Spain
July 1554, 16-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Royall Tyler (editor)

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1949

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312-322

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'Spain: July 1554, 16-31', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 12: 1554 (1949), pp. 312-322. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88557 Date accessed: 27 August 2014.


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July 1554, 16–31

July 17. Brussels, E.A. 66. The Emperor to the Queen Dowager.
(Extract from a letter dealing with the convocation of the Estates, military affairs and disturbances at Antwerp.)
. . . . A letter has been sent to the Prince, my son, instructing him to have the Spanish troops he is bringing with him landed at Nieuport or somewhere else on that shore if weather permits, and otherwise at l'Ecluse, as you have been told. You will have to order stores to be got together for them, and send men to look after them. As for their pay, the Prince has been ordered to show them a certain sum of money, but as he is also bringing uncoined bullion, (fn. 1) you will have, as Eraso has already warned you, to keep the governors and officials of the mint in readiness to strike money as soon as the bullion arrives, so that no time may be wasted and we may have the coin ready for use if need be.
As for the Lady Elizabeth, I thank you, my good sister, for the affection you show me; for in any emergency you always set my interests before your own inclinations. I will instruct my ambassador to discuss this matter with my son on his arrival and decide whether it would be well to summon her. If it is done at all, she must be well watched on the way to prevent her from escaping to France, the worst thing that could possibly happen. I will also point out that once here she will give us no little trouble, for people will seek out her society if she likes company, and she might thus give rise to intrigues . . . . .
Namur, 15 July, 1554.
Draft. French.
July 17. Brussels, L.A. 69. M. de Vaudeville to Gherard Veltwyck.
I had letters from the Queen bidding me muster the 300 English pioneers that her Majesty ordered me to have levied by Pierre Andrieu. He has a good many of them together now, but they look to me as if they rather fancied themselves as company standard-bearers than as pioneers, so I asked Pierre what he thought had better be done with them. He replied that her Majesty and M. de Glajon know what they wanted them for, which was merely to haul up the artillery and remove it when necessary. So I wrote to her Majesty what use he intends to put them to, for he does not feel sure that he will be allowed to do so at the general muster. If there is any trouble, it will be no easy matter to get back the money which was handed over to him by an artillery commissioner, for I believe he will be able to say he has distributed it among those whom he has already levied. He tells me he has all his men ready to show to me next Thursday or Friday. I wrote to you a day or two ago about the attack made on Artois by the Prince of La Roche-sur-Yon, (fn. 2) so I will not trouble you with a longer letter now.
Gravelines, 17 July, 1554.
Holograph. French.
July 18. Brussels, E.A. 126. The Queen Dowager to the Bishop of Arras.
I have seen what Mason, the English ambassador, has written of the seizure by the officials at Antwerp of certain goods taken thither by a Milanese merchant with the intention of shipping them to England, in obedience to the orders of the Queen, as he states. Now, among these goods, there were several articles the exportation of which is forbidden by his Majesty's placards, and I may tell you that I would make no difficulty at all about granting the passport demanded by the ambassador, for my niece's and her Council's sake, had the merchant done his duty and applied for it before the seizure. But now the official has a legitimate claim to his share proceeding from the confiscation, and I cannot order him to release the goods without consulting him or at any rate guaranteeing to him that to which he has a right by way of compensation to be paid by the merchant. However, I will consent to renounce any share that might be claimed by the Emperor on account of this misdemeanour, and you may tell the ambassador so, and, if he is satisfied with this arrangement, order the goods to be released.
Mons, 18 July, 1554.
Minute. French.
July 18. Simancas, E. 103. Juan Vasquez de Molina to the Princess Regent of Spain.
