Venice
December 1619, 1-10

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1910

Pages

60-69

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Venice: December 1619, 1-10', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 16: 1619-1621 (1910), pp. 60-69. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88743 Date accessed: 22 October 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

December 1619

Dec. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
113. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador Designate to England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have been shut up at this port by the detestable weather, useless and helpless. Many ships are in the same plight, especially at Texel where there are more than a hundred waiting for a favourable wind. I arrived here on the 26th ult. Since my letter of the 25th I have paid and received many visits. I perceive in the whole of this country a mortal hate for the house of Austria. They rejoice at the movements in Bohemia and Hungary and Prince Maurice is especially delighted at the successes of Bethlen Gabor and the Palatine. They also design to interrupt the Spanish trade in the Indies and in this connection cherish the greatest hopes from the agreement concluded with the English. At present they do not wish for war on their own frontiers, but would rather foment it elsewhere. It is true that some of them, chiefly military men, think the truce has been prolonged in order to soften them by ease and to encourage their religious divisions and so bring about their final subjugation. But most think it enough to keep war going elsewhere and to harass the Spaniards in the Indies.
They greatly value the league with your Serenity as useful against the house of Austria and to encourage those in arms against it, and they promise themselves great advantages from it. They say it will ensure a stable peace. The Spaniards are bound to fear it owing to the forces of the league at sea.
Rotterdam, the 1st December, 1619.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Udine.
Venetian
Archives.
114. BERTUCCIO CONTARINI, Lieutenant of Udine, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The enclosed reaches me from the Ambassador Giustinian advising me of his interview with the English ambassador, with letters showing that the latter has not taken offence at being refused a passage on the grounds of health. (fn. 1)
Udine, the 1st December, 1619.
[Italian.]
Dec. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
115. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
This morning the wind has changed a little and allowed me to leave Rotterdam and proceed in one of Prince Maurice's boats to Brill; here I hope to embark in the ship with which the States have provided me, so that I may reach the end of my journey without further delay.
At Rotterdam the master of the posts at Antwerp asked me, so soon as I reached England, to pay a debt of 200 crowns due for public despatches sent and received by him during Donato's embassy. I promised to look into the matter when I reached London, adding that possibly he ought to apply to Donato, not to me. I remember that the Secretary Marioni wrote to your Serenity on the subject and I do not think any reply has yet been given. I should be glad to find some public command in England; if I do not, I will do my best to procrastinate without making any promise before instructions arrive from your Serenity, for which I humbly pray.
Brill, the 2nd December, 1619.
[Italian.]
Dec. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
116. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
From England fresh proofs of the friendly disposition of the king constantly arrive, as well as of his determination for peace and his inclination to give the utmost satisfaction here upon the affairs of Germany. He is using every effort to induce the Palatine to relinquish his attempt. They say that many Englishmen are pledging their private resources to maintain 15,000 foot for the Palatine, but the king has refused his consent, and has forbidden, as an act of rebellion, that in the future any one shall offer up public prayers in the churches for the success of the Bohemians as they had begun to do. Your Excellencies will hear more of this from the proper place. But it is certain that his Majesty's agent here passed the offices which I reported. The king in his letter takes his oath as an honest man, a quality he says he values more than that of being king, that he has written to the Palatine in the way shown by the copy exhibited here.
Now they perceive that the affairs of Germany will demand great efforts, every one agrees that they must prolong the truce with the Dutch. The other side of the question has also been advocated, however, seeing that the Dutch have greatly increased their strength during the truce, and what is considered more important here, have made great progress in the East Indies. The Spanish trade has suffered severely, as the natives hate them for their cruelty. Those who have recently come from those parts report that if the Spaniards do not change their methods they will soon lose the best of their possessions in the East. The union between the English and Dutch in that traffic makes them fear this the more, as those nations are more welcome and better received. This year the merchants consider they have made little gain and even fear some loss upon the goods come from thence.
Madrid, the 2nd December, 1619.
[Italian.]
Dec. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
117. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The resident of England, by the mouth of a friend of his at this court, has acquainted me with the dissatisfaction felt by the ambassador of the King of Great Britain at being stopped at Pontebba. He considered this a very high handed proceeding as he had been travelling about for many months through various countries without the slightest suspicion of contagion. He hinted that this might have arisen out of the dissatisfaction of your Excellencies about the Donato affair, as some sort of retaliation, but added that it might make matters worse. I said that the ministers of his Majesty were always welcomed and honoured by your Serenity. I could say nothing about the detention at Pontebba as I had no information, but I could assure him that it would be due to some orders of the Board of Health, which is supreme in our government. The ambassador should not take offence, as it was an ordinary occurrence. I added that your Excellencies did not doubt that once his Majesty fully understood the Donato affair, he would give you satisfaction.
