Venice
September 1619

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1910

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1-20

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'Venice: September 1619', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 16: 1619-1621 (1910), pp. 1-20. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88739 Date accessed: 02 August 2014.


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September 1619

1619.
Sept. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
1. ALMORO NANI, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Letters from Naples of the 5th ult. state that the ship Mula was still at the salt pits on the 22nd July. The English ship left with the Turkish fleet, whose captain, they say, showed them every favour, which has not happened with the other nations. I believe the captain was influenced by the hope of reward on his return to Constantinople.
The Vigne of Pera, the 1st September, 1619.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Sept. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia,
Venetian
Archives.
2. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have had audience of the duke, at which he gave me news from Germany. Among other things he read a letter written in French from Frankfort on the 2nd, 7th, 9th and 10th August which, he said, came from the ambassador of one of the temporal electors. It stated that the Catholic and English ambassadors were lodged at a short distance from Frankfort. Ferdinand and the Bohemians placed little reliance upon the English envoy. The magistrate of Frankfort would not allow the Spanish ambassador to enter the city, and other matters.
Turin, the 2nd September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
3. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The person has returned whom the resident of England sent in the duke's name to the Palatine, to communicate to the princes of Germany the request for the pass by the Governor of Milan and the grant thereof. The Palatine answers saying he is sure of the good will of his Highness, which means that he cannot allow a pass through. The same resident came to see me, telling me this and also news received from the English ambassador. That ambassador expresses himself as dissatisfied with King Ferdinand because when he proposed to bring back the Bohemians to submission by moderate agreements, they answered in conjunction with the Catholic ambassador that they thanked him for his good will, but the time for negotiation has passed. They had to subdue the rebels with the sword; the king was already master of the country by an easy victory and this time the house of Austria would free itself for ever from such pretensions. The Englishman wished to discuss this reply with the Catholic ambassador who confirmed every particular. The Englishman thereupon waxed wroth saying they had not met the advances of his king in a proper manner. He hoped for the discomfiture of one of their ministers in Italy, referring to Ossuna. The Spaniard said that his Catholic Majesty had no more faithful or devoted minister than the Viceroy of Naples.
The Bohemians for their part had told the ambassador that the King of Great Britain would do better for the common service by helping their interests than by negotiating for a damaging settlement. They were determined to die for their liberties and for freedom of conscience. The ambassador said that the king would declare himself in their favour and pay them money, which he had ready, his Majesty being resolved to succour the Bohemians. The resident told me that the Bohemians could not hold out any longer. On the 20th ult. the electors were to meet to choose finally the emperor. Saxony had promised his vote to Ferdinand. This Englishman seemed disgusted at the course of events, but all well informed persons at this court openly agree that the English have helped Ferdinand more than the Spaniards and this resident himself confessed to me that the Archduke Albert had begged the King of England for the vote of the Palatine for his own elevation.
Turin, the 2nd September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
4. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I think they are not disinclined here to prolong the truce. They do not seem disposed to speak about it and they think it still less likely that the archdukes will do so. The kings of France and England ought to raise the point, but at present France is very jealous of England because of the affection and authority which the latter king has acquired in these Provinces, both for religious reasons and because of the mutual agreement for trade in the Indies. Their High Mightinesses hope to remove such impressions by sending an extraordinary embassy to his Most Christian Majesty.
With the truce will also terminate the confederacy established for twelve years with the two crowns. I fancy they will take this pretext to raise the subject. They think that the King of Great Britain will readily listen to the voice of peace or to a prolongation of the truce, so that he may not be involved in any obligation to spend money.
His ambassador has made very strong representations in the assembly of the States General to dissuade them from going any further with their project of making a peace with the pirates, saying that his Majesty and the States together had enough ships to keep the fellows in order and secure navigation. Their High Mightinesses accordingly decided to arm twelve ships and a petacchia, (fn. 1) and the deputies of the Admiralty are to meet at the end of the present month. (fn. 2)
The Hague, the 3rd September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 5.
Senato,
Secreta
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
5. PIER ANTONIO MARIONI, Venetian Secretary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They have rejoiced greatly here at the news of the flight and imprisonment in the state of the Palatine of some people of Leopold, who wished to pass through that state to help Ferdinand. They are eagerly awaiting fresh news from Bohemia, and think of nothing else, though they go no further than to make approaches to both parties. It is said, however, that Lord Hay the ambassador extraordinary of the king to Germany ought soon to arrive in Holland to negotiate with their High Mightinesses there.
The Count of Tillières, the new ordinary French ambassador, has at length arrived. He has been long expected. He has not yet seen the king, who is many miles away. They say he will not see his Excellency before he comes nearer to London. (fn. 3) Meanwhile the ambassador awaits his Majesty's pleasure and receives visits. Thus I called upon him and passed the necessary offices. His Excellency evinced the greatest esteem for your Excellencies.
Wotton is now at Court, whither he went only the day before yesterday. When he has returned I will perform the proper office with him also.
It seems that the plague, as soon as the cooler weather supervened, has almost entirely ceased, there being only three or four deaths from it this week.