The last letter your Highness wrote to the Prince arrived here after he had sailed, but I sent a frigate on with it, which came up with his ship twelve leagues out at sea. His Highness was too sea-sick to answer at the time, but will do so from England. The weather was so good for three or four days after he sailed that I feel sure he must have arrived in England before it changed. I waited at Corunna two days to see whether by any chance the fleet would put back; but as the wind continued so good I departed, and will hasten to take up my service under your Highness. To-day at Sarria a merchant's courier come by way of France met me and delivered two letters from his Majesty: one for his Highness, and one for you. I had them deciphered, and, seeing their contents, sent a messenger with the despatch in cipher on to Corunna so that it might be forwarded to his Highness. The decipherment, together with your own letter, I am sending on to your Highness by this courier, so that you may learn of his Majesty's health, the state of affairs over there, and his Majesty's commands to his Highness as to what he is to do after arriving in England. This will be sorely troublesome for everyone concerned, and especially for the Queen, who is so soon to be deprived of his Highness's presence. May Our Lord guide events, and give his Majesty and his Highness the victory over their enemy. Your Highness will do well to write to the Duke of Albuquerque (fn. 3) to go to Navarre, and to the Viceroy of Catalonia that he and Albuquerque must be very careful in case an attack were made on those frontiers, as his Majesty writes.
La Fuenfria, 18 July, 1554.
Holograph. Spanish.
July 19. Vienna, E. 22. Simon Renard to the Emperor.
Sire: While our letters were being written, his Highness had such a good wind that he has arrived within four miles of this port in good health; and may your Majesty be pleased to come to a definite decision as to what he is to do. I hope to write a fuller despatch soon.
Southampton, 19 July, 1554.
P.S. Sire: A year ago this very day, the Queen was proclaimed Queen of England in London.
Holograph. French.
July 19. Brussels, L.A. 60. M. de la Capelle to the Queen Dowager.
Madam: I am sending to your Majesty the present bearer, my brother-in-law Jehan de Souastre, to inform you that this afternoon, at three o'clock, the Prince's Highness arrived, in good health so I hear, off the Isle of Wight.
Off the Isle of Wight, 19 July, 1554.
Holograph. French.
July (?) (fn. 4) Vienna, E.V. 5 A list of persons to whom chains were to be given by Philip, together with the value of the chains.
My Lord of Ormonde 200 crowns.
My Lord of Mountgarret ” ”
Mr. Vice-Chamberlain ” ”
Sir Thomas Cornwallis ” ”
Sir Anthony Browne ” ”
Sir John Bridges ” ”
Sir George Howard ” ”
Sir John Parrot ” ”
Sir Th. Holcrofte ” ”
Sir Edward Bray ” ”
Thomas Bridges ” ”
Thomas Audeley ” ”
Adrian Poynings ” ”
William Tyrrell ” ”
Roland Lytton ” ”
Matson ” ”
Worthington ” ”
Jerome Palmer ” ”
Francis Aleyne 100 ”
Carter the Herald 200 ”
The other Herald ” ”
Norroy the Herald ” ”
The archers 100 ”
Other gifts 100 ”
The ushers 100 ”
Norton 100 ”
Malin ” ”
The keeper of the jewels and other officers of the wardrobe 100 ”
Pensions to be distributed.
The Earl of Arundel 2000 crowns English.
The Earl of Shrewsbury ” ” ”
The Earl of Derby ” ” ”
The Earl of Pembroke ” ” ”
The Earl of Bedford 1000 ” ”
The Earl of Sussex ” ” ”
The Lord Admiral ” ” ”
The Lord Clinton ” ” ”
The Lord Chamberlain ” ” ”
The Controller ” ” ”
The Vice-Chamberlain ” ” ”
Sir William Petre ” ” ”
Mr. Bourne 600 crowns English.
Mr. Inglefield ” ” ”
Mr. Walgrave ” ” ”
The Earl of Worcester 1000 ” ”
Sir Edward Hastings 600 ” ”
My Lord Grey, captain of Guinea 1000 ” ”
The Deputy of Calais ” ” ”
My Lord Dacre ” ” ”
Sir R. Southwell 600 ” ”
The Lord Chancellor, to be reserved for some pension or benefice.
The Lord Paget, to be recompensed, as his Majesty knows.
A list of persons to be rewarded, containing, besides some of the names included in the above, the following:
The Lord High Treasurer.
The Lord Warden.
Hampson.
Armigill. (fn. 5)
The Bishop of Durham.
The Lord Mayor of London.
Two judges.
The Master of the Requests, (fn. 6)
Four gentlemen-in-waiting.
Stirley.
Clarentius and
Stirley's wife, the Queen's chief ladies.
Twenty-two of the Queen's ladies.
And ten others.
July 20. Simancas, E. 808. Ruy Gómez De Silva to Francisco De Eraso.
His Highness has arrived in good health at this port of Southampton, and they say the Queen is about two leagues from here at a house (fn. 7) belonging to the Bishop of Winchester. I, Sir, am very well, except that I nearly died of sea-sickness; but since the world began there never was such a voyage as ours across this sea, nor do I believe a prince ever arrived more opportunely, according to accounts of what is going on over there. But I need say nothing about that, for his Highness has come to a decision and is writing to his Majesty. I am bringing you your money so let me know where you want it sent or what you wish to have done with it, and with all my poor possessions, for they are at your disposal. I can not write more now, because Count d'Egmont is hurrying us to death.
Southampton, 20 July, 1554.
Holograph. Spanish.
July 20. Brussels, Arch. Roy. A list of the Spanish nobles who accompanied Prince Philip on his journey to England.
The Duke of Alva, the Duke of Medina Celi, the Admiral of Castile, the Marquis of Pescara, the Marquis of Falces, the Marquis del Valle, the Marquis of Aguilar, the Marquis de las Navas, the Count of Feria, the Count of Chinchon, the Count of Olivares, the Count of Saldaña, the Count of Modica, the Count of Fuensalida and the Bishop of Cuenca. (fn. 8)
French.
Printed by Gachard, Voyages de Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.
July 21. Brussels, E.A. 66. The Queen Dowager to the Emperor.
(Extract from a letter about preparations for the campaign against France.)