The resident stated that this ambassador is travelling with the express intention of seeing the duke, towards whom he professes especial devotion, but he has no public business or instructions from his Majesty. The duke said he was coming to negotiate a league. When I obtain any information I will forward it to your Serenity.
Turin, the 2nd December, 1619.
[Italian.]
Dec. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
118. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
No further news has reached the States about the decisions of the diet of Nürenberg, which they are anxiously awaiting, as well as what the King of Great Britain may at length have decided to do on hearing of the coronation of his son-in-law. They say that the Palatine has sent a gentleman to England on purpose to bring his Majesty the news, so the States will wait to hear what is determined there before they do anything. They recognise that it will not be proper to send an ambassador to the King of Bohemia before they know what is settled at Nürenberg and in England.
Rotterdam, the 3rd December, 1619.
[Italian.]
Dec. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Napoli.
Venetian
Archives.
119. GASPARO SPINELLI, Venetian Secretary at Naples, to the DOGE and SENATE.
One Gasparo has arrived here, who has come from Constantinople with another Spaniard and Paolo di Nicolo, a Ragusan, who used to serve as interpreter in the house of the English ambassador at Constantinople. This Paolo is stopping at Rome but they expect him here almost any day. I hear that they bring letters to Ossuna from the Starzer, agent of the Emperor at the Porte, but I have not been able to discover their business.
Naples, the 3rd December, 1619.
[Italian.]
Dec. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
120. PIERO ANTONIO MARIONI, Venetian Secretary in England, to the DOGE ond SENATE.
Last week they not only took to his Majesty the letters which I reported had arrived from Antwerp and Brussels with news of the coronation of the Prince and Princess Palatine, but he heard the same, they say, from the lips of a gentleman sent post by the prince himself to his Majesty with a letter, who arrived at this Court soon after. Nevertheless the ministers and those about the palace still assert that the coronation is not certain and give out that this gentleman only brings word of the entry of the Palatine into Prague, that the letter contains nothing else and that the orders for the coronation were only to be carried out two days after his departure from Bohemia. (fn. 2) The same ministers and others, by order of his Majesty, forbid any signs of rejoicing from appearing in the city, which the people are most anxious to make. They are waiting for better authenticated news and the arrival of the ambassador whom, they say, the Palatine will send immediately the ceremony has taken place, before they express either satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the event. This is for reasons which I have previously laid before your Serenity. Meanwhile his Majesty does not neglect his usual amusement of hunting, to which he goes out every day, and stays away at Newmarket, far from the city and from business.
Donato has recently been visiting some of the lords of the Council. I think this must be because of the warning given to him by the Secretary Naunton, or possibly because he had heard something in conformity with what Sir [Henry] Wotton recently told me concerning him.
The winds continue so high and contrary that they have not permitted couriers to cross hither from any parts for several days; and I imagine they have delayed the arrival of the Ambassador Lando.
London, the 6th December, 1619.
[Italian.]
Dec. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
121. To the Ambassador in Spain.
The galleons of Naples for the East are ready and they have brought fifteen companies of Spaniards to man them. The galleys of Don Ottavio of Aragon have gone to Messina and have left for the east, in chase of two pirates. The Viceroy has detained three large Dutch ships which came from Apulia well armed and laden with grain. All work in the Arsenal is abandoned. Ossuna is still intriguing at Court to keep his post The deputies of Naples are still in prison, but those who have taken their places seem inclined to send to Spain about their privileges.
They are trying hard to find money for Germany, but the idea of raising troops ends in talk. The Maonas have been sent to Bari; they are simply bare hulks, as they were launched.
We send you this information to use as our service requires.
The like to France, England, Savoy, Constantinople, Captain General at Sea, Germany, Florence, Milan.
Ayes, 124.Noes, 0.Neutral, 10.
[Italian.]
Dec. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
122. To the AMBASSADOR LANDO in England.
We send you a copy of the letter of the Ambassador Giustinian about what passed with his Majesty's ambassador returning from Germany, to serve you for information. His Majesty's ambassador in the Netherlands has more than once made representations there in favour of our affairs, and recently he communicated to our resident Suriano, the very letter of his Majesty. This shows the good will of that crown towards our republic and moves us to direct you, after a public audience of his Majesty to take the opportunity to thank him warmly for his friendly offices towards our republic in the instructions given to his ministers, which they execute so well. We recognise this as a sign of his good will and are greatly indebted to him, and we shall always be ready to seize any opportunity of gratifying his Majesty. Such an office will tend to preserve our good relations with his Majesty which we know you will do your best to maintain.
We also send you a copy of some news sent to us from Nancy by Sig. Luca Tron, for you to use as you may and as information useful for our service. We also inform you of what passed between the agent of England in Savoy and our Ambassador Pesaro.
