Venice
February 1620, 17-28

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1910

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173-189

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'Venice: February 1620, 17-28', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 16: 1619-1621 (1910), pp. 173-189. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88751 Date accessed: 29 July 2014.


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February 1620

Feb. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
249. ALMORO NANI, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Yesterday the Pasha sent for me by a Chiaus. I found him with the Turkish merchants and asked what they wanted. They said they had agreed to grant me time because I promised to pay them. The Pasha then said that they knew the ambassadors had assured him that the Bailo could not pay without authorisation from his masters and so he thought it right to grant time. I remarked that the time was short and asked for four months. The merchants, when appealed to by the Pasha agreed to three months, and it was settled accordingly.
The Vigne of Pera, the 17th February, 1619. [M.V.]
[Italian; deciphered.]
Feb. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
250. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The protestants of the marquisate of Saluzzo are giving fresh cause for trouble, as the letter written about the two men who were killed, styled martyrs, has been sent to all the Protestant princes of Germany (fn. 1) They say that the duke intends to publish the facts of the case, and seemingly such a contagion, if it spreads, needs fire as a remedy. Those men lay the blame upon the Genevese, but here they are not without suspicion that the matter has been fomented from the house of the English resident, while in England they have raised subscriptions for the heirs of the two men killed. However, the resident's conversation belies this, as he lays the blame upon those of the marquisate, declaring that they did not die for religion but for criminal offences. He recognises that the duke was compelled to punish them and that in Italy it is neither advisable nor possible to make any alteration. Nevertheless the matter is a very difficult one to settle in the interests of the duke and of good government.
Turin, the 17th February, 1619. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Feb. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
251. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Lieutenant-Colonel John Vere has been several times to see me, who has returned here on leave, I ultimately discovered that the States and Prince Maurice, hearing of the difficulties about the maintenance of the Dutch troops with your Serenity after they have been paid off, would willingly have them back here owing to their good quality. His Excellency has written to M. de Roccalaura to arrange with your Serenity if they can, but if not, Vere thought that their High Mightinesses would willingly fetch them away by sea. He said that would be necessary, as by land they would fall into the hands of the house of Austria. Vere thought there would be considerable difficulty in inducing them to embark to make so long a voyage. Vere spoke to me of a difference there was about enrolling them in a systematic manner, and that this was not possible with a foreign nation, because in a very short space of time the companies would break up. I made enquiries here and find they have not this practice here. They tried it before, but the States found that it did not succeed and the commissioners of the musters devised other plans to avoid being deceived. Everything depends upon the commissioners being honest men devoted to the service of their country and that they satisfy themselves that the captain replaces the dead and deserters by other soldiers. So much Vere told me and I think that is the usual practice in this country.
The Hague, the 18th February, 1620.
[Italian.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
252. Translation from the French of a note of Lieutenant-Colonel John Vere.
The haste with which I have to despatch some letters to Venice deprives me of the pleasure of coming to kiss your hands. I do not know what to think about paying off the troops at Venice. I should like to continue in the service of the most serene republic, because it pleases Prince Maurice and the States. I should be obliged if you would inform the Savio alla Serittura in case M. de Roquelaure refuses to remain any longer in that country.
[Italian.]
Feb. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
253. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador Dohna has had two audiences of the king at Newmarket. He returned to London on Friday full of hope, being commanded by his Majesty to go back in a week. He thinks his affair has taken a favourable turn, as he at least receives good words now, so that he hopes he may also obtain practical assistance for his master to whom he sent an express courier with the news of his operations up to the present.
However, he has never really been received, declared and treated by his Majesty as the ambassador of a king, but rather like a familiar of the house, the servant of his daughter and son-in-law. But at Newmarket this time he received extraordinary honours, being fetched from his quarters by the Marquis of Buckingham, the favourite, and by Viscount Doncaster, by the king's order. In their presence he repeated to his Majesty the arguments of the Bohemians and of the new king, having, so I understand, first talked the subject over with the archbishop of Canterbury and some other ministers well disposed towards his master. He spoke with great effect and in a most praiseworthy manner. The king listened with the utmost attention and said that really the things adopted by him were turning out very well, and were much more valid than he had at first supposed. He preferred, however, to await the expected appearance of Gondomar and hear what he said, but unless that ambassador could adduce any quite extraordinary reason to the contrary, he promised to play his part thoroughly for his son-in-law. His Majesty believes that the Spanish ambassador is coming with absolute authority to conclude the marriage and bringing excellent proposals for settling the difficulties with the Bohemians, in which the Catholic king wishes him to act as mediator, pacifier and absolute and sole judge, ideas which please him greatly, and are tactfully encouraged in him by the Spanish ministers here. They now go about proclaiming that the Catholic king is quite certain that his Majesty had no share in the troubles of Bohemia or in the decision taken by the Palatine, who acted without his consent.