My Lord: I have received your letters of yesterday; and while the secretary was deciphering them a gentleman sent by M. de Wacken came to me with news that the Prince, my nephew, was expected in England the day before yesterday or yesterday. Since then, M. de Wacken's brother-in-law has come with letters reporting his arrival at the Isle of Wight, and I am sending him and his letters straight on to your Majesty. I will only add that you had better issue orders at once that the Spanish troops brought by the Prince shall land at l'Ecluse . . . . .
Brussels, 21 July, 1554.
Signed. French.
July 24. Vienna, E.V. 5. Cardinal Pole to the Constable of France.
It is true that since my return hither I have found that what I have brought is of no use as far as any hope of making peace is concerned, as I have written to the Nuncio, Mgr. Santa Croce. (fn. 9) But, in conformity with his Holiness's wishes and my own official character, I cease not day or night to endeavour to devise some means of bringing about a conference. Remembering the amiable words spoken to me by the Most Christian King about the Queen of England, and what your Excellency and the Cardinal of Lorraine said about the pleasure the King would feel if she were moved to act as mediatrix between him and the Emperor, I sought to persuade her to employ herself in a cause equally good, righteous and advantageous to her Highness's own state. She replied that she would be glad to follow my suggestion, especially as her ambassador in France had reported words of the King's similar to those uttered to me; and she intended to write to the Emperor the letter you will see from the enclosed copy. (fn. 10) Since then, however, she has informed me that she does not intend to do so, because she has heard that your Excellency has spoken of her to her ambassador in quite a different tone, and she now does not care to assume the task of approaching either Prince on this subject. I thought I had better communicate this fact to your Excellency, so that, in spite of the course things are taking at present, if God in His mercy is pleased to incline these Princes' hearts to peace, so good a method of attaining it may not be neglected; and I most earnestly beg your Excellency to show as much zeal in its achievement as in the past you have in prosecuting the war. I, as my duty bids me, always pray God to take pity on Christendom, so sorely afflicted by these discords, and will never fail to do my utmost to promote the remedy. (fn. 11)
Brussels, 24 July, 1554.
Copy. Italian.
July 26. Vienna, E. 1. Mary I to the Emperor.
I hear that the King, my husband, is sending Count Hoorn to report to your Majesty that he has arrived in this kingdom and that the marriage between us two was celebrated on St. James's day (i.e. July 25th). I do not wish to let Count Hoorn go without praying him to tell your Majesty how happy the arrival of his Highness has made me, and present to you my humble commendations and thanks for allying me with a Prince so full of virtues that the realm's honour and tranquillity will certainly be thereby increased, assuring you that I will take pains to serve you in gratitude, and report to you from time to time the happy progress of affairs. In order to avoid repetition, I will beg your Majesty to give credence to Count Hoorn, who is to recite to you that which his Highness has imparted to him.
Winchester, 26 July, 1554.
Holograph. French.
July 26. Brussels, L.A. 69. The Queen Dowager to Philip, King of England and Naples.
The period for which I engaged the men on board the ships which, together with the English fleet, have been awaiting your arrival, expires on August 4th; and as M. de Wacken has warned me that stores are running short and are with difficulty to be procured, I am now writing to ask you, if you no longer need the ships and men, to order them to return hither by that date. Thus I shall be able to dismiss them and avoid further expense, an important consideration at a time when it is so hard here to find money to face the exorbitant demands this war and other needs are making upon our resources, to say nothing of the difficulty mentioned by M. de Wacken in revictualling the ships.
If, however, you still need the ships, you will have to give them some money to buy such provisions as they may be able to find over there; and I beg you to inform me of your decision.
Brussels, 26 July, 1554.
Minute. French.
July 26. Simancas, E. 808. Don Juan de Figueroa to the Emperor.