Ayes, 129.Noes, 1.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Dec. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
123. To the SECRETARY SURIAN at the Hague.
We commend your diligence. You will maintain confidential relations with the English ambassador, doing all you can to acquaint him with our satisfaction at his friendly efforts on our behalf, and especially for the representations which he made to the States, of which you told us. You will express our peculiar satisfaction at the tenor of his Majesty's letter, which we shall gratefully remember, to make a fitting return when the opportunity occurs. [We have also ordered our ambassador in England to thank his Majesty for the good offices of his ministers in favour of our affairs.]
Ayes, 129.Noes, 1.Neutral, 3.
The words within brackets were omitted from the letter actually sent because the letter to England was withheld.
[Italian.]
Dec. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
124. GIROLAMO SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador in Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
At yesterday's audience his Holiness gave me the news from Germany. Matters were going badly there though they had not yet received confirmation from Vienna of the election of the Palatine as king of Bohemia. This matter required the close attention of the leading Italian powers. I told his Holiness that your Serenity always had the weal of Italy at heart; but every one marvelled at the way in which the Spaniards treated the republic. News came from Naples this week that they had rescinded the order to send six of their galleons to the East, and Ossuna had stopped some English and other ships. This revived the rumours of an attempt on the Gulf, to transport troops to Trieste. In this way the Spaniards compelled the republic to remain armed at a great expense. On the one hand they cry out against the republic filling the Gulf with English and Dutch ships, and on the other hand that the expense of this fleet is weakening us. The money which the Spaniards are now wasting on this fleet they might employ in Germany. The pope agreed and promised to make representations in Spain.
Rome, the 7th December, 1619.
[Italian.]
Dec. 7
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Capitano
General
da Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
125. LORENZO VENIER, Venetian Captain General at Sea, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Before sending the eight ships to look after the East I am awaiting the arrival of the Commissioner Venier with the money provision, and I hope a sufficient quantity will reach me without delay as it is urgently needed. The men in the fleet have not a farthing, and to send them thus on a long cruise would be most perilous. They have all pressed me for payment, especially the ultramontane colonels. Peyton has been to me himself to urge his demands with greater effect.
The galley at Spalato, the 7th December, 1619.
[Italian.]
Dec. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
126. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The wind prevented my crossing for twelve days on end, so that I could not venture out without risking property, life and the public reputation. I had to cool my ardour as best I could. I had an additional spur in the expenses thrown away upon these Dutch inns, which have become intolerable to me. At length, yesterday, a feast of Our Lady, her omnipotent hand released me from Brill and to-day I have reached Gravesend after a voyage of less than 24 hours on the man-of-war with which the States provided me. At Brill, as I was leaving, they fired a salute with guns and muskets, and indeed in every way they have shown their honour and esteem for the most serene republic. I shall be obliged to remain here five or six days before entering London, until my house is furnished, which I settled upon four months ago for my residence, and until the coaches, liveries and other things are ready which I have ordered, to maintain the public dignity in a fitting manner. I only complain that some belongings, which I had laded upon the ship Naranzer, only a fortnight after my election a ambassador here, have not yet arrived. I fear I shall have to wait months for them. However, no matter how heavy the expense may be, I shall endeavour to do honour to my country in these parts. May I possess abilities equal to my good will for the fulfilment of my duties to the complete satisfaction of your Serenity. In any case I ask for your kindness and forbearance.
Gravesend, the 9th December, 1619.
[Italian.]
Dec. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
127. ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I recently met the English ambassador, who told me of the Spanish ambassador's visit to him, made, as he thought, for a double purpose, firstly to excite the suspicions of the Huguenots by such meetings and secondly to induce him to call upon the Emperor's ambassador. He pressed this second point strongly but without effect as the English ambassador told him frankly that he had nothing to do with the Emperor and he was here for English affairs not German, in short he refused to see him.
This ambassador went on to say that his king will not fail to assist the Palatine, and although it is said that his Majesty ought to arm and declare himself, that was not the best course to follow. The Palatine had more troops than he needed, and if the king had armed it would have set the whole world in motion uselessly. It sufficed, he said, that his king should send ships to the East Indies with the Dutch, and trouble the Spaniards in this way; indeed the King of Spain did not deserve any show of friendship from his master as he had behaved so badly over these marriage negotiations. I said that a great prince would never lack other opportunities worthy of his high merits, and I have heard something of France desiring that honour and of negotiations being on foot. The minister replied: I cannot deny this to your Excellency and I ought not to confirm it. Let this alone suffice for you that there are certainly no negotiations at present.