London, the 5th September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
6. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The duke had a long conversation with me upon the affairs of Germany. He said that the English resident here published the ill behaviour of Ferdinand towards his king's ambassador, who spoke angrily about the slight offered to his sovereign, and who had left the place. The duke said he thought this an opportune moment to acquaint the resident that England had been following a wrong course, opposed to the general welfare, because it had prevented his Majesty's friends from obtaining honours and position, referring perhaps to the refusal to advance his Highness's claims to the empire, and not admitting negotiations to marry his daughter. They ought to rouse themselves from lethargy and no longer listen to sirens. It was clear how the Spaniards despised an embassy which had been asked for so long and so earnestly.
The resident, however, upheld the idea of peace. A declaration of England in favour of Germany would have aroused France to support Ferdinand. He gloried in his master's title of Rex pacificus. The duke admitted the glory of the name but said that it could not be fully enjoyed while his neighbours were groaning under war. His Highness feels that it is hopeless to expect anything from that king and they will ultimately rest content with some apparent satisfaction that Ferdinand and the ambassador of Spain will give to their ambassador. The English were considered weak and corrupt, but the resident showed me that his king ought to show spirit and that his reputation would suffer if he did not make war. He told me that they were in such ill odour with their friends in Germany that their remedies would serve no better than a medical post mortem.
Turin, the 9th September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 10.
Consiglio de'X.
Parti
Secrete.
Venetian
Archives.
7. In the COUNCIL OF TEN.
That the letter of the Secretary Marioni from London about the person of Antonio Donato be read by a secretary of this Council and left with the Collegio, and also with the Senate, if necessary, after enjoining due secrecy in each place.
Ayes, 10.Noes, 0.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Sept. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
8. Whereas the Secretary Marioni must return from England for various reasons affecting our service, and it is necessary to find an experienced person to act at that Court and to go there immediately, to stay there until the arrival of our Ambassador Lando, who is not in a condition to leave so soon, owing to his convalescence; that an ordinary notary of the ducal chancery be elected by our College who shall leave for England within three days under the penalites established by the College. He shall have instructions from this Council, to be proposed by the Savii of the College at its first meeting. When he reaches his destination he will act as secretary of the Ambassador Lando until further order, in conformity with the letters of credence which will be given to him for the Majesty of Great Britain. He shall have 400 crowns for the expenses of his journey and 120 crowns a month for his expenses, to begin from the day of his arrival at Court, with 300 ducats to provide himself with horses, as has been customary on other similar occasions; 10 crowns a month for extraordinary expenses, except the cost of couriers and the carriage of letters for which 150 ducats are provided and he shall render account therefor. He shall receive the usual allowances for a chaplain and interpreter, for table expenses and salary.
That the above sums be paid to the secretary who shall be chosen for England.
Ayes, 16.
[Italian.]
Sept. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
9. To the SECRETARY MARIONI in ENGLAND.
We have received your letters relating your negotiations with the king and the ministers in the matter which we committed to you. You did right to read to his Majesty the letters which we wrote but you ought not to have told him that you had instructions from us to do so, and for this reason we are dissatisfied with your proceedings. We direct you not to go again to audience of the king or of the principal ministers unless you are expressly requested to do so, because we are sending the Ambassador Lando to take up his charge as soon as possible. Meanwhile you will keep yourself informed of what is taking place at court worthy of our attention.
That the Savii of the College be bound to come as soon as possible to this Council for the expedition of the Ambassador Lando for England, so that he may start within a fortnight.
Ayes, 118.Noes, 1.Neutral, 25.
[Italian.]
Sept. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
10. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Last week came news of the election of Ferdinand as emperor, and on Saturday evening Baron Christopher von Dohna arrived here, travelling in great haste, and embarked the same night at Rotterdam for England with a favourable wind, leaving word that the states of Bohemia have chosen the Palatine for their king. This news has softened the bitterness of the other. In a matter of such importance they are waiting to see what the King of Great Britain will do, to whom the baron was sent to have his Majesty's advice about accepting or refusing the honour. Some think that he will hardly advise acceptance, being so fond of peace, and he will reflect upon the necessity for his son-in-law to arm himself in order to maintain possession, which the emperor will undoubtedly dispute with him.
His ambassador, whom I saw the day before yesterday, seemed puzzled, and does not know what to think about his Majesty's opinion. The baron left word that he would come here on his return. Prince Maurice, although he would like the Palatine to accept, keeps his own counsel and will not speak until the baron returns. I understand that the baron has instructions to speak to the States, but he must rule his conduct according to what he elicits from the King of England.
The Ambassador Carleton told me he had heard from the baron that the Bohemians, seeing that they could not prevent Ferdinand from becoming emperor, decided to depose him from their kingship, as having failed in the, conditions of his election, and to choose another to direct their affairs. They spoke of the King of Denmark, but he was considered unsuitable. Saxony was too devoted to the house of Austria; they nominated Savoy, but he was too Italian: Bethlem Gabor would create too much jealousy in Germany, and so they chose the Palatine, who asked for a month to consider. They are now awaiting the issue; it is not known what the States think, seeing that the Palatine himself is undecided and his momentous decision depends upon the King of England.