I have not yet sent any report on my journey, for no incident occurred of which your Majesty need be informed; I met with no difficulty, and the people all seemed to be looking forward with desire to their King's arrival. As he will have written to your Majesty, he arrived at the Isle of Wight (isla de Duigue) on Thursday, 19th instant, and at once sent off Luis Vanegas to visit the Queen; but as no proper preparations had been made for landing the Court, it was not done there, but the ships ran round to a big harbour called Portsmouth, about ten miles from Southampton, to get on shore all those who were to land in England. On Friday, the King came ashore in a boat that the people of Southampton had in readiness for him, accompanied by your Majesty's ambassadors, Renard and Courrières, who had gone to meet him on board, the Duke of Alva, the members of the household, the Count of Feria and the majordomos, and proceeded to Southampton, where he arrived just after one o'clock. There were awaiting him plenty of the foremost gentlemen of the realm and 100 English archers who had donned his livery; and before he set foot on shore a king-of-arms came to him and solemnly presented the insignia of the Order of the Garter, putting the chain about his neck and attaching the garter on his leg. On his landing the artillery of the town saluted, and the Queen's minstrels, come on purpose, played. He graciously received those who came forward to kiss his hand, and then mounted a beautifully-caparisoned white hackney held in readiness for him by the English master of the horse appointed to serve him. Thus, the King mounted and all the rest on foot, the company went straight to a church where the clergy performed the usual service, and thence to the palace which had been sumptuously prepared by the Queen's servants under the direction of the English steward. The King, God save him! looks very much a gentleman, even more than when he last left your Majesty; he made a gallant figure on horseback, and the English were greatly pleased with his appearance, for a very different portrayal of him had been supplied for them by the French painters, and by some from other parts.
On Saturday the Archbishop (i.e. Bishop) who is Chancellor of the realm arrived with a great company and his accustomed pomp. The King welcomed him very graciously on his way out to mass; but the Englishmen observed that he did not take off his hat to him, and I heard that other persons remarked it, so his Highness was informed of the English usage and has complied with it ever since. He went to mass on horseback just as he had done on his arrival.
After dinner he commanded me to recite the commission I had from your Majesty; for the day before I had given him the letter in your own hand, and my letter of credence I presented on board ship, whither I had gone with the ambassador. The King uttered many words expressive of the deepest gratitude for the great favour your Majesty is conferring upon him, as well as for the other advantages; he kissed your hand for the honour shown him, and said that he wished to reflect on the making public of the matter concerning Naples, in the light of the considerations mentioned in your letter. The next day, he came to the decision that your Majesty's and this kingdom's interests would best be served by publishing it at once, in order that it might not leak out indirectly, though in conformity with your Majesty's wishes the secret had been most jealously guarded. But he did not think the presentation had better take place on the day of the marriage nor with the solemnity your Majesty had at first laid down, for he wished first to see the Queen and discuss the matter with her. The same day, my Lord Paget came to kiss the King's hand, and departed well satisfied. On Sunday, the King went to mass as he had on Saturday, but in another church, where there was a still greater concourse of English people. After dinner he sent Ruy Gómez to the Queen, and I presented to her the jewels from your Majesty, which are very fine and produced exactly the result desired by the King, for she was greatly pleased with them, and grateful for all the favour your Majesty has shown her, not forgetting the tapestry, by which she lays extraordinary store. I had left it in London to be sent on from there, but was told there was no place to hang it where it would show up well; and when I kissed the Queen's hand she spoke of it of her own accord and asked what it was like, for she had been informed that I was bringing it. The King was of opinion that it had better stay where it was for the present.
On Monday after dinner, the King left for Winchester, where the Queen was and preparations for the marriage ceremony had been made. In a heavy rain-storm, he proceeded straight to the palace, where he was solemnly received by the Bishop and his clergy, and then went to his own palace, which was close at hand and separated from the Queen's. When he had changed his clothes, he went by way of some gardens to the Queen, and bore himself with her and with her ladies so gallantly, with so gracious a manner, that all present were delighted and called down a thousand blessings on his head. I assure your Majesty that this is true, for I am not at all given to exaggeration.
