Venice
October 1619

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1910

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20-38

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'Venice: October 1619', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 16: 1619-1621 (1910), pp. 20-38. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88740 Date accessed: 21 August 2014.


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October 1619

Oct. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
32. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They are much disturbed here by the news of the choice by the Bohemians of the Palatine as their king. They think he will not accept the crown, and are anxiously waiting to see what the King of England and the States of Holland will do in supplying him with help and forces to maintain himself. The ambassador of Germany here complains loudly about their slowness in sending help to the emperor and that Ossuna has not despatched the men promised.
Madrid, the 2nd October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 2.
Senato,
Secreta,
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
33. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A courier has arrived from Brussels with letters from Germany stating that it is considered certain that the Palatine will accept the crown of Bohemia, which has been offered to him. The resident of England here has received word from his king that the Palatine has sent an ambassador to ask his Majesty's advice. The king replied that if the Bohemians would give him the crown with the right of succession, he should accept, and promised him assistance to maintain himself there, but if they did not, he did not think it worth while for him to involve himself in so long and troublesome a war without some secuity that his posterity should enjoy the fruit of so much toil and danger.
The secretary added that the States of Holland had decided to pay 6,000 foot and 1,000 horse, but as your Excellencies will have the particulars from the proper place I will add no more.
Madrid, the 2nd October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francie.
Venetian
Archives.
34. ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have been assured here on excellent authority that in the secret Cabinet Council they have decided to enter upon negotiations for the marriage of the king's third sister with the prince of England. They have heard of the close negotiations carried on by that king with the Spaniards to marry his son to a daughter of the Catholic king, and I understand that Luynes said that now was the time to act and make the King of England become either French or Spanish, and so they must push forward proposals for this marriage at all costs and get it settled quickly. They began operations in the following manner. A leading cavalier of the Court received orders to invite to this city the brother of the English ambassador resident here and tell him, as if on his own responsibility without engaging the word of the king or council, that if the King of England cared to give Madame as a wife to his son, he would find the king here well disposed to agree. Accordingly the ambassador's brother came and the cavalier made this proposal. The brother reported the matter to the ambassador, who is staying at a place fourteen leagues from here and five from Paris. I hear that the ambassador at once sent off a courier to England to inform the king, and in short they consider it certain here that such a marriage will be effected. The conditions and pretensions which are advanced on the other side are not so extravagant as to upset the favourable disposition shown here.
I am also informed that M. de Luynes entertained and feasted the ambassador's brother right royally, showing him extraordinary favour and honour. This decision has been kept most secret so far as they fear that if the Spaniards hear of it they will throw difficulties in the way, (fn. 1) and they also greatly fear the Duke of Savoy, because it is well known that his Highness sent the Marquis Villa as ambassador extraordinary to England, to negotiate for the marriage of one of his daughters to that prince, though he went under the pretext of offering condolences upon the queen's death, when she had been dead for practically a year. (fn. 2) This tardy office was considered a rather flimsy pretext to cover the designs of the duke, and they also think that Luynes is starting this affair in order to thwart the desires of the house of Savoy, which he hates. It may be added that he is also acting with the idea of covering himself by the protection of England, which leads him to desire to conclude this alliance.
That these negotiations are on foot and have been conducted by the means I have indicated is a fact, and I have it from one who has given me the fullest assurances about it. Whether it will come to anything is another matter, such affairs being subject to a thousand changes.
Chartres, the 2nd October, 1619.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
35. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Last Monday in the assembly of the States I disclosed the powers given to me in the matter of an alliance. They received the information with great satisfaction. On the Saturday before your Serenity's letters arrived I saw Prince Maurice and communicated to him the substance of my credentials. He expressed the opinion that there could be no more natural alliance. Later on I succeeded in having all discussion about the Gulf ruled out. Yesterday morning the deputies who have to conduct the negotiations received their powers.
The English ambassador, whom I met on Monday after dinner, told me he had heard from Prince Maurice of my proposals. He rejoiced to see this affair in such good train; and he felt sure that his king would hear of it with equal satisfaction. He told me that his Majesty some time ago, expressed his wish for the success of these negotiations and gave him special instructions to co-operate for their advancement wherever he found that his offices could be of any use.
In confirmation of this I learned yesterday from one of the leading men that this ambassador at a recent audience said he liad heard of the negotiations for an alliance begun by the most serene republic and he hoped their Excellencies would respond favourably, assuring them that his Majesty would be particularly gratified by the conclusion of such a union. He went on to speak of the greatness of Venice and her strength, referring to the ceremony of the marriage of the sea performed every year. This was received in excellent part by the majority of the Assembly, who desire to uphold the authority of your Serenity in the Gulf. (fn. 3) He never said a word to me about his intention of performing such an office, but when I next meet him I shall assuredly thank him for his friendly feeling. Of this I am constantly receiving fresh evidence as well as of the confidential manner which he adopts in his relations with me. He enjoys great credit at the Court, very different from M. du Maurier, the French ambassador, who has been unable to improve his position since the last events in this state.