I find they would like to know what attitude your Serenity will adopt. They foresee war in Germany. I have not yet been able to see Prince Maurice, but I will try to discover his opinions.
The Hague, the 11th September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
11. PIER ANTONIO MARIONI, Venetian Secretary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Sir [Henry] Wotton had no sooner returned from Court on Sunday, than he wished to call at this house, accompanied by the Duke of Holstein. They both protested the zeal that Wotton had shown for the service of your Serenity, as equalled by none. He said he had given the king a faithful account of the affairs of Italy and Germany, by which his Majesty seemed impressed, and anxious to serve the interests of his good friends. As he promised your Serenity he had passed a good office with the Princes of the Union when passing through Germany, as reported in his letters. While here he would tell me in confidence all that he knew for the service of the republic. He began at once by informing me that news had reached the king of the election of Ferdinand as King of the Romans shortly before the arrival of the note of the secretary of his ambassador extraordinary in Germany and of Baron Dohna, who after staying a fortnight in Holland brought word of the election of the Prince Palatine as King of Bohemia by the Bohemians, and asked for help here to preserve the title by arms. The king is to be at Windsor for this next Sunday, to give the first audience to the French ambassador. The Council is to meet and Wotton is to take part by order of his Majesty. He will give me early information of the discussion and the decision they come to. For the rest, he was not without hope of returning to reside with your Serenity after he has arranged some important suits of his here, and the king's decision would be made known to him at the end of six weeks. He assured me that he would not serve anywhere outside the kingdom but at Venice, and that in any event he would always prove himself a true servant of the republic.
I replied thanking him as warmly as possible. He regretted in confidence the reply recently given to me with respect to Donato and to my most just requests for laying hands on the goods. He said that he really marvelled that the king should be so anxious to protect him. He had also spoken to the king on the subject, telling him that the Duke of Savoy asserts that Donato has embezzled 150,000 ducats, but he found it was impossible that it could amount to more than 17,000 ducats. The question about laying hands on the goods was a matter of common law, and could not be allowed. A prince might well proceed against the person of his ambassador but not against his property in a foreign state, since the house was not the absolute property of the prince. To remove all grounds of dispute your Serenity would not do badly to buy a house here, otherwise countries observe their own laws with respect to property, as they do in Venice, and in a like case his Majesty would make no other claim against your Serenity. With regard to the crime of high treason committed after his return to England it cannot actually be called high treason, though it is of that category, but if your Serenity by a new public sentence declared it to be such, he felt sure that the king, for his credit's sake, if he did not give up the culprit would at least dismiss him from the country. I said that I would have recourse to him in any case so that he might be a mean to obtain satisfaction for your Serenity, and he promised that he would always be a good agent.
A gentleman who has come to condole with the king on the death of the queen on behalf of the Duke of Rohan (fn. 4) , came to see me in his master's name. He said he had instructions to call upon any ministers of your Serenity who might be here. He assured me of the duke's devotion to you.
On Friday Donato went to Court and he returned again on Saturday. He is said to have gone to thank his Majesty for the protection still afforded to him, and before he was introduced Buckingham conversed with him for half an hour.
Nothing more is heard of the plague here.
London, the 13th September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
12. PIER ANTONIO MARIONI, Venetian Secretary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I punctually executed your Serenity's orders with Gatti, sending for him at the moment when he was about to go to the printers to have a book printed, written by himself in praise of the chase, to be dedicated to the king (fn. 5) . He showed himself very ready to obey, only excusing his inability to make the journey so soon for lack of money. He said that when the book was printed he would set out forthwith as he was sure to receive some gift from the king upon its publication. I replied that he need not delay his departure for lack of money, as I would provide for him somehow if he would give me a receipt. Accordingly I gave him 125 ducats, and am sending the receipt to my father, whom I beg your Serenity to pay. I made this payment gladly in order to deprive Gatti of any excuse for delaying his departure. He said he would beg your Serenity to allow him the expenses of his journey, as you had sent for him, because he is a poor man, and such a debt would swallow up all the goods of his house. He has spent a great deal here and is very hard up. He seemed much astonished at the order and said he could not imagine the reason for it. His conscience did not accuse him of any fault to occasion this summons, nevertheless he is quite ready to obey and will start to-day. It might be about Donato, but it would be easy to show that he had never meddled in his relations between Donato and your Serenity. He asked me to bear witness that he had never caused any scandal in his capacity as chaplain here with Donato. I said I could easily do so, as I never heard anything against him. I then sent him away.