On Tuesday after dinner, he went back to the Queen, whom he found in the great hall of her palace. He was escorted up the passage formed by the Queen's guards in their new liveries among the assembly of gentlemen and ladies, by which the nobility of England was well-represented. He stayed with the Queen some time, as he had done the day before, and then went to church to hear the vespers of the feast of St. James. The same evening after supper, about ten o'clock, he returned to the Queen through the gardens, accompanied by the gentlemen of the chamber, the Duke of Alva, the Admiral and six or seven others, and in order to avoid a crowd he did not have his visit announced. He instructed me to bring the privilege of Naples (i.e. the deed conferring that kingdom upon Philip), and after he had spoken with the Queen, no English people being present except a few old ladies, the company proceeded to a hall behind her Majesty's lodging; and there, all standing up, the King ordered me to say what your Majesty had instructed me to declare, which I did in brief terms. The King replied in a clear voice that he kissed your Majesty's hand for this great grace, and would accept it with due gratitude. I then begged those present to bear witness, and the King retired to his palace. The Queen was very happy, and we afterwards heard that she spoke to her Chancellor and Council, who agreed that the same ceremony should be repeated in church on the following day just before the celebration of the marriage, and that the King should be begged to consent to this because it would add honour and lustre to the event and please the people. The ambassador transmitted this request to the King, who complied with it; so it was decided that it should be done as your Majesty had first decreed.
On St. James's day the King and Queen proceeded separately to church. The King was accompanied by the nobles of his court who were able to arrive in time, and though their servants had not yet come they had the Admiral's, and made a gallant sight with their adornments of gold and silver, and all the Englishmen were magnificently dressed. The Queen went in procession with the bishops and clergy, the old men of her Council and the officials of her household, as well as a number of ladies, either elderly or if young not lovely, but well-dressed. In the church a platform had been set up, and in the middle of it a dais four steps higher than the platform. On this dais the King and Queen took their places, with the bishops in their vestments and only a few laymen; and I was ordered to mount the steps, and performed my ceremony to the best of my ability, as I had done on the previous day. The Chancellor explained to the people in the vulgar the great honour your Majesty had shown the Queen on the occasion of her wedding, and then proceeded to celebrate the marriage. After that, mass was said, and when it was finished some drinking cups with pieces of holy bread were sent round, and the kings-of-arms proclaimed the titles of King and Queen, first of England and France, then of Naples and Jerusalem, then Ireland, and afterwards Prince and Princess of Spain, Archduke and Archduchess of Austria, Duke and Duchess of Milan, Burgundy and Brabant, Count and Countess of Flanders and Tyrol, etc. All this they repeated three times. The King refused to have Milan mentioned either in church or the night before, as he said it was an old matter and had no business to be spoken of on this occasion
The ceremony concluded, the King and Queen went together to dine at the Queen's palace, and sat under a canopy earned by English lay gentlemen; for thus the King would have it, though the English had intended half the bearers to be English and half Spanish. After the banquet, which was very magnificent, the day was spent in pleasure, and part of the night, until the Bishops blessed the bed with prayers and rites that have of old been the custom in this realm. And here ceases all I can tell your Majesty of what happened that day.
The King walked between your Majesty's two ambassadors, and before him went those of the Kings of the Romans and Bohemia, Venice and Florence, of whom the latter had a little quarrel with the Ferrarese ambassador about precedence, and the point was decided according to the rule observed in your Majesty's Court. The Chancellor, who married them, dined with the King and Queen. The King has his will and codicils here with him, and they are either to be burnt in his presence or sent to your Majesty.
He has been informed about Don Fernando, and as soon as he has come to a decision about the other points, which he will not delay in doing, an answer shall be sent to your Majesty. As for the Cardinal of Burgos' demand for leave to visit his church for certain specified reasons, the King is of opinion that if your Majesty pleases there can be no harm in granting it to him for a year or so, during which time he shall be instructed to busy himself with the affairs of his diocese and nothing else; for it would be difficult to refuse him, and the other cardinals will not be able to argue that this constitutes a precedent, because there are special reasons in Burgos' case, and he is now so near that part of the world. A beginning has been made with the documents which are to attest the king's taking possession of the realm and investiture as the letters directed; but as to-day is a holiday the work will go on to-morrow.
As for troops and money, my instructions have nothing to do with them, so I have not done more than drop a word about the need; but I believe the King will very shortly deal with these points, for he greatly desires to serve and obey your Majesty.
Winchester, 26 July, 1554.
Holograph. Spanish.
Printed in Fernández Navarrete, Documentos Inéditos, Vol. III.
A shorter account found in the Louvain library, varying only in a few details from the above, is printed under the erroneous date of July 20th by Tytler, The Reigns of Edward VI and Mary, Vol II.