From these words I clearly perceived the truth of what I had heard, namely that this ambassador is expecting his brother from England, who was sent there on this business and so soon as he has arrived they will begin negotiations upon the matter. The ambassador then began a sort of soliloquy about the Duke of Savoy. I do not know what can be expected from that changing and inconstant spirit in the present crisis in Germany. He wants to use his title of vicar of the Holy Empire to further his designs and his ambition to obtain the title of king. For this purpose he affects good relations with the pope. He keeps his eyes fixed upon Montferrat. He pretends that the Protestants in Germany made a jest of him because they did not elect him emperor. He now shows himself hostile to the religion and has recently put some to death. He is urging the return of Prince Filiberto to Spain. All these things create a bad impression. In short he concluded that they could have no confidence in this prince owing to his volatile nature. He then asked me if I had any confirmation of these particulars. I said that it was a long while since I had received letters from Italy. He assured me that what he had said was true as he was very well advised from Italy.
This minister is more a soldier than an ambassador. He professes sincerity and declares that he deals with me without reserve. He says what he means and is well advised from Turin by Wake, the English agent, who is said to be about to go as ambassador to Venice.
I have thought proper to send these particulars to your Serenity so that you may meet subtlety by subtlety.
Paris, the 10th December, 1619.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
128. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador, whom I met last Friday communicated to me the paragraph of a letter written to him by the secretary of state replying in the king's name to the information which he had sent to his Majesty about the articles in negotiation. He expresses the great pleasure with which the king received them and at seeing the negotiations in such good train, and directs the ambassador to do whatever he may think proper and necessary for the completion of this good work. I thanked the ambassador for the communication and expressed the eternal indebtedness of the most serene republic to his Majesty for his great good will.
The ambassador, with a show of confidence, translated from English into Italian another paragraph from the same letter, concerning Donato. He said that the good relations between the republic and the English crown had experienced some friction owing to the requests made to have Donato. The Venetians hold fast to the inviolable observation of their laws and we are sure that they would not wish us to break ours. This much he translated to me. As I was not informed upon the particulars of this affair he assured me that there were laws in England securing those who threw themselves upon the king's protection in similar cases. I simply replied by remarking diffidently to Carleton that the laws might include cases between individual and individual, but not between the state and an individual, in which case I did not think they would hold. Carleton said nothing and I turned the conversation into other channels.
The Hague, the 10th December, 1619.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
129. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Among other conversations which I had with the English ambassador, we discussed the present movements in Germany, the standing topic at Court just now, which every one treats according to his own sympathies. Among other things the ambassador seemed anxious to persuade me that your Serenity should decide to send ambassadors to congratulate the new king of Bohemia, and to do so without waiting a long while, rendering the obligation greater. I said I did not know what your Serenity might decide but that I should like to learn from him what his king would do, as being the prince most interested in this affair, so that the attention of nearly every one else was directed towards his Majesty's movements. I said that for my part I believed that the princes would stand and look on until his Majesty made up his mind. The ambassador agreed, and shrugging his shoulders said he did not doubt but that his Majesty would declare himself. According to what he told me the secretary of the new queen has gone to England, and I fancy he has orders to get at the king's wishes.
Prince Maurice told me, when I called upon him yesterday, that so far he had been right in his opinion that the king would do nothing useful and he felt sure that he would do nothing, as he persisted in asking for the reasons of Ferdinand's deposition and the election of the Palatine. In any case they must keep up hope and continue to make representations, as they will do through their ambassador.
The Prince further told me that the States have not yet decided to send ambassadors to Bohemia, but they will send letters of congratulation to the king.
The Hague, the 10th December, 1619.
[Italian.]
Dec. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
130. CHRISTOFFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador Lando sailed for England last Sunday at four o'clock in the afternoon, with a favourable wind, and I hope he arrived in that island yesterday evening.
The Hague, the 10th December, 1619.
[Italian.]
Dec. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
131. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The resident of England has complained to the duke that your Excellencies, after the offices made to obtain the cavalry of Sciavalischi for the service of the Bohemians, have dismissed those troops, considered necessary for the affairs of the mainland, granting leave to the captain and soldiers to render help to the Emperor; the same permission being given to other troops of Levestein which were dismissed. The duke questioned me about the truth of this and seemed sure that no such decision would have been taken. I said that at the moment there were very strong reasons for not dismissing that cavalry and there were equally good grounds for not granting them to the Bohemians. Your Serenity bore this great expense for the general welfare. I added other arguments. The duke seemed satisfied and said no more.
Turin, the 10th December, 1619.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The letters at page 56 above.
2 Abraham Williams who acted as agent in England for the Queen of Bohemia, in a letter to Carleton of the 21st November, old style, writes that a gentleman had come to announce the arrival at Prague of the king and queen, and that their coronation was fixed for the 25th and 26th October, old style, he having left Prague on the 23rd. State Papers Dom., vol. cxi. No. 35. The entry in the Calendar (1619–23, page 97), gives the impression that November is the month referred to. Frederick's coronation actually took place on Oct. 25/Nov. 4 1619, two days after the messenger left.