I now have to fulfil the other commands of your Excellencies contained in the same letters, namely to tell you if after Donato's condemnation I refrained from having him at my house, and from relations and conversation with Gatti. Seeing the straits of the latter, when Donato left his large house and went to a hired room, I took compassion upon him as a priest and a Venetian, and got him to come and live with me, as I knew of nothing done by him to the prejudice of the republic, especially as the question of Donato's goods had been settled by the sale of all his things. It was also convenient for the mass, as otherwise I should have been obliged to go four miles to the house of the ambassador of Savoy. This, however, did not last for more than about five days, until the arrival of the last courier from your Serenity on the 14th August. After reading the instructions, I went to Court and on my return, seeing how Donato stood with your Serenity, I sent [Gatti] away, as the courier can testify, together with all the lower servants who had previously been with Donato and the other ambassadors, whom I kept, who had been with me for the five days, owing to the difficulties of language and my need of some one to serve me. Among them was the interpreter, as he had sometimes shown a leaning towards Donato in talking about him. Previous to this I only saw Gatti twice. He stayed on in Donato's house, to recover, so he said, a debt of 200 ducats, which he would have lost had he gone; once, when he came into my room, and I could do nothing else, to offer some service to your Serenity and to say what Donato was doing; the second time to see if I wanted the house for the Ambassador Lando, as the French wanted it for their ambassador. This is all that I can charge myself with. If I have erred, it is through simplicity and inexperience, and I ask for pardon.
London, the 13th September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
13. To the Ambassador in Savoy.
You have already heard of our instances made in England in the matter of Antonio Donato, the king's reply and our renewed representations. We send you a copy of the king's last reply, for your information.
Ayes, 118.Noes, 1.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
Sept. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
14. That the following instructions be given to GEROLAMO LANDO, chosen as ordinary Ambassador to England.
In the vacancy of the English embassy through the sentence passed upon Antonio Donato, we have chosen you for this charge, knowing that you will render worthy service.
You will set out for England at the earliest opportunity, and when you reach London you will ask for audience of his Majesty, presenting your credentials. You will say that you have come to act as ambassador as an expression of our continued affection and esteem and to augment the good understanding already existing, feeling sure that he reciprocates such feelings. You will add whatever else you consider opportune. You will especially thank his Majesty for all the representations made by him in our favour in Spain and elsewhere, and for the good will he has shown in so many public declarations, which we shall always gratefully remember. You will enlarge upon this as much as you think proper, in order to increase the confidential relations with him.
You will maintain good relations with the other ministers of princes at that Court, in the way you consider best for our service.
You will give letters of credence for the prince, which you will present when you visit him, speaking in conformity with them.
Pope Clement VIII. and the present pontiff have asked us at various times to direct our ambassadors at that Court to assist the Catholic religion. We promised that we should never fail with our good offices. We inform you of this so that you may know the nature of the affair and with what reserve you must proceed in order not to offend the king and do harm instead of good. You will make nothing but quite general representations and then only in cases where you are sure of succeeding.
You will receive all the public papers from the Secretary Marioni, who will then return home.
You will regularly send us word of all that happens worthy of our notice.
We give you leave to keep a chaplain beyond the ordinary household, and an interpreter of English. We have assigned to the chaplain 186 ducats a year for board and salary and to the interpreter 100 ducats a year, as provided by the Senate on 18 November, 1610.
For expenses you will have monthly 300 gold ducats of lire 7 each, without having to render account therefor. You will have to keep eleven horses, including those of the secretary and his servant and four footmen. We have given you 1,200 ducats for four months' expenses and 1,000 gold ducats as a gift, conformably to the Senate's decree of 2 June, 1561, and 300 ducats of lire 6 grossi 4 for stables, trappings and chests for which you need render no account.
To your secretary we give 100 ducats and 20 ducats each to two couriers who accompany you. We have given you 150 ducats of lire 6 grossi 4 each for couriers and the carriage of letters only, for which you must render account, as ordained by the Senate on 28th July, 1609. For all other expenses we have assigned to you 40 ducats a month and have given you 160 ducats for four months in advance, and 95 ducats 8 grossi for the salaries of the chaplain and interpreter for four months in advance.
You may take silver for your use to the amount of 400 ducats, to be estimated by the officials of the Rason Nuove, in accordance with the decision of the 28th July, 1609, aforesaid, of which we give you a copy.
Ayes, 148.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Sept. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
15. To the SECRETARY MARIONI in England.
When Sig. Girolamo Lando arrives at that embassy you will hand over to him all the public papers in your possession and will return home forthwith.
Ayes, 148.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Sept. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Capitano
General
da Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
16. LORENZO VENIER, Venetian Captain General at Sea, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The captains of the English ships have again come to me with the earnest request for a decision either to let them go or renew their contracts. They say that they are without victuals and ask me either to let them go or to give them sufficient money to supply their needs, in which case they understand that they will be retained for another year of service. As no reply has reached me from your Excellencies and owing to the continual importunity of these captains, I laid the matter before the Board, reading them your Serenity's letter of the 2nd July, so that after weighing every consideration they might come to a decision such as the public service required.
The galley at Corfu, the 14th September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
17. ALMORO NANI, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A berton has arrived here from Leghorn with 30 to 40 released Turkish slaves, 16 of whom had paid their ransom money to Gratiani a long time ago. This berton was to come under the English flag, so Gratiani wrote to the English ambassador, recommending it to him. One Paulo Paterio, who came in the ship, says that it comes under the flag of Scios, with the consent of its master, a Florentine named Captain Francesco da Vevazzano. The flag has a red cross on a white ground, like that of England and Genoa. The English ambassador is somewhat put out about it, and he thinks he has been played with. He told me that although the English flag differs in no respect from these others, yet Paterio cannot pretend that the ship's flag is other than the English. Genoa is hostile to the Porte and Scios is absurd as they have only little ships; but he did not wish to take any steps, as he would get little good from a victory.