The Hague, the 2nd October, 1619.
[Italian; the part in Italics deciphered.]
Oct. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
36. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Their High Mightinesses are much perplexed at receiving no news from England about the king's decision upon Bohemia, or from Heidelberg, since no letters arrive from their ministers at either of these places. They only know that the princes assembled at Rothenburg have advised the Palatine to accept.
The English ambassador told me he had received no news about the negotiations of Baron Dohna. He suggested that perhaps his Majesty had sent a special messenger to the Palatine to advise him to adopt the advice of the Princes of the Union. Someone had written to him from England that his Majesty had sent commissions to Viscount Doncaster, his ambassador extraordinary in Germany, to go to congratulate the emperor on his election, and if the conversation turned upon the Palatine and Bohemia, to inform his Imperial Majesty that the king could not do less than support that prince. He added that if this were true his Majesty had probably delayed his declaration purposely and was keeping the Baron Dohna by him to show the world that he had not made up his mind. It is said that his Majesty also intended to delay the departure of Lord Digby, the ambassador designate to Spain, but your Serenity will have more certain news from Marioni.
Every moment they are expecting news of these particulars and that the Palatine has accepted the throne. They hope so because the King of Great Britain will then be compelled to declare himself and support his son-in-law. This would, at the same time, break off the marriage with Spain, a thing they desire here very intensely. But in general they have no great confidence here in his Majesty's coming to any momentous decision. They merely expect fine phrases about his readiness to make representations and to procure satisfaction, in a way that will not interfere with his enjoyments, strain his purse, or do anything to disturb the peace and quiet in which he desires to live (in somma quella Maestà nel generale non ha qui maggior credito in risolutioni di momento che di haver di belle parole di esser pronta, agli ufficii et di procurar sodisfar con quei termini che non possino apportar detornamento dai suoi gusti, incommodo alla borsa o alterar alla quiete et al riposo in che bramo di viver).
The Hague, the 2nd October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
37. To the CAPTAIN GENERAL AT SEA.
Owing to the change of season and various other causes with which you are acquainted it is no longer necessary to keep a fleet of 29 ships and we only need the larger ones. Accordingly, unless you have special reason to fear any movement on the part of the Spanish fleet, we direct you first of all to dismiss the English ships which wish to go, and whose agents have made repeated requests to this effect, and after a short interval to dismiss the Flemish ships also which were engaged by the Secretary Suriano, but you will keep those which came later, which are larger and more powerful. From those which are dismissed you will try to engage as many sailors and gunners as are necessary to fill up the complement of the other ships, at the same rate of payment as they have received hitherto, unless you can induce them to agree to less, so as not to lose the opportunity of supplying the fleet with such necessary services.
We wish the troops which are unnecessary for the requirements of the fleet to be dismissed, including Huyn and his soldiers. The other ultramontanes will be retained until further order, getting rid of the useless, scandalous and disobedient ones.
Ayes, 120.Noes, 2.Neutral, 7.
[Italian.]
Oct. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
38. PIER ANTONIO MARIONI, Venetian Secretary in England, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
Four days ago Baron Dohna left, being sent by the king with promises of help for the Palatine and assurances that he shall not be abandoned by his Majesty, who will show himself a true father by assisting with all his available forces. Previously the king had received news from Germany and had learned the reasons why the Bohemians do not want the emperor as their king and have chosen the Palatine. If the King of Spain attacks him the king here will at once send help, to be ready by the spring, but for this winter he thinks that his son can hold out with his own forces and those of the confederate princes. He begs him to be content with this reply for the present, as first of all he wishes to satisfy his conscience. Dohna told all this to the French ambassador and to the ambassador of Savoy when taking leave of them. Sir [Henry] Wotton told me this recently when he called upon me at this house, when he expressed his devotion to your Serenity. He also told me that he had spoken to the ambassador of the States here, who informed him that he had instructions from his masters to represent to the king that seeing how affairs were going in Germany, from their experience of war and the obligations they were under owing to their league with the Princes of the Union, they have decided to send 3,000 horse and 1,800 musketeers to the Lower Palatinate to watch the passage of 6,000 foot which they propose to send from Flanders to the emperor. I myself heard practically the same thing from the ambassador of the States yesterday, who told me what happened at his audience of the king last week, when all the other ambassadors saw his Majesty.
Meanwhile here they are expecting the speedy arrival of an ambassador extraordinary from Spain, who is already appointed, or some other person, to lull the affair to sleep. The secretary of Digby has been sent by the king to Spain, they say in order to assure the king there that his Majesty had nothing to do with the election of the Palatine as King of Bohemia, and to point out the Christian manner in which he desires to behave in this crisis, in fact to relate what his Majesty said to the ambassadors, which I reported, and to Baron Dohna, who came here to ask for help.