Accordingly Dohna, after this audience, assisted by the ministers, who help him with all their heart, is working his very hardest and more especially tries to remove from his Majesty's mind the idea that Gondomar is soon coming to this Court, and to persuade him that the spread of this rumour is only one of the usual tricks of which the Spaniards know so many, by which they are accustomed to overcome difficulties and avoid war, by gaining time. In the present case they only need a space of two more months, as with that gained they reckon to have gained a year, because after that time no help of any kind, if others remain irresolute any longer, can possibly be ready in time for the proper season.
These attempts of Dohna have made but little impression upon his Majesty's mind, as he has begun to anticipate Gondomar's arrival. Although it was definitely stated that he had got so far as Paris, they do not now so much as know which route he is taking, whether he is coming by sea or by land. His Majesty has been shown a letter written by Gondomar to a certain young lady (Madamusella) who nursed him here in a sickness from which he suffers chronically. The letter is dated the 1st January and Gondomar offers to serve her in Spain, saying that he does not know if he will ever see England again. They say that the king was greatly upset and his previous impression and belief shaken.
Nevertheless, his agent with the Catholic king has written that the ambassador is certainly travelling. They credit this little, however, thinking that he also may have been deceived, while I understand that they have no great faith in his sincerity.
Thus at the second audience Dohna obtained better words and greater hopes from the king. He said nothing more about Gondomar or the expectation of his coming, saying that it behoves him better to help his daughter and son-in-law than it behoves the King of Spain to help Ferdinand, and he cannot do less than help his son, so he called Frederick. Possibly he said something more, but that is not yet known. At least it is certain that he spoke with great reserve and perhaps he never went beyond speaking in a somewhat broader manner, adding that Dohna should return in a week.
Since this event his Majesty does not seem any longer to detest the idea of summoning a parliament so much as he has done before, and he listens readily to those who give him to understand that many are ready to subscribe large sums of money voluntarily as a gift for such an occasion. This would be the best and the true way of helping the new king and to do what is necessary for the present emergency, as the meeting of parliament, its resolutions and subsequent action are bound to take a long while and proceed very slowly.
The king's resolution will receive assuredly a very powerful stimulus if the rumour proves true which has circulated these last days that the pope proposes to impose a tithe upon all the ecclesiastics of Christendom to help the emperor. This simply adds fuel to the flames of the zeal and fury in this kingdom.
The agent of the Archduke Albert has also been to Newmarket recently, although upon another pretext, but really to oppose and thwart the offices of the Ambassador Dohna. For the space of six hours he had to toil round to find any one who would give him lodging in any sort of fashion, as every one detests him as an enemy who had gone to oppose their interests with the king. Finally he was obliged to invoke the authority of the highest ministers in order to obtain a lodging, and that a very poor one and most inconvenient. Thus recently in the king's palace he happened to be conversing with some gentlemen, when he blamed the new King of Bohemia and spoke contemptuously about him. He said he was a winter king who would last one season only, as when spring came he would be driven out with a single blow and deprived of his crown by a mere puff from the house of Austria. An elderly gentleman, a certain Gorin (fn. 2) , told him to speak more advisedly. If he did not show respect none would be shown to him, and he threatened to throw him out of the window. He said that the King of Bohemia was the king's son-in-law and as good as a son, while the Queen of Bohemia bore the name of Elizabeth and with God's help she would enjoy the same felicity as that glorious Elizabeth queen of this realm, who for forty years made those who are now so high and puffed up with so little cause, to sweat for it and spend their blood and treasure. Accordingly the agent, very much crestfallen, held his peace, while the cavalier won universal commendation
London, the 20th February, 1619. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Feb. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
254. ALMORO NANI, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Pasha has given the Sultan to understand that the ships which come here from France, England, Flanders and your Serenity, bring nothing worthy of consideration, while they carry away merchandise of value to their own countries. Accordingly the Bastangi Pasha in the Sultan's name, has sent to require all the ambassadors and myself to supply a note of the goods which come to this city. This has been done. I fancy ours will not be inferior to the others. This sinister information supplied to the Sultan by the Pasha arises from his having offended all the nations in various ways, and he thinks it will be to his advantage to place them in an unfavourable light before his Majesty.