The ships brought 16 cases of silk, a matter prejudicial to our merchants, since it appears that they want to introduce gradually a trade in Florentine silk under pretext of bringing back slaves.
On the 6th inst. the ships Tirzona and Toderina arrived here, after having been delayed at Scios for many days by contrary winds. Captain Sanson, the pirate, proposed to attack them at some place, but the Captain of the Sea was warned by our consul in that island, and he stopped it. Many complaints have been made about this Sanson, and requests presented for his removal from Cyprus, where he attacked the ship Mula at the salt pits. Our consul at Scios received all the information upon this matter from the English ambassador. The latter told me that some Englishman coming recently from Scios had met Captain Sanson who said he would have made a good haul, referring to the two ships, had it not been for the Captain Pasha.
Two other bertons of Tunis have joined Sanson and he is expecting Captain Odoardo K.....with two ships, to join in his buccaneering, making six in all. Captain Sanson and all his men are in despair, as in the course of the entire year their only prize has been a little Flemish ship. He is supposed to be going to Rhodes, to pass under Cyprus and proceed towards Alexandria, going on afterwards towards the Gozzi of Candia, cruising about in that part where most of the vessels trading in the Levant pass.
The English ambassador told me that he heard by way of Aleppo that two English ships had arrived at Josques, outside the mouth of the Persian Gulf, to take the silk; another had been there some months ago and took 100 bales. They hope not only to have discovered this new way of obtaining silk from Persia, but that they will be able to entirely divert this trade from Aleppo. They refuse to believe in the possibility of such an eventuality here for reasons which I have already reported.
The Vigne of Pera, the 16th September, 1619.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Sept. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
18. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The duke has returned here owing to the sickness of the cardinal prince. He sent for me and told me about the affairs of Naples. He said that the Count Mansfeld had sent word of the election of the Palatine as King of Bohemia. He seemed pleased at this, but feared that the Palatine might not accept. He greatly blamed the King of England whose offices always throw cold water upon all hopes of any good and generous resolution.
Turin, the 16th September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 16.
Senato,
Secreta
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
19. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A Jesuit has arrived here who is a provincial of Portugal The duke told me he had seen him and the father assured him that the marriage between the infanta and the Prince of England had been arranged. He said it would be an immense advantage to the faith as the King of England would certainly permit the free exercise of religion. This point, however, the duke does not believe. He believes that the Spaniards will do their best but will yield everything in order to gain the English, whose friendship averts very serious perils from them. Any movement on the part of England would certainly perturb all the Spanish plans, always supposing that the conclusion of the marriage is near at hand, seeing that the Count of Gondomar is returning to England, and the king there, in his poverty and need, will be glad of the opportunity to finger the dowry.
Turin, the 16th September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
20. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English resident here confirms the election of Ferdinand but says that this is greatly discounted because Bohemia, the provinces allied with her and Hungary have taken the oath to the Palatine as king. That prince, with his own state and the assistance of his father-in-law as chief of the Union, would be very powerful and the house of Austria would have a dangerous adversary in Germany. Accordingly the power of the new emperor would be greatly diminished, and war in those parts would mean peace in Italy.
Turin, the 17th September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
21. ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ministers here are not too well pleased at the news of the union made between the English and the Dutch for the trade in the Indies. The Chancellor and Puisieux in particular, object strongly, as they cannot bear to see anything that prejudices the interests of Spain. To give a show of justification to their displeasure they have chosen the pretext that the Dutch have brought this alliance to a conclusion without informing France, as if they wished to shut out any trade which the French might have in those parts. When the States heard about this they directed their ambassador resident here to go and assure his Majesty that the alliance was made simply in the interests of the merchants and they had not thought it necessary to inform him, more especially because the union did not prejudice the interests of French merchants, who would never be shut out from their trade there. This explanation was well received and the ambassador left quite content.
Tours, the 17th September, 1619.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Sept. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
22. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Their High Mightinesses are anxiously awaiting the decision of the King of Great Britain, as a guide to their own action. It is already clear that they would like to see his Majesty come to a generous decision to maintain his son-in-law in the kingdom of Bohemia. Hitherto they have resolved to contribute 50,000 florins a month to the Palatine in addition to the 50,000 florins which they supply to the Bohemians, and to send troops to Heidelberg if the archbishop's forces march against it.
Everything hangs upon the decision of the King of Great Britain. His ambassador, however, seems doubtful. He thinks that the king, professing himself (I use his own words) a just prince, will first desire to be informed whether the deposition of Ferdinand is legitimate or no, and how the Palatine's election took place.
Yesterday I visited Prince Maurice on purpose to learn his views. He deprecated delay and would like the Palatine to accept and go straight ahead while all the powers interested should back him. He simply shrugged his shoulders at the mention of the King of Great Britain, saying he feared his Majesty would spoil this excellent opportunity. Others share his Excellency's opinions, and at a meeting of three or four of the leading men at which I was present, I clearly observed their desire for a war as far as possible from these provinces.