Meanwhile the king is pursuing his pleasures in the country; this last night he spent in London, leaving this morning for Hampton Court.
Gatti has told me that seeing the ambassador for Constantinople postpone his departure week after week he has decided to set off for Italy with another companion, and he will leave to-morrow without fail. After he had presented his book to the king it is said that his Majesty remembered he was the one who some years ago had published a book about his Majesty himself. Accordingly the king was very wroth. It now appears that Gatti has exculpated himself by proving that at the time of the appearance of the book in question he had already left London with the Ambassador Giustiniano (fn. 4) . I have not heard that he had any present from his Majesty.
London, the 4th October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct.5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
39. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
They do not yet know whether the Palatine will accept the crown of Bohemia, as he has sent to England and the Netherlands on the subject. The archduke and everyone else here fear it greatly, especially if they know of the rebellion in Hungary and the ease with which the Transsylvanian could occupy it. They feel certain that an understanding exists between the Transsylvanian and the Palatine.
Vienna, the 5th October, 1619. Copy.
[Italian.]
Oct. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Capitano
General
da Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
40. LORENZO VENIER, Captain General at Sea, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
I do not know of any goods supplied to the ship Anadem during my command. I can assure your Excellencies that I have signed no orders which do not clearly express the amount to be given and the recipient. I have told the ministers of the fleet and of this city to carefully verify all expenditure, item by item. If goods were consigned to the ship Anadem without such conditions, and a notice thereof is sent to me, I will cause what is right to be done.
I will distribute the twenty-three English gunners and those of Pach among the galleys which need them most, especially the great galleys, arranging their pay according to the agreements, as I have never altered the contracts made between them and your Serenity in the smallest particular. But some of these gunners have asserted that they received a promise from the magistrate at the fleet that in addition to their wages their expenses should be defrayed or they should at the very least have their biscuit, otherwise they declared they would return home in their ships. Although I have temporised it will help if your Serenity will specify your wishes.
I enclose the copy of a letter from Foscolo, governor of the convicts.
The galley at Corfu, the 5th October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
41. LUNARDO FOSCOLO, governor of the convicts, to LORENZO VENIER, Captain General at Sea.
I hope to join your Excellency soon but am laying in wood and water. While obtaining information about the Spanish and Turkish fleets I put in at Zante. There I had the Tartana laded with wine with all speed and after two and a half days in that port I returned to Cephalonia. There I took on board some ninety rowers. With great difficulty I obtained 2,000 ducats from the Proveditore. I did not think fit to agree to arranging with the English merchants there for a loan, as I found that they would make preposterous demands for the exchange.
I succeeded in observing the Turkish fleet which left for the east the day before yesterday and on the following night I set out for this place.
The galley at le Gomenizze, the morning of the 30th September, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
42. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
Alessandro Barchi, servant of Donato, left England for France with letters of his master for Mayenne and Bethune. At Lyons he obtained evidence of the payments made by the merchants there in Donato's name for the public service. He has now arrived here with letters from his master to the duke, the cardinal prince, the nuncio and the English resident. The duke told me that he thought of imprisoning the man. His Highness said he had spoken to the English resident in favour of his king acceding to the wishes of the republic and clapping Donato into prison. I thanked the duke and said it was unbearable that a friendly monarch should not consent to justice at the instance of your Serenity. The matter affected the interests of all the powers as it would constitute an evil precedent. The duke hoped that the matter would not cool the friendship between the republic and the English crown.
The resident informed me of the representations made by his Highness. He admitted that the maintenance of Donato in England would prejudice your Serenity and his own master as well. He felt sure his Majesty had not received the true version of the matter, and he seemed very much inclined to make a proper representation himself. It was reported that Donato was well received and enjoyed the special protection of Buckingham.
Turin, the 7th October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
43. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
While I was thinking of going to thank the English ambassador here for his efforts in the interests of the republic, your letters of the 19th ult. reached me with instructions to do this very thing. I saw him, accordingly, on Sunday, and warmly thanked him for his office, expressing your Serenity's obligations to his king. He seemed pleased and said that his Majesty enjoined zeal upon him in this affair, which he considered advantageous to both States. His devotion to the republic was such that he would do anything in her interests, He said more to the same effect. I thanked him again, very warmly.
The Hague, the 9th October, 1619.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Oct. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
44. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
All the news from Germany about the Palatine is contradictory, but no one affirms that he has accepted the crown of Bohemia. Nothing has yet been decided as they wish first to know which way the King of Great Britain inclines. They have heard that Baron Dohna has been sent away and was awaiting a favourable wind to cross the sea. A person from England reports that they speak there about sending six thousand foot to help the Palatine and name those who are to command them. If this is true your Excellencies will have heard all about it. The ambassador thought that General Cecil, who is here, would be among them.