The Vigne of Pera, the 21st February, 1619. [M.V.]
[Italian; deciphered.]
Feb. 21.
Senato
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
255. To the Ambassador with the King of Great Britain.
By the confidential relations which our republic preserves with his Majesty, who always shows an interest in the affairs of this province, we direct you to communicate the following matters to him at a special audience. The Lord of Solferino, brother of the late Prince of Castiglione (fn. 3) , experienced some difficulty in reducing to obedience some of his subjects of the land of Medole on the frontiers of our dominions and of Mantua. The Governor of Milan has despatched a considerable force, not only to Medole but to Castiglione, to make preparations which show that he proposes to send even greater numbers. We do not know what he is aiming at, but experience has taught us to expect some trickery from the Spaniards. We have to keep an eye on the state of that district and have made proper representations to the Governor of Milan and the Duke of Mantua as well as the Lord of Solferino, so that they may have a good understanding among themselves and give no occasion for disputes which would disturb the peace of Italy. As the same time we have not neglected to make such provision as we judged to be necessary under the circumstances. We have strengthened our garrisons in the neighbourhood, appointed a Proveditore for those parts and taken other steps to ensure our safety. If the Spaniards have any ulterior designs in those parts it will seriously prejudice the general tranquillity. We have therefore thought fit to acquaint his Majesty with the particulars so that he may recognise the sincerity of our proceedings and the aims of others.
[Italian.]
Feb. 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
256. To the Ambassador at Rome.
With the news which we sent on the 24th January last of our alliance with the Netherlands we also sent the articles of the treaty. We have obtained the removal of a word from the third article, which speaks of ships entering the Gulf and which now reads 'armed ships' instead of 'hostile armed ships,' because we consider as enemies those who enter the Gulf armed.
The like to:
France, Spain, Savoy, England, Milan, Germany, Florence, Constantinople, Naples, Zurich.
Ayes, 166.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Feb. 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
257. To the Ambassador in France.
As Cardinal Borgia has not received the royal patents, Ossuna may find a means of staying on. He does not show the smallest sign of giving way and has asked the Cardinal to wait until May. In the meantime he hopes to win over the Court through Don Ottavio of Aragon and numerous presents.
They are making no provision for Germany at Naples, but Ossuna is collecting money. The six galleys may have gone to the east after all. They propose to put the remaining ships in order, to send to Spain against pirates.
The like to:
Spain, England, Savoy, Constantinople, Germany, Milan, Florence, The Hague.
Ayes, 166.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Feb. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
258. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
This morning the Ambassador Dohna confirmed all the things which I wrote to your Serenity yesterday about his negotiations. But he obtained nothing from the king beyond excellent hopes and expressions much more liberal and friendly than when he first arrived at this Court, and the honours received, of which I wrote. He is not even at the end of his arguments, for although the king is fully satisfied upon his first doubts as to whether the Kingdom of Bohemia is elective or hereditary, he wishes more explanation for the deposition of Ferdinand, and for this Dohna is to return to his Majesty in a week. Thus the agents of Spain and this ambassador will submit more papers.
This week I received your Serenity's letters of the 24th ult. I am glad that your Excellencies approve of my humble services. I am exceedingly glad to have instructions as to the way I must behave with the Ambassador Dohna. I may add that your Serenity's decision to answer the new king's letters with the title of king has given great satisfaction here and especially to his Majesty. A leading minister told me that the republic could have done nothing at the moment better calculated to increase and keep alive the excellent disposition in this kingdom towards her and the friendship of his Majesty.
I also note the instructions about possible claims by the owners of the paid off ships. May God avert the occasion to need them. I also note the order for payment for the carriage of letters, which I will immediately execute, although the masters of the post both here and at Antwerp have shown themselves very disagreeable.