After Viscount Doncaster, ambassador extraordinary of the King of Great Britain, had been to the present emperor and to the Bohemians he had orders to come here, but at Spa he received the news of the election of the Prince Palatine as King of Bohemia, so he changed his mind and withdrew to Maastricht, whence he wrote to the king, and there he will await his Majesty's commands.
The Hague, the 18th September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
23. To the SECRETARY SURIAN at the Hague.
After the decision we came to last week about continuing our alliance with the States, we thought it necessary to inform our ambassadors and residents of this affair so that they might be fully instructed, but we told them not to speak about it unless provoked and even then with such reserve as we consider necessary. We did not send this information to England simply because we have not a fit and satisfactory minister at that Court, though the Ambassador Lando is ready to start. All this is simply for your instruction. But as we have seen from your letters of the 6th ult. that the English ambassador at the Hague has shown a very friendly disposition in this matter of an alliance, being moved not only by instructions from his king but by his own friendliness for our affairs, we direct you to take on opportunity of calling upon him to pass a courteous office with him for the goodwill he has shown in this affair, assuring him that we have heard of it with peculiar satisfaction and shall always remember it gratefully. You will also express our deep indebtedness to his Majesty who never misses an opportunity of showing his friendliness to our republic.
Ayes, 145.Noes, 4.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Sept. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
24. PIER ANTONIO MARIONI, Venetian Secretary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On Sunday at Windsor the king gave the first public audience to the Count of Tillieères, the French ambassador, who immediately asked for another private one for business. They gave him next Sunday. The Council has not met because so few councillors have appeared. Accordingly the meeting was postponed until to-day, here in London, when his Majesty will be present. Couriers have been sent meanwhile into many parts of the kingdom to summon many of the councillors, especially Lord Digby, who has been three times as ambassador to Spain and who is destined for a fourth term. At present he is conducting the affairs of that crown as if he was their ambassador resident here.
In order to hear something about the assistance for the Palatine which Baron Dohna asked for, I went this evening to the house of Sir [Henry] Wotton. From him I learned that the Council was summoned to ventilate so important a question. The king did not wish to take part in order to leave the members full liberty of speech. But his Majesty is to go to-day, at the request of the councillors. The decision will certainly not be known before Sunday. The king and almost all the councillors seem well inclined to help the Palatine. The king has seen all the councillors and a decision will be helped by the news which reached his Majesty in a letter that the Palatine has already sent 2,000 horse and 6,000 foot to assist the Bohemians, which means that the Palatine has begun to play his part. Wotton promised to let me know as much as possible. I will not fail to remind him and encourage his disposition to serve your Serenity, which really seems strong. He told me he would let me have his letters to send to your Serenity.
In a ship laden with very rich merchandise from the Indies an ambassador of the king has come who has spent three years with the King of Great Magor in negotiating about trade. (fn. 6) He it is who a year ago arranged with Persia for the silk trade to these parts. As a beginning he brings 100 bales with him. This trade means a turn over of three millions of gold a year. The agreement is that in exchange for the silk the English shall give one third spices, one third English goods and one third money. He brings word that the English took a Dutch ship in a port of the Indies as reprisal for a ship which the Dutch had taken from the English; but when the news reached the other Dutch ships, which were in other ports, seven of them sallied forth and hotly engaged the English, who numbered eleven. A fierce conflict took place. Subsequently other Dutch ships arrived upon the scene and they kept the eleven English ships shut up in port. (fn. 7) Finally an agreement was arranged between the two nations about the trade in those parts. Captured ships were to be restored on both sides, and in the future, thanks to this agreement, there will be no further cause for differences. Two ships have already been despatched with the articles and instructions; they should arrive in eight months. It is true that much harm may happen in the meanwhile, and they fear it greatly here.
Gatti has informed me to-day that owing to the recent contrary winds he has not been able to leave for Zeeland by the ship that he intended. However his departure will take place in four or five days when he will be able to accompany the ambassador (fn. 8) of this king on his journey, who is going to Constantinople by way of Italy.
London, the 20th September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
25. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They have learned here with the utmost satisfaction of the election of Ferdinand to the imperial crown. Owing to the numerous obstacles in the way they feared it might not be so easy to effect as it has proved. They express great satisfaction with the King of England, as his ambassador left nothing undone to forward the election, which he assisted by means of the interposition of his master.
The ships of Biscay joined with others of Portugal left Lisbon to fight the pirates. They found them in greater force than they expected, and after a short action in which they suffered severe losses, they were compelled to withdraw to Lisbon, closely followed by the pirates. They are now repairing their damaged ships and replacing the men slain, who are said to be numerous, and have sent for other ships to join them, in order that they may go out to meet the fleets and secure their passage.