The English ambassador either does not know his Majesty's intention or will not divulge it until the ambassador arrives here. This silence is interpreted as a bad sign or else that the ambassador wishes to second the king's humour not to make an open declaration, but to let matters slide, so that after the event he may claim to have had no share in it, but will simply be accepting a necessity in supporting his son-in-law.
Those who wish to pass judgment on the king's nature consider that he feels differently and does not wish the Palatine to accept. They base this on what his Majesty said to the commissioners from this country when they exhorted him to take up the cause of the Bohemians, when he told them that he would not, adding, with some feeling, that it was unreasonable. Moreover if he had wished otherwise he would not have ordered his ambassador extraordinary to congratulate the emperor so soon; but others consider this a trick and praise the king and his council for their prudence in not postponing a necessary duty and thereby supply confirmation of his statement that he knew nothing about the decision of his son-in-law.
Amidst these varying discussions the Court still cherishes the hope that the Palatine will accept and that they will soon receive the news of his coronation.
The French ambassador told me that the French do not wish the Palatine to accept, as it would upset all Christendom. No one would support him. The Princes of the Union could not and the King of England wished to live at peace. France would do nothing as the kingdom needed repose.
The Hague, the 9th October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
45. PIER ANTONIO MARIONI, Venetian Secretary in England, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
At the very time that news reached here of an important defeat of Caesar's troops, came letters from the Palatine to the king telling him that he has finally decided to accept the crown offered to him by the Bohemians, (fn. 5) being advised to do so immediately by many princes of Germany, his confederates, and accordingly he had started for Bohemia to be crowned, feeling sure that his Majesty will not fail to help him to maintain himself. I saw this much recently in the hand of the Marquis of Buckingham in a letter to the ambassador of Savoy, who gave me the information. This news, however, has not brought about any movement, and they still remain undecided, waiting for information from Germany.
The emperor also has written to inform his Majesty of his election and coronation, adding that he hopes his Majesty will not only refrain from helping the Palatine to the crown of Bohemia, but will persuade him to desist from the undertaking. They understand here that the emperor was unable to proceed to Vienna, as they wrote, but is staying a short distance from Frankfort.
The king is in London to-day having returned yesterday evening from Hampton Court, to proceed to Theobalds to-morrow. He gives audience to-day to the Marquis Villa, ambassador extraordinary of the Duke of Savoy, who arrived here the day before yesterday to condole with his Majesty upon the late queen's death. He has come post from the court of France, and says that he will have a second audience at Theobalds on Sunday, to take leave. He will then return with the same despatch to meet Madame de Piedmont (fn. 6) on the way and attend her as far as Nice, where the duke is awaiting him. A servant of the marquis told me that in France they had left Donato's valet, who had recently arrived with letters for the Prince of Piedmont and others of the court of his Highness. This valet, the servant told me, said he had gone to France on his own affairs, since he was no longer in Donato's service. But he understood that the man had been sent by his master to ask for a safe conduct and admission, as he intended and wished to betake himself to that kingdom. Meanwhile Donato is living very frugally here, and is frequently seen walking about alone.
Gatti left at last the day before yesterday after he had received from the king 300 gold crowns, which he afterwards laid out on a chain, so he told me. He received gifts in jewels and money from others and from the ladies here.
In the midst of the cares of this service I have been exceedingly upset by what the Senate wrote to me on the 11th ult., the more so because I thought I had chosen the best way of addressing the king and that the very words of the Senate would have more weight with him. This is not the end of my troubles as I understand that my honour is reflected upon in what I have done. All this would render me desperate did I not rely upon justice and a clear conscience. Nevertheless it will seem a thousand years to me until the arrival of the Ambassador Lando to take information about the truth. I beg your Excellencies to let him do so in order to expose the false tongues which have maligned me. From the first moment until now I have conscientiously executed the orders sent to me. The king and more than one member of the Council have said that I am really too hostile to Donato, and in the midst of all this opposition and calumny I have heard that Donato himself said that he would like to eat my heart, so that I shall be warned to guard myself in the future against the excess of his passion. Your Serenity may therefore judge of my wretched condition. Donato does not believe that the orders have been so rigorous, while owing to false reports I fear that I no longer enjoy the favour of your Serenity. I can say no more at present as my eyes are full of tears.
London, the 11th October, 1619.
I enclose letters which came for Gatti in the last public packet. I detained them for your Serenity to see.
[Italian.]
Oct. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
46. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador designate to England, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
I have reached this place, 22 miles from Trent. At that city I saw the cardinal, who received me with great honour and lodged me in the palace. He spoke of the advantage of his country in obtaining corn from the dominions of your Serenity. He referred to the death of the Archbishop of Salzburg and to the trial of Cardinal Klesl. Yesterday Count Maximilian of Traumestorf arrived at Trent on his way to Rome to ask the pope to help the emperor.
