived with Courtenay, and left his service dissatisfied, or pretended to do so, has been plotting at an important town on the Scottish border, called Berwick. His name is Mario Antonio.
The King of France has imposed on his country so exorbitant an extra tax (taillon) that there is great discontent among the people.
The French say that the Prior of Capua (fn. 24) has come to terms with the King of France.
Letters have reached this country from France, saying that the Algerian galleys have gone to serve the French in Corsica.
The French are opening all the letters sent from England to France, to see whether there are any signs of plotting.
On the 5th of this month a gentleman was thrown into prison for saying that the upshot of the match would not be as the Council expected.
Some liberality ought to be shown to the Admiral, and it would be well to engage the services of several gentlemen for the Emperor's army in case the war were to last until next summer. Several difficulties might thus be got over, so I beg you to consider the question.
I assure you that the French intend to be first in the field next summer, and they are still fitting out ships on the Norman and Breton coasts.
Chevalier Bernardi (fn. 25) is always in the Venetian and French ambassadors' houses, and though Paget assures me that he is doing the Queen good service, I feel unable to trust him because of what he has said to Rullo. I am trying to find out more about his real feelings, and have told the Queen that she would do well to get rid of all the Italians and deprive them of their pensions, especially Spinola.
The French have not sent the present about which I recently wrote, nor have they despatched the Protestant. M. d'Oisel (fn. 26) does not dare to cross over to England for fear his Majesty's men-of-war may fall upon him.
The Queen has feasted his Majesty's lords ambassadors, and to-morrow the Chancellor of England is to do so.
I have spoken to the Queen about Stukeley, (fn. 27) to whom she would like the Emperor to give employment. What I heard was that he had been banished from England for plotting with the French.
Copy or decipherment. French.
Jan. 7. C. C 73.
Juan Vasquez de Molina to Simon Renard.
I have received the letters you have written to me, and his Highness has seen several details in them as well as those you wrote to him. You have conducted the English negotiations so well that you have placed not his Highness alone but all of us who surround him under an obligation; and the matter is so important that we desire to see it concluded to the glory of Our Lord. If I am to remain here I beg you not to cease to make use of me, and in the meantime I also desire to serve. I beg you to send me news of your health. God be praised, his Highness is very well indeed! He is awaiting the ambassadors who are to come from over there (England), who will not be ill received, for I have heard his Highness say that he desires to reward them. I also reminded him about it, though I need not have done so, as I know he had heard from you on the subject. I refer to the letter his Highness is writing, and will only say that preparations for the sea-journey are being made in all haste. The Queen (of England) will have good reason to be pleased with so brave a company, and I would dearly love to go to England and kiss her hand; I must manage it, if only for that purpose.
His Highness has issued orders that the boat (zabra) that takes this mail-bag, as well as all the rest carrying despatches to his Majesty (the Emperor), is to wait in an English port for your letters; so you must reply at once, for you know how glad his Highness is to receive them, and at present he especially looks forward to their arrival.
His Highness wished to write the letter that is going with this to the lords ambassadors whom his Majesty has sent, telling them that he is very happy to know that they have been chosen for the mission. You will do well to show them his letter to you also, and I kiss all their hands.
Valladolid, 7 January, 1554.
Spanish. Signed. The original minute is at Simanms, E. 808.
Jan. 8. Simancas.E. 808.Simon Renard to Prince Philip.
My Lord: your Highness has no doubt heard the terms in which the negotiations concerning your marriage with the Queen of England now stand, as I send you the articles and conditions as they were agreed to and drawn up. I also send the minute of the power to be sent back here duly authenticated, to second the purpose of your Highness's ambassadors, who now find themselves in this place. Although the said power has not yet arrived, we have discussed and negotiated the treaty of marriage, m the Emperor's name, with the promise that your Highness will ratify it. The Queen has assured me that she will repeat whatever assurances may be demanded of her for the betrothal, and she is desirous of seeing your Highness and looks forward to your coming in person to ratify the treaty. It is important that your Highness make speed to come to this kingdom, not merely for the marriage, but for other private and public business. Unless your Highness comes before Lent, I doubt it may be difficult to induce the Queen to marry at that time, though his Majesty has taken steps to obtain the necessary dispensation from the Pope. It is feared that the English people may give trouble in the course of next summer on account of religion and also because they are irritated against the nobility and the Spanish match, but the councillors and principal vassals and nobles approve, provided your Highness comes before spring time and caresses the English with your wonted kindliness. You may be certain that the ill will of the heretics has been exploited by the French, who are fitting out a number of men-of-war on the Breton and Norman coasts with a view to trying to stop your Highness, so you must be accompanied by enough ships to defeat any surprise attack.
Germany is in a troubled state, and great intrigues are going on against the Emperor and your Highness. Several German and Italian princes and potentates—especially the Venetians—are jealous of the alliance your Highness is contracting.
There is a Spanish merchant, named Martino (sic) de la Rez, in this place, and he is going to Bilbao to get married in a few days. He has performed ill offices here, speaking evil words about the Spaniards, and talking bitterly.
I forgot to say that the Queen of England is most anxiously awaiting news of your Highness, for she says it is suitable that you rather than she should begin the correspondence. The Emperor has written to me that your Highness is going to send a gentleman to her with some present, so it would be well to hasten his coming as much as possible, and she will then send letters and messages in reply. She intends to despatch her ambassadors to meet your Highness on your way, accompany you and assist at the ratification of the treaty.
London, 8 January, 1554.
Holograph. French.
Jan. 9. Vienna, E. 22.Simon Renard to the Emperor.
Sire: I have been warned that M. de Senarpont (fn. 28) has intelligence with some in the town of Bapaume, who are to open one of the gates of the town to him and give him aid. The undertaking is to be carried out in a few days' time, in accordance with the advice of the ambassadors. I considered it necessary to inform your Majesty at once. I have also sent a warning to M. de Vandeville, (fn. 29) captain of Gravelines that the information may more swiftly be conveyed to M. d'Opimon (?). A Spaniard who withdrew hither from France for fear that he might be taken and sent to prison, like Hernando de Doval and Cassacis (?) on suspicion of having intelligence with your Majesty, gave me the information.
The same Spaniard also told me that the Turk has requested the King of France to hand the island of Malta over to him, if he desires to obtain assistance from him again in the future. On this condition he will promise never to forsake him, and to behave like a true friend. The Grand Prior of France, brother of M. de Guise, (fn. 30) has left in order to carry out this negotiation through the Grand Prior of Rhodes, (fn. 31) who is a Frenchman and the Prior of Capua who is publicly said to be agreed with the king concerning this affair.
I may add that several ships are being armed at Brest, Dieppe and le Havre-de-Grace. They have given out the report that they are intended to go to the Canary Islands; but it is believed their real destination is Scotland, with a view to the undertaking against the town of Berwick on the Border between England and Scotland. The king nourishes a hope that the English will rebel. This is confirmed by the news I have from France, that there is no merchant in Normandy who dares to write to anyone over here for fear that wind of the above plans may get about.
The said Spaniard also told me that M. de Guise has left for Metz where he is to receive and dispose of the Germans who are being sent to France for the King's service. There has been some negotiation concerning a marriage between the widow of the late Duke Orazio (fn. 32) and the Marquis Albert, (fn. 33) but the real object was to get M. d'Aumale (fn. 34) out of her grasp. He declared to me particularly the dismay felt by the whole kingdom of France over the alliance between his Highness (Prince Philip) and the Queen of England. It is as deep as words can possibly convey. The King is doing his utmost, because of it, to collect money; he has seized all the plate in the kingdom guaranteeing its value on the towns and crown-lands; moreover the reliquaries have been valued, and the King contemplates taking them over, offering the same guarantee. The people are in despair.
This day my lords the ambassadors have finally concluded the marriage articles and treaties. A fair copy has been prepared in readiness for the signature. Nothing of any importance has been changed, and no difficulty has arisen, except that the Council are of opinion that the Queen should not sign them until your Majesty has ratified and accepted them. A power from his Highness would therefore be necessary.
London, 9 January, 1554.
Holograph. French. Paper badly torn.