Madrid, the 22nd September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
26. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
News of the election of Ferdinand as emperor has been confirmed. The duke considers that the situation in Germany entirely depends upon the acceptation by the Palatine of the crown of Bohemia. He told me he had spoken strongly to the resident of England, with exhortations for the general welfare, because the Palatine ought to accept at all costs, the King of Great Britain ought to back him, urged on by considerations of his own glory, the greatness of his blood, the confirmation of liberty and the welfare of his friends. The minister thought that the Palatine had already accepted, feeling sure that once he was king his father-in-law would assuredly interest himself for him and would venture two at least of his three crowns in his defence. The duke does not feel so sure of the decision, as the secretary of the Margrave of Anspach wrote to say that the Palatine's decision was doubtful. Everything will be settled in the diet at Rothenburg (fn. 9) . The duke said to me that Ferdinand could depend upon his own dominions, the prelates, Spain, Bavaria and Saxony. For the Palatine the assistance of England was very cold, but he would have the league of Hall and the powerful forces of the Low Countries, together with the forces of the Upper and Lower Palatinate.
I am told that his Highness considers that he has been betrayed by the English. The Prince of Anhalt had promised him either the imperial crown or that of Bohemia, and it has all come to nothing. The English resident here says that the ambassador of his Highness at London has prejudiced the understanding and has betrayed his own master, which is not very likely. I will try to get at the truth.
Turin, the 23rd September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 25.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
27. Copy of five paragraphs in the expositions of the English Ambassador about a union, beginning 17 March, 1617, to the 4th April, 1619.
Copy of an order to the ambassador in England to obtain ships and the execution thereof, from 14 December, 1617, to 14 September, 1618.
Copy of ten articles in letters of the ambassador in England and the Resident Surian at the Hague, beginning on 2nd March, 1619, to 2nd July following, about the trade in the West Indies.
Copy of letter to the ambassador in England about some claims to precedence of the ambassador of the archduke and archduchess of 7 June, 1605.
Copy of three paragraphs in the letters of the Secretary Lionello from England, from 1 July, 1615, to 7 February following, relating to a union.
Copy of various paragraphs in the letters of the Resident Surian at the Hague, from 4 March, 1615, to 15 May, 1619, about a union with the States.
Copy of complaint made by the English ambassador on 21 August, 1618, about the punishment of the English mutineers in the fleet, with three paragraphs thereupon from the ambassador in England and a letter from the Captain General at Sea, from 16 July, 1618, to 5 October following.
Copy of some articles in the expositions of the English ambassador about bringing ships and men from 17 May, 1617, to 5 August, 1619.
Copy of various paragraphs in letters of the Resident Surian at the Hague about sending men and ships, from 7 March, 1617, to 13 July, 1619.
Some copies about the affair of Donato.
Copy of a letter of the ambassador at Rome on 7 November, 1615, with the Senate's reply of 14 November.
Copy of instructions of the Senate to Surian at the Hague about a union, from 1 March, 1619, to 7 October following, with a letter of the resident on the same subject of 13 April, 1619.
Copy of summary of two letters of the Secretary Marioni from England, of 13 September, 1619.
Copy of letters of the Ambassador Zen in Savoy about money, from 4 March, 1619, to 9 April.
Copy of letter of the Ambassador Barbarigo from England about the pretensions of the Spanish ambassador.
That the above copies, taken from the secret archives, be given to the Ambassador Lando, who is going to England, for his information, with the obligations of the laws in such matters.
Ayes, 4.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
Zuane MarcelloCouncillors.
Niccolo Vendramin
Zaccaria Sagredo
Sebastiano Venier
[Italian.]
Sept. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
28. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Baron Dohna has not arrived from England. Their High Mightinesses have already begun to conceive some doubts about the king's intentions, and this delay confirms their fears that he has found it difficult to make up his mind whether the Palatine should accept or no. Some declare that the baron has already left England and is returning to Germany by another route, but the Ambassador Carleton asserts that he has received no word of this. He told me that he was expecting the baron daily. When I asked him what the king would say supposing the Palatine accepted without waiting, he answered that things done are more easy to arrange than those which remain to be done.
At the present time all speech and conversation turn upon this subject.
The magistrates of the Admiralty are diligently arming the ships against the pirates, to send them out at the earliest opportunity. Last week the Vice Admiral of Holland went to Amsterdam with two deputies of the States, to hurry on the preparations.
The Hague, the 25th September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
29. PIER ANTONIO MARIONI, Venetian Secretary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Although the Council met last Friday, when they went straight to the king, and again on Sunday, and there was yet a fresh consultation in the presence of his Majesty at a place seven miles away (fn. 10) they have not yet made any declaration about giving help to the Palatine. The reason is because the king wishes first to receive detailed advices from his ambassadors without which he says he cannot decide anything. Possibly this news can only be brought by the ambassador in person, who receiving word of this, has gone back to the emperor at Vienna to take leave; he is to come straight on to London by the king's order, so Sir [Henry] Wotton told me yesterday, and Baron Dohna confirmed it, saying he had it at his last audience, when the king said he must hear from his ambassador before deciding. In this connection Dohna told me that he had found the States very well disposed and ready to take up anything that England began. He also told me that they hoped your Serenity would do the same. In my reply, however, I did not go beyond general terms. Because the king, in conversation with somebody, said that he does not want this to become a war of religion, as he fears, Dohna goes about saying that this cannot be imagined because the Bohemians suggested a Catholic prince for their sovereign, such as the Duke of Savoy, and in the places occupied they are not subjecting the religious to the slightest trouble.