Egna above Trent, the 13th October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
47. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
The duke told me that he had detained the man sent by Donato. I thanked him suitably. The resident of England spoke to me again upon this matter. I replied at length showing what was necessary in the best interests of the friendly relations between his Majesty and my masters and for the general welfare. The most I could discover was that Donato wrote to Bethune to urge his Most Christian Majesty to use his influence for Donato's restitution in the duke's favour, and his Highness is asked to grant him a safe conduct to this Court to negotiate.
The agent of England has called upon me and asked me in the name of the Bernese and Zurichers that the Secretary Vico, who has been chosen as resident for Naples, may continue as minister with them. The resident preferred this request with the greatest urgency, saying that Vico should remain there for some time, as it would be hard for any other minister to have the same knowledge of the situation there.
Turin, the 14th October, 1619.
[Italian]
Oct. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
48. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
When I had audience of the duke he had no news from Germany, but the resident of England afterwards informed me that the diet of Rothenburg had decided that the Palatine should have the crown of Bohemia, that on the 15th Bethlen Gabor was crowned King of Hungary; that the Bohemians refused Bucquoi's repeated offer of battle and the Austrian army was wasting with famine and disease; the Count of Mansfeld had cut up their rear.
Turin, the 14th October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
49. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
To the news sent in my last despatch I have only to add that a despatch from the King of England reached his resident here, who at once went to the Court. Although I have not been able to gather the particulars, they are known to relate to the affairs of Germany. The recent news from those parts makes them doubtful about a successful termination of the war.
Madrid, the 16th October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
50. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
At length Baron Dohna has set out through France for Germany. They have heard nothing definite about his negotiations here except that he took away an undecided reply from the King of Great Britain. Prince Maurice told me that the king, before making up his mind, wished to know the real reason why the Bohemians had deposed their king, and their intentions in choosing the Palatine. There is a report here that he has sent to the King of Spain to protest that all these events have happened without his previous knowledge. Notwithstanding this uncertainty of the King of England, the States are consoled by the news that the Palatine, accompanied by his wife and son, is moving in the Upper Palatinate with 12,000 foot and horse and the Bohemians are preparing to meet him to offer their crown, and they feel sure that he will not refuse it.
Lord Doncaster, the English ambassador, is expected here next week, on his return from his mission to congratulate the emperor; but some reports state that he will not come for quite six weeks, and is following after his Majesty, who has no settled residence.
The deputies of the colleges of the Admiralty have all left to give instructions to the captains of the ships ready to set out for the Mediterranean. They will carry commissioners to treat with the pirates, enjoining them to abide by the treaty made at the port of Constantinople. There will be twelve ships and a petacchia (fn. 7) all well supplied with provisions and armed with good ordnance. They desire the King of Great Britain to send a number of his ships after them, and hope that he will second their efforts. But they have nothing sufficient to found their hopes upon. They have approached the ambassador here and will make representations in England through M. Caron, showing it is the common interest of both nations to maintain freedom of trade for merchants and prevent the pirates from interrupting.
The Hague, the 16th October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci.
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
51. ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They are speaking publicly of a marriage between the king's sister and England as of a thing that may happen. There is always the best disposition on this side, and they are awaiting the reply to be brought by the courier sent by the English ambassador here, as I reported. In this connection I may add for your Serenity's knowledge, what I have on good authority, that when the news of the negotiations for this marriage came to the knowledge of the Duke of Savoy, his Highness directed Fresia, his agent here, to go to the king and tell him, in the duke's name, that he had heard of his Majesty's desire to marry his sister to the prince of England, and begged leave to offer his good services to bring the matter to a speedy conclusion. The king replied that he would welcome his offices and Luynes gave the same answer, but they place no reliance upon it here, knowing full well that Savoy would rather throw obstacles in the way, for his own interests and because of his desire to marry one of his own daughters to the prince. He also wishes Madame to be given as wife to the Count of Soissons, with whom the Prince of Piedmont is allied. He desires these marriages in order to strengthen his position. Thus they say that Prince Vittorio has promised the Countess of Soissons that he will use his influence with Luynes so that the marriage shall take place, and they also say that Luynes has assured the Countess that the princess shall not be given to anyone but the Count, her son. But who is ignorant of the worth of a Frenchman's word! One day they make a promise and the next they do the exact contrary.
The events of Germany have caused much trouble here, as those of the government dread anything which disturbs the quiet, which serves their private interests. The king has written to the English sovereign and to the Palatine, advising the latter not to accept the Bohemian crown and the former not to help his son-in-law, saying that such enterprises involve the worst consequences. They also complain of the assistance given to the Palatine by the States, and the French ambassador in Holland has made strong representations.
Paris, the 17th October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
52. To the SECRETARY SURIAN at the Hague.
In reply to your letters of the 2nd inst. the Senate are satisfied with what you have done in carrying out their instructions about the alliance. You will continue to encourage confidences with the ambassador of the King of Great Britain and you will take a favourable opportunity to express our good-will towards him personally, saying how much we value the representations he has made to his king in favour of our affairs.