With regard to communicating the news of the alliance concluded with the States, so soon as I received your Serenity's letters I sent my secretary to Sir [Lewis] Lewkenor, master of the ceremonies, asking him to inform his Majesty that I had important news to communicate and was ready to wait upon his convenience at Newmarket or anywhere else he pleased. I judged it right to make the request at once, as his Majesty greatly appreciates such offices of confidence and it is always best not to delay them. From my own observations I clearly perceive that they consider that your Serenity and the Duke of Savoy have seemed very slow in imparting to his Majesty the conclusion of this league, just as your Excellencies showed very scanty confidence in communicating the particulars of the conspiracy discovered at Venice. The Archbishop of Canterbury chiefly suggested this to me. I made excuses, alleging the constitution of the republic and the differences between her various councils. However, I shall not repeat my request or press it, as it is simply a matter of communication and not of negotiation, and the first request suffices for a demonstration of confidence.
With regard to refusing permission to Donato to print anything, as I guessed recently that they proposed to do, I contrived tactfully, without involving the public authority, to broach the matter with the Secretaries Naunton and Calvert, telling them that I wished to quench every spark of offence against my country, but to prevent them from arising; I had heard some hint of this proposal and it would be a most grateful action, though possibly Donato had no such intention. If the king took such action I felt sure it would be very opportune, as nothing would be more bitter to the republic than the printing of anything upon this question in the dominions of a prince so much respected, even though published by a person of no consideration whatever. Both promised to write and speak about it to his Majesty, assuring me that no permission should be given and I should receive satisfaction. However, if Donato should have this intention he could effect it in Flanders or elsewhere. Naunton in particular told me that a printer had recently printed without licence in this city a narrative from Geneva, translated into English, against the Duke of Savoy, relating the unjust death inflicted by him upon two Protestants, for which he had been imprisoned and severely punished. He hinted the publication was due to the Spanish agents here. This would give other printers no stomach to venture to commit such an offence for a great while.
Donato left London on the 18th inst., two days before the prescribed term expired, accompanied by Gradi the Ragusan and Fedrici the Venetian, besides his ordinary servants. He went to Putney, seven miles way, and spent that evening at Calandrini's house. He afterwards entered the house he has hired from an old English cavalier named Anthony Paoner, where he is now living with Fedrici, whom I believe he has taken as his companion and pastime in the solitude of the villa. He has the two servants and a woman to cook, the wife I hear, of Alessandro the steward. At his departure they loaded two great carts with goods, contained in 14 large chests of considerable weight, and other goods of no consideration.
Letters have reached the Secretaries of the Council here from Gregorio, his Majesty's agent at Venice, of the 24th ult. saying they have not yet decided about Leonardo Donato; a copy of the petition presented by Antonio Donato to the king had been presented to the Senate, and as it contained many pungent expressions it greatly exacerbated the minds of your Excellencies. He also says that the debt claimed by the Duke of Savoy by reason of Donato's embezzlement does not prove to be so great as was at first reported, since Donato robbed the republic, not the duke. He reports finally that a Frenchman has been wounded at Venice with many dagger thrusts. He is the man who revealed the late conspiracy. He adds that this has been effected by the French Ambassador at Venice, who had a share in that rascally business and who is very unpopular at Venice and very unsatisfactory to your Serenity (fn. 4) . I leave it to the judgment of your Excellencies if these particulars ought to be buried in the most profound secrecy.
London, the 21st February, 1619. [M.V.]
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Feb. 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Zara.
Venetian
Archives.
259. ALVISE ZORZI, Proveditore of Zara, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The 10,000 ducats of your Serenity reached me very opportunely, especially for the troops of Colonel Peyton, who do not brook delay. It is most necessary that the complete sum should arrive to pay the troops.
Zara, the 22nd February, 1619. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Feb. 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
260. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The governor wrote to Filiberto to ask leave to send through troops to Flanders. However, nothing has been published. The duke told the resident of England of the request, adding that although leave has been granted at other times, the matter required consideration. The resident sent a messenger to the Palatine with these particulars and many other advices about the movements of the Spaniards and the course of events in Italy.
Turin, the 24th February, 1619. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Feb. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
261. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
No sooner did Sterchemburgh leave than Bouincauter principal councillor of the Duke of Wirtemberg arrived. He arrived on Wednesday and on the following day he went to the assembly of the States General and visited the Prince of Orange. He asked for assistance for the Princes of the Union in men instead of money.