The king had the ambassador of France to hunt and dine with him on Saturday, and the ambassador of Savoy to audience on Sunday. He told both that he wished to proceed justly in the matter. He wished to know if Caesar was legitimately elected King of Bohemia before this new election of the Palatine. He grieved sorely to hear of these differences, because he feared that the world would say they had arisen through him, by sending his ambassador, whereas he was sent with no other purpose than to promote peace. As a great and a Christian king he simply desired that every one should enjoy his own and not lay claim to the possessions of others. His Majesty said the same to the Spanish agent. The latter, however, goes about saying that every one will easily be able to judge from the event; because if his Majesty decides to do nothing further for the Palatine they cannot deny that his Majesty is the great and Christian king he claims to be; but if on the other hand they have to believe that everything has taken place with his consent, he will have to learn that in addition to losing the friendship of his king, he will have embarked upon a very difficult affair with no hope of success, because his master would not only stake his dominions in the defence of Caesar, including the Indies, if necessary, but in Spain they would sell their very shoes. (fn. 11) The matter stands thus and your Serenity can easily understand their wish here to gain time. The inducements of making his daughter a queen, and of giving his son-in-law two votes in the election of the new emperor and the obligations which the king recognises towards his kindred and as chief of the United Princes of Germany urge him to take a generous resolution. On the other hand his desire to live without any troublesome questions; his dislike of spending money on war, especially for others, and the value he sets upon the friendship of Spain, make him hesitate.
Gatti says that he is ready to set out at any moment with the ambassador who is going to Constantinople, as I wrote. In the meanwhile he has found time to print his book (fn. 12) , and on Sunday he presented it to the king. The same day Donato also went to kiss the king's hand, being introduced as usual by Buckingham.
London, the 27th September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Sept. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
30. That the following be added to the letter to the CAPTAIN GENERAL at SEA.
With regard to the instances made by the masters of English ships that we either declare for a fresh contract or give them free leave to depart, we have to say that by the last letters from the resident of Naples we hear that Ossuna continues more than ever in his evil courses, more particularly against our republic, so that we do not see how we can let them go, while if any prospect of greater security arose we should not wish to keep them bound here. We wish you, however, with all tact to keep them contented with what is just and right, since we shall not fail to inform them precisely of our wishes at the very first prospect of peace and quiet. If the promise of payment for a month after you have dismissed them will help matters, we are willing for you to make it for the good of our service, without binding us to any precise time for dismissing them, or binding us to too much, while their interests will be safe as they will have time and every facility.
Ayes, 1.
[Italian.]
Sept. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
31. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The duke considers the affairs of Germany desperate and that the princes there will consent to all the demands of the new emperor. The Palatine feared for his authority as Imperial Vicar and Elector while his father-in-law kept advising peace. The members of the Union were all looking after their several interests. The peace of Italy depended upon any diversion that Flanders or Germany might supply. England, the Palatine, the Margraves of Anspach and Anhalt had given him hopes of some honour, but late in the negotiations they had drawn back. He blamed these princes for the ruin of the public liberty since they did not prevent succour from going to Flanders or the defeat of the Bohemians. If the Bohemians had chosen their king before it would have affected the imperial election, but valuable time had been lost.
Turin, the 30th September, 1619.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 A kind of great flat bottomed boat. Florio's Italian Dict. ed. Torriano.
2 Carleton also spoke to the Prince of Orange. The Dutch proposed to renew an understanding with the pirates already existing. They argued that the truce with Spain was about to expire, and if it were not renewed, it mattered greatly to the States to have a port in the Mediterranean to which their ships might safely retire. If the truce were renewed they would not think of taking this step. Carleton answered that the States had no need of such auxiliaries but could rely upon their old friends. Letters from and to Sir Dudley Carleton, pages 385, 386.
3 James was at Woodstock at the beginning of September, finishing his progress. Nichols: Progresses of James I, iii, p. 564.
4 Called M. de la Ferte by Salvetti, letter of Oct. 4th, Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962A.
5 The book was entitled "La Caccia, poema heroico nel qual si tratta pienamente della natura e degli affetti d'ogni sorte di fieri col modo di cacciarli e prenderli," printed at London in 1619.
6 Sir Thomas Roe is come back out of the Indies in a ship worth by report 160,000l. Birch. Court and Times of James I, ii page 190,
7 A brief account of these circumstances is contained in the Cal. S.P. Colonial, East Indies. 1617–21, page 236. The Dutch ship Black Lion was captured by the English, who demanded the surrender of the Dutch fleet of seven ships at Java. The fight between the two fleets took place on the 2nd Jan., 1619.
8 Sir John Eyre.
9 The meeting of the Union and other Protestant princes invited by Frederick, which assembled on the 12th September.
10 Wanstead.
11 Zappatas in the text, from the Spanish zapato, a shoe.
12 See note at page 7 above.


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