Ayes, 112.Noes, 1.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Oct. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
53. PIERO ANTONIO MARIONI, Venetian Secretary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Eight days ago the French ambassador received instructions from his king to beg his Majesty to join him in trying to find some way of settlement for Bohemia. He immediately performed this duty through the Secretary Naunton, who by the king's order, went to the ambassador's house to hear what he wanted, as his Majesty could not give the audience asked for owing to many impediments, but up to to-day his Excellency has received no reply of any kind. The king has received news of the coronation of his son-in-law as king and of his daughter as Queen of Bohemia, with the election of their eldest son as heir to that crown, and that the emperor has published the ban of the empire against the dominions of the Palatine. As usual, however, the king does nothing, and simply waits for news from Germany. His Majesty has also heard from his ambassador that Caesar has deprived the Duke of Savoy of the title of Vicar of the Empire in Italy, but the ambassador of his Highness here knows nothing about it and does not believe it to be true.
The ambassadors of Savoy went to dine with his Majesty at Theobalds on Sunday, upon the occasion of the leave taking of the extraordinary, who departed the day before yesterday, well satisfied at the confidence displayed towards him. But the Spaniards were very suspicious that he came for some ulterior purpose. His Majesty toasted the health of the Duke of Savoy and also drank to the health of the princes. The Marquis Villa replied by drinking the health of his Majesty. The king conversed of many things, asking the ambassadors what the fleet under Prince Filiberto would do and also that of your Serenity. He said, Is the fault of that wretched Donato so great that he deserves the punishment meted out to him by the republic ? Is the duke much interested in this affair?
The Marquis Villa replied that the duke's interest was great owing to Donato's defalcation, involving some merchants and ministers of his Highness, and that is why disgrace has fallen upon Donato. The king said, He excites my pity; he is a man of great ability. He deserves assistance, but it is bad to have to do with many. The republic demands him of me and is angry because I would not give him up. But I acted as I thought right, since his errors do not merit such punishment. Gabaleoni rejoined that he certainly was a clever fellow at writing aphorisms, and nothing further was said upon the subject. I had this much from those who were present at the table and it was afterwards confirmed by the Marquis Villa himself.
London, the 18th October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 19.
Senato,
Socreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
54. ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Duke of Guise's fleet really is not in being. All parts of the ships are wanting and so are soldiers, sailors, and munitions of war, while the duke himself has no money, and that is probably the real reason why he is still at court. The Barbary pirates make little account of their naval plans. One bold and wary corsair placed his well armed ships near the island of Cres by Marseilles and plundered two large barques, laden with oil and other goods for Marseilles, under the very eyes of the duke and the town. His Excellency ordered the general of the galleys to go out and fight this ship, and armed three galleys for the purpose. The pirate, on seeing this prepared to fight, and in such a way that the galleys decided to let him alone. It seems that this has hardly redounded to the credit of the Duke of Guise.
Paris, the 19th October, 1619.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
55. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I am assured that the agent of England made strong representations in letters to the Bernese that they should not grant a passage to the men newly arrived in the state of Milan. Very possibly he acted without the knowledge of the King of Great Britain, since the ministers of his Majesty always hold general instructions for their duties, to be carried out upon occasion according to the their own opinion; they have to render account of their proceedings which are usually approved.
Chambery, the 22nd October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
56. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Baron Dohna should now be with the Palatine. Prince Maurice told me that he had received a letter from him explaining why he had not returned this way as he intended. Contrary winds delayed his passage, and so he went from Dover to Calais, as they advised him to do in England, not to risk passing through Spanish territory. He said he had found his Majesty and the Council well disposed towards the Bohemians and his prince, but the king desired to be satisfied about the justice of the deposition of Ferdinand and the election of the Palatine. Apropos of this his Excellency smiled and told me that an English captain leaving for England had said to him that they might tell his Majesty he ought to send a good convoy to Bohemia of trusty people if he wished to be sure of the justice of the Bohemians, otherwise he would run the risk of being assassinated or plundered on the road. He showed that he knew perfectly well that it was not that the king desired to have information, but because he wished to proceed cautiously without declaring himself so that he might not have occasion to spend and could always have some excuse ready. Nevertheless his Excellency feels sure that when once the Palatine has accepted his Majesty will not fail to interest himself as he should, and he sighed, though this is habitual with him.
The Prince Palatine has sent a gentleman here chiefly to raise 40,000 florins from the bank of Amsterdam, which is part of the dowry of the princess of England, his consort. (fn. 8)
The Hague, the 23rd October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
57. To the Rectors of Padua.
We understand that two sons of the Earl of Arundel have arrived in your city to study at the university. The earl is the first earl in England, son-in-law of the earl of Salisbury and kinsman of the earl of Pembroke, the lord Chamberlain, and is well disposed towards our affairs. We therefore wish him to recognise the good will of the republic towards him in the courteous treatment of his sons, and you will therefore show them favour befitting their merits.