They have held several conferences upon the subject. When this is settled Bouincauter will leave for England at once and a ship is waiting all ready for him at Brill, by order of the States.
He is going to England to ask the king to give the help which he owes to the princes in men also, and he hopes he will meet with no rebuff. I find from his conversation that he had previously spoken to his Majesty about the affairs of Germany and the king had expressed opinions which covered the present circumstances, or at least very similar ones. He had obtained promises, and I fancy he will make the most of them. He does not speak about the Bohemians or their own king unless provoked, leaving that to those whom it concerns.
I was just finishing these presents when a note from Sir John Vere, lieutenant colonel in the troops of Col. Rocalaura, was brought to me. He asks me to write to the Savio della Scrittura. I will do so, but I think it right to send your Serenity a translation of this note, and inform you of Vere's intention to continue to serve if Rocalaura resigns. He told me that he wished to do everything without prejudice to him, and he had good control over the troops. He is a man esteemed by his Excellency here, an Englishman and professes himself a good servant of the republic. The States and his Excellency would like to have those troops here, rather than risk them falling into the hands of the house of Austria. Your Serenity will decide as you think best, although this person is well disposed and the English ambassador has spoken to me about him. Formerly Count William of Nassau, brother of the late Count John Ernest, had some relation with him, as he served as captain under the count as lieutenant colonel.
The Hague, the 25th February, 1620.
[Italian.]
Feb. 26.
Collegio
Notatorio.
Venetian
Archives.
262. After hearing the application of John Win, an Englishman that his dispute with George Manarin and Rudolph Simes, owners of the ship Annadem, may be dealt with summarily, and the reply made by the judges of the foreigners and the Proveditore of the fleet upon the matter, and after hearing the counsel for the owners, that the case be submitted to the Cinque Savii alla Mercantia as an entire affair which they have to administer in conformity with their office.
Ayes, 4.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Feb. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
263. To the Ambassador in England.
Since what we wrote about Medole last week there seems a better prospect of an arrangement. The Duke of Mantua has used his influence with the Medolans. The Governor of Milan has assured us that he only sent his troops to restore order and will be satisfied with the submission of the Medolans to the Prince of Castiglione and the punishment of a few ring-leaders, with the razing of their fortifications. If this is done his troops shall not cross the frontier and will be recalled. The Medolans have sent a commission to Milan to make terms with the governor, who has given orders that the troops shall not go further, and by now they should be recalled. The men sent to make provision of quarters for the troops have departed, so that we expect to hear soon that everything has been settled. For this reason we have made no further provision on our side.
We wish you to inform his Majesty of these particulars as a sign of our confidence and so that he may have full particulars of what has taken place up to the present.
The like, mutatis mutandis, to the Secretary Surian at the Hague.
Ayes, 93.Noes, 1.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Feb. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
264. To the Ambassador in France.
There is still some doubt about Ossuna leaving Naples, but we hear from Rome that Cardinal Borgia has received his patents and is ordered to go immediately. Don Ottavio of Aragon has been driven by a storm into a Tuscan port. Belmont has not yet left for Constantinople. Ossuna continues to raise money in every possible way. They have sent 50,000 crowns for the emperor to the Catholic ambassador at Vienna. Eight ships left Naples recently to take grain in Apulia. It was rumoured that they were to join the six galleys which went to the east and enter the Gulf to take troops to Trieste, and orders were sent to collect troops at Naples to be sent to the shores of the Gulf.
We send this for information, to be used when you find it necessary.
The like to:
Spain, England, Savoy, Constantinople, Germany, Florence, Milan, The Hague.
Ayes, 112.Noes, 1.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Feb. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
265. To the Ambassador in Spain.
We send you copies about what happened when the carriages of our Ambassador Soranzo at Rome and the Catholic ambassador met, with the orders we have sent for our ambassador's guidance. We send this for information.
We also send you a copy of our instructions to Soranzo to congratulate the Cardinal Borgia on his appointment as Governor of Naples.
The like, except the last paragraph, to the following:
France, Savoy, England, Milan, Naples, Florence, Germany, The Hague.