Footnotes

1 Imperial ambassador in Romo.
2 Julius III (Giovanmaria del Monto).
3 Philip, Prince of Spain.
4 Girolamo Muzzarelli, a Bolognese theologian. He had distinguished himself at Trent, where he became a friend of Cardinal Pole. (Venetian Calendar.)
5 Cardinal Reginald Pole, who had been named Legate to England, but whose going to that country had been judged inopportune by the Emperor, See Vol. XI of this Calendar.
6 Chancellor of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
7 Imperial ambassador resident in London since Mary's accession. He had been ambassador in Paris from 1549 to 1551, See Vols. IX, X and XI of this Calendar.
8 Enclosed with a copy of the marriage contract.
9 Philip's first wife, the Infanta Maria of Portugal, was a daughter of the Emperor's sister, Catherine. Her father, John III, was a son of Maria, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella.
10 Francisco de Eraso, the Emperor's Spanish secretary.
11 Counts d'Egmont and de Lalaing, MM. de Courrières and Philip Nigri.
12 See Spanish Calendar, Vol. XI, p. 326.
13 See Spanish Calendar, Vol. XI, p. 427.
14 Philip habitually starts a sentence speaking in the singular, and ends it in the plural, or vice versa.
15 Hereinafter, wherever a document is described as being in Vienna, it will be understood that it is preserved in the Haus-Hof-und Staatsarchiv.
16 i.e. Eleanor, Queen Dowager of France; Mary, Queen Dowager of Hungary and Christina of Denmark, Duchess of Lorraine.
17 This copy is not now to be found with the original of the letter.
18 This paper is unsigned and undated and bears no address. It seems certain however, that it was written by Renard, and probable that Arras was the recipient. The date is fixed by the context. The ambassador's letters of January 12th tell us that Gardiner feasted them on the 8th, and this paper says he is to do so on the morrow. The Bishop of Arras was Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, afterwards Cardinal, the Emperor's minister.
19 Archibald Campbell, fourth Earl of Argyll.
20 James Hamilton, second Earl of Arran, Duke of Chastelhorault.
21 Edward Courtenay, son of Henry, marquis of Exeter (executed 1538). His claim to the crown was derived from his paternal grandmother, Catherine, younger daughter of Edward III.
22 Sir Peter Carew,
23 Maria, daughter of Emmanuel I and Eleanor of Austria, sister of the Emperor.
24 Leone Strozzi, a Florentine refugee.
25 Ser Francesco Bernardi or Bernardo, a Venetian agent in England, at one time a pensioner. See Vol. XI of this Calendar.
26 Henri Clutin d'Oisel, Sieur de Ville-Parisis, the King of France's Lieutenant in Scotland.
27 Thomas Stukeley, about whom there is a good deal of information in Vols. X and XI of this Calendar.
28 Governor of Boulogne.
29 Jean Destourmel,
30 François, Duke of Guise. The Grand Prior was François, Chevalier de Guise.
31 Claude de la Sangle.
32 Orazio Farnese son of Pierluigi Farnese and grandson of Pope Paul III, dies in july, 1553, from wounds received at Hesdin. He was a great favourite at the French Court, and had married, in February, 1553, Diane de France, daughter of Henry 11 and Philippa Duci.
33 Albrecht Alcibiades of Brandenburg-Culmbaeh,
34 Claude de Guise, Duke of Aumale


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