Ayes, 95.Noes, 1.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Oct. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci.
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
58. PIERO ANTONIO MARIONI, Venetian Secretary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The French ambassador here is still awaiting the reply of which I wrote in my last despatch. This week he sent to the Secretary Naunton to ask for it, a fortnight after he had spoken to his Majesty on the subject. The ambassador is much irritated about it and yesterday he told me that he would not ask again and was determined to abstain from all negotiations in future unless he had express orders to the contrary from France. His Excellency told me that the news of the coronation of the Palatine and his wife and of the election of their eldest son to succeed them reached his Majesty last week. No confirmation has yet arrived from any quarter, which disturbs one's faith in its accuracy, in which he believed and which he asserted most positively. The truth is that here they remain absolutely inert as usual, without doing the least thing to help the son-in-law. This gives rise to the belief that his Majesty will not go beyond promises and fair words, more especially as he has no money and to obtain it he would have to summon a parliament which would require two months to meet and a third to come to a decision.
His Majesty has ordered a merchant to remit 24,000 crowns to his ambassador in Germany for help there, so they think he has also revoked the order recalling him to England. Meanwhile the king is staying at Royston thirty-two miles away, at his usual hunting. He will not appear in London before All Saints day. His Majesty frequently asks when Sarmiento the Spanish ambassador extraordinary, will come, complaining that they never cease playing with him, and everyone declares that he is very anxious to see that ambassador (domanda frequentamente S. Mta quando venghi il Sarmiento, Amtr estraordinario Spagnolo, dolendosi che mai finisca d'amusare, et ognuno afferma che da lei sia grandemente desiderato.)
London, the 25th October, 1609.
I enclose two letters of Gatti, which came to me in the packet.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
59. To the ambassador in Germany.
Nothing definite has been heard about Prince Filiberto's departure from Messina, only he is expected to proceed to Gaeta and the Marquis Santa Croce to Naples. Filiberto is also said to be going to confer with Cardinal Borgia and possibly also with the Duke of Alburqueque, the Catholic ambassador at Rome. Reports of new levies still come from Naples and of other warlike preparations. The Duke of Ossuna has arrested all the ships in that port; they do not know why. He is also trying to raise money. Fifty-four Turks, shipwrecked near Pelagosa have been taken to Naples and sixty-four others are expected, accompanied by the Uscochi, who claim their share. His Excellency seems willing to gratify them. The same doubts about Ossuna's departure from Naples still continue. His dependants declare that he will stay as long as he likes. He keeps writing to the Catholic king to prove how the kingdom has prospered under his governance, and has got others, who dare not refuse, to sign similar letters. If Don Ottavio of Aragon, who is expected from Spain, does not bring a decision to his taste, he proposes to send his chamberlain to Court with fresh papers and further presents, with the object of keeping himself in power. Nothing further has been done in the matter of restitution and Ossuna's apparent willingness to accede is nothing but a blind.
All this is for information, to be used as our service may require.
The like to France, Spain, England, Savoy, Constantinople, the Captain General at Sea, Milan, Florence.
Ayes, 97.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
1619.
Oct. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
60. GIOVANNI FRANCESCO TRIVISANO, Venetian Secretary in Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The emperor has decided to issue the imperial ban against the Palatine. From Paris they say that the king of France has determined to defend the Catholic religion and has proposed the same resolution to the King of England, asking him to give suitable advice to the Palatine in the interests of the general tranquillity.
Florence, the 26th October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Capitano
General
da Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
61. LORENZO VENIER, Venetian Captain General at Sea, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The inspection of the English ships and the examination of the accounts by the Commissioners was made without delay, the masters being very anxious to get away in order not to lose the opportunity of lading raisins. Thus they smoothed away all difficulties and to-morrow they will sail off. Meanwhile we have begun to prepare for paying off the Flemish ships.
Colonel Rocalora has proclaimed that if any of his men wish to enter the garrison here or go to Candia for the same pay as the others, they may do so.
Of the commanders of the ships two alone, on those paid off, had finished their term. The remaining ten do not suffice for the ships left, which number twelve, besides the flagship and two destined for Colonel Peyton and Rocalora, to which we never proposed to appoint commanders.
I have announced the idea of keeping a certain number of gunners and sailors out of the ships paid off. Many will avail themselves of the opportunity and will receive every encouragement, as we really need them very badly.
The galley at Corfu, the 28th October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
62. ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king is staying at Compiegne, twenty leagues from this city. He has sent word to all the ambassadors that he does not wish to give them the trouble of going there, as they would be obliged to lodge five leagues away, and he will be back in Paris at the end of the month.