Ayes, 112.Noes, 1.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Feb. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
266. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
These last days we have heard some whispers about negotiations for a marriage between the Prince of Wales and the sister of the King of France. But as it was simply vague conversation and rested upon a vague and general expression used by one of the ministers in speaking to the ambassador of the Most Christian, all discussion about it has now died away with the news which has come from Paris, together with the report of the queen's restoration to health, that Madame has been promised to the Count of Soissons and they have already sent to Rome for the necessary dispensation. This news was published last week by the French ambassador as well as that of another great marriage in France. But they do not believe it to be true but think it has simply been published in order to create jealousy on this side. At present it seems to have only kindled the king's eagerness for a marriage with the Spaniard, although in the present circumstances this may reasonably be supposed to be much more unlikely to happen than ever it was before, although the wisest persons always considered it a very intricate business in spite of his Majesty's eagerness and though he hoped thereby to provide for the safety of his own life and that of his son and for the peace of his dominions.
The French ambassador goes about complaining that at this time of urgent and imminent peril to all Christendom and the whole world his king seems to be the only one who really desires to quiet the disturbances of the world and offers to treat for a settlement of the affairs of the Bohemians, to which fire all the other powers are bringing fuel to make it greater, and upon whose condition as upon that of Hungary men speak in such different fashion. Every one speaks in accordance with his interests and his pre-conceived ideas, guided by his own inclination and passion. One announces the hopes of the emperor, greatly exaggerating the numbers of his forces and adherents, that the Duke of Saxony has declared for him, that Bethlen Gabor is seriously ill, that a truce has been arranged with him for the whole of next September, that the Duke of Bavaria will render him active assistance, that he will soon receive powerful assistance from Italy, that the pope and other Catholic powers are making great preparations of money and men, that the King of France has already issued orders for a large force destined to help the emperor, and such like things. On the other hand others declare that Gabor has concluded an alliance with the new King of Bohemia, that Saxony has written very friendly letters to the latter, that possibly he will take the opportunity of conferring when the king visits the provinces near his state, which have given themselves of their own free will, that the forces levied in France will be employed for other purposes than helping Cæsar; that the king there acting on bad advice, recently entered the parliament unexpectedly and asked them for money for the disturbances of the Huguenots and in Germany. They refused him to his face very boldly, and he left in very ill humour, while the members of the parliament were offended by his entering without previously sending them word; that the new king has very strong forces, and all his friends in Germany are ready to defend him with large armies; the States in particular, without awaiting a decision from his Majesty here have decided to hasten to his assistance not only providing what they are bound to by their alliance with the Princes of the Union, but with additional assistance in money and men. But the truth of all these things will have reached your Serenity much earlier.
It seems as if the Spanish ministers in this country have recently changed their nature. As a rule they have been accustomed to make the most always of their affairs and of the house of Austria, now they seem more inclined to deprecate them, probably with the intention of diverting his Majesty from making a declaration. With regard to a declaration, although the eye of reason can see what there ought to be, yet it cannot see what will be. I have nothing to add on this subject beyond what I wrote last week.
Baron Dohna has gone off for Newmarket again this morning to begin his second argumentative contest. We shall see what victory he obtains.
Yesterday a Scotch knight named Andrew arrived in this city. He has been sent by the new King of Bohemia to levy 2,000 foot in this kingdom. (fn. 5) He proposes to get 1,000 Scotch and 1,000 English. He has sent to Court for permission and his Majesty's leave. The issue will soon appear.
London, the 28th February, 1619. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Feb. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
267. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Baron Bunychausen, a German, knight of the Duke of Wirtemburg, sent as ambassador to his Majesty by the Princes of the Union, has been travelling several days from Heidelberg to these parts. They think he must be very near, possibly at the Hague. He comes to urge the king to send help as the chief of their alliance, and not to abandon his daughter and son-in-law and to do what the others are expecting of him. This baron has been here two or three other times and is considered a very prudent, well-informed minister. They say he had a large share in bringing about the union of the princes of Germany and the marriage of the Palatine to the Princess Elizabeth.
The latest from Spain states that Gondomar has not yet left, so the falseness of the previous rumours is evident.
Orders are still being issued for making ready the twenty ships to go against the pirates, but so far the ships have not yet been selected. The Cavalier Monsfelt, Vice-Admiral of the realm, has been announced as commander. They say no more about their joining the Spanish fleet, but they would much more probably join the Dutch. News has arrived that many pirate ships have recently perished by mishap. For this reason and for others some say that these ships are intended for something different from what they profess.