Footnotes

1 The passage in italics is underlined in the original.
2 Charles de Bourbon, Prince de la Roche-sur-Yon, Lieutenant-General in Picardy and Normandy in 1554.
3 Beltrán de la Oueva, Duke of Albuquerque, Viceroy of Navarre.
4 This and the following lists are undated, but may well have been drawn up at about the time of Philip's landing.
5 Probably Armigill Wade, at one time a Clerk of the Privy Council.
6 Sir Thomas White.
7 i.e. at Bishop's Waltham.
8

Don Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva.

Don Juan de la Cerda, Duke of Medina Celi.

Don Fernando Enriquez, Admiral of Castile.

Don Fernando Francisco Davalos, Marquis of Pescara.

Don Luis Peralta, Marquis of Falces.

Don Martin Cortés, Marquis del Valle.

Don Luis Fernández Manrique, Marquis of Aguilar.

Don Pedro Davila y Cordova, Marquis de las Navas.

Don Gómez Suarez de Figueroa, Count of Feria.

Don—Fernández de Bobadilla, Count of Chinchon.

Don Enrique de Guzmán, Count of Olivares.

Don Iñigo Hurtado de Mendoza, Count of Saldaña.

Don Luis Enriquez de Cabura, Count of Modica.

Don Pedro de Ayala, Count of Fuensalida.

Don Alonso de Castro [?] Bishop of Cuenca.

9 Prospero di Santa Croce, nuncio in France.
10 This copy has not been found.
11 It would seem from Renard's and Courrières' despatch to the Emperor of 5 August [q.v.] that this letter did not reach its destination.


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