Paris, the 29th October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
63. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The States are constantly expecting to hear of the appointment of a day for the coronation of the Prince Palatine as king of Bohemia. They feel the utmost astonishment at hearing nothing in the letters of their ambassador in England or from any other direction of any sign of the real intention of the king or whether he will move to support that prince. Some of the leading men, when meeting Carleton, have taken the opportunity to refer to the subject, speaking of their desire here for a strong resolution, while they have sent to M. Caron in England instructing him to make representations calculated to stir up his Majesty.
The Hague, the 29th October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
64. That GABRIEL DADO, courier, nephew of Giacomo Dado, who, when sent by Lunardo Moro, then Savio of Terra Ferma, by order of this Council of 20 June last, as courier to the court of England, with express instructions to go with all diligence with public letters to the Secretary Marioni, and to try to arrive before Antonio Donato, whom he should avoid meeting, not only failed to carry out his instructions, but actually accompanied Donato on his journey, telling him that he had been sent by the Council to the Secretary and arrived at Court together with him, shall be put under arrest in this city, and that he be summoned to come and give himself up within eight days, and when he does so he shall be handed over to our College.
Ayes, 81.Noes, 15.Neutral, 12.
[Italian.]
Oct. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
65. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
Though the Duke is very busy I have succeeded in obtaining an audience. I thanked him first of all for his representations to the resident of Great Britain upon the matter of Donato. He said it gave him great pleasure to satisfy the republic, whom he was always ready to serve and he would gladly do more. I remarked upon the importance of maintaining cordial relations with the English crown.
Fresia has sent word of negotiations for the marriage of Madame Henrietta, third sister of the Most Christian, to the prince of England; but there seems to be but slight grounds for this so far. It is thought to be an invention arising from jealousy because this house has negotiated for one of the Infanti. The duke informed me that the Marquis Villa will soon appear on his return from his embassy and that if the king cannot come to satisfactory arrangements in money matters with either of the two monarchs, perhaps he will not despise an alliance with Savoy. I wished him all success.
Chambery, the 30th October, 1619.
[Italian.]
Oct. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Padova.
Venetian
Archives.
66. THE RECTORS OF PADUA, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The two sons of the earl of Arundel, whom your Serenity states to be in this city, have not yet arrived, according to our information, but are staying on at Venice. However they will soon be here at Padua, where they have already chosen a house to live in and established a part of their household. We shall await their arrival to show the public goodwill towards them. We will send word to your Serenity of what we do.
Padua, the 30th October, 1619.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The text partially printed by M. Victor Cousin in his account of Luynes, Journal des Savants, 1861, page 279 note.
2 Wake, in a letter to Naunton of the 20th of August, old style, after stating that the ambassador's chief object was to offer condolences on the queen's death, goes on to say, "he will likewise humbly desire his Majesty to strengthen the confederation which the Duke of Savoy hath contracted with the State of Venice, by his declaring himself head and chief of that alliance and bringing the States of the United Provinces and the Princes of the Union along with him; and perhaps he will likewise be a suitor unto his Majesty that in case the treaty of marriage with Spain should encounter such difficulties as could not be overcome, his Majesty would be pleased to think upon a daughter of the Duke. I am not sure whether the marquis will venture upon the last office, because it is left to his discretion." State Papers, Foreign, Savoy
3 Carleton had heard that there was a strong opposition to this alliance in Venice on the part of the Papalini. This and former instructions from the king led him to speak on the subject in the assembly. "I put the States in remembrance first of the time, which if they did presently lay hold of, they would in an Italian business find the effect of an Italian saying, Chi tempo ha e tempo espetta, perde tempo. And then of the matter itself, wherein understanding that some of their admiralties imagine upon this occasion to capitulate for some particular privilege in the Gulf, I put them in mind how the doge and the Senate do once a year with much solemnity esposar il mare, and how jealous a Venetian is of his wife. Wherefore I advised them not to touch upon this string, if they thought to make good harmony with that State, for this I assured them would be no other than a rock upon which their treaty would suffer shipwreck." Letters from and to Sir Dudley Carleton, page 391.
4 The book referred to was the libel Pruritanus published in 1609. Copies of this were sold from the Venetian embassy by "a wretched priest" whom the ambassador had taken on to serve mass in his chapel for strangers. Vol. XI. of this Calendar, Preface, page xxviii. The priest had been second chaplain of the late French ambassador, but he was described at the time as the chaplain of the Venetian ambassador, and that is probably the reason why James concluded that Gatti must be the man.
5 The Bohemians elected Frederick on August 26, and he accepted on September 28. The defeat of the imperialists must be connected with the advance of Bethlen Gabor who entered Pressburg on October 12.
6 i.e., the Princess Christina of France, second daughter of Henry IV, who married Victor Amadeus of Savoy, Prince of Piedmont.
7 A large flat-bottomed boat.
8 The money was deposited with the bank at interest. Letters from and to Sir Dudley Carleton, p. 394.