Just now they seem to be proceeding with extraordinary rigour in this city against the Catholics. This has been intensified to some extent by those who wish to stir up the feelings of the people. The Catholic party here is beginning to think and believe that the coming war will be one of religion. This opinion is not calculated to help the new king. News has reached here that the French ambassador has spoken very bitterly against Frederick in the Collegio at Venice by order of his king. Letters also state that your Excellencies will not consent to the pope imposing new tenths in your state, and other letters say that the decision to grant the title of king to the new King of Bohemia met with strong opposition in the Senate and was finally carried by taking a vote by ballot. They profess at Court here to know all about the affairs of Venice, though possibly they do not know much.
The conclusion of the league between your Serenity and the States is now in every one's mouth. The king will come to the city next week, then only do I expect to have audience to make my communication.
Sir [Henry] Wotton, who is honoured by all as the ambassador elect to your Serenity, does not yet know whether he will return to Venice. He aspires to the office of Secretary of State and keeps postponing the time for decision. If he does not come I hear that they propose to send Sir [Isaac] Wake as ambassador, now agent of his Majesty with the Duke of Savoy, and I know that he has had some promise to this effect from the king at the instance of the favourites.
I have paid Quester, master of the posts here, and Roclans, master of the posts at Antwerp, as your Excellencies will see from the enclosed accounts and receipts. Please see that the letters of exchange are paid to Filippo Burlamacchi and Giovanni Calandrini, who paid the money.
I have received your Excellencies' letters of the 25th and 31st ult., which reached me at the same time. I hope that mine of the 19th and 23rd arrived soon after they were sent off.
London, the 28th February, 1619. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
Account for the carriage of letters from Sig. Antonio Donato, Venetian Ambassador in London, for the months of January, February, March, April, May and June, 1619.
Jan.1 for Prague1 shillings
"2 from Venice17.2 shillings
"4 from London17 "
"5 for Venice22.2 "
"9 from Venice21.8 "
"11 from London11.4 "
"12 for Venice10 "
"16 from Venice15.2 "
"18 from London22.6 "
"19 for Venice20 "
"22 for Prague1 "
"24 from Italy19 "
"26 from London19.2 "
"30 from Venice19.10 "
Feb.2 for Venice15.10 "
"3 from London20 "
"6 from Venice29.8 "
"8 from London16.8 "
"9 for Venice33.4 "
"12 from Venice18 "
"14 from London8.10 "
"16 for Venice8.4 "
"19 from Venice14.8 "
"22 from London24.8 "
"23 for Italy21.8 "
"24 for Prague1 "
"26 from Venice25 "
"28 for an extraordinary despatch from London by Antwerp by the courier Zacharia250 "
March1 from London28.4 "
"2 for Venice34.2 "
"5 from Venice54.8 "
"8 from London21.4 "
"9 for Venice20.10 "
"13 from Venice15.10 "
"15 from London13.8 "
"16 for Venice13.2 "
"20 from Venice18 "
924.8 "
March25 from London19.8 "
"27 from Venice23.4 "
"29 from London23.8 "
for Vienna1 "
"30 for Venice40 "
April3 from Venice22 "
"5 from London10.6 "
"6 for Venice10 "
"10 from Venice12 "
"12 from London10 "
"13 for Venice9.8 "
"17 from Venice93.4 "
"19 from London33.10 "
"20 for Venice30 "
"— for Prague8 "
"23 from Venice25.2 "
"26 from London20 "
"27 for Venice19 "
"30 from Venice11 "
May3 from London15 "
"4 for Venice15 "
"8 from Venice21 "
"10 from London11.8 "
"11 for Venice11.6 "
"14 from Venice15.10 "
"17 from London7.6 "
"18 for Venice6.8 "
"21 from Venice30.6 "
"24 from London13 "
"25 for Venice12.6 "
"28 from Venice10.10 "
"31 for Vienna1 "
"— from London14.8 "
June1 for Venice11.4 "
"4 for Vienna1 "
"— from Venice11.4 "
"7 from London13.4 "
"8 for Venice13.4 "
654.4 "
"11 from Venice8 "
"14 from London20.10 "
"15 for Venice13.10 "
"— for Prague1 "
"18 from Venice20.10 "
"21 from London5.10 "
"22 for Venice5.6 "
"25 from Venice2.8 "
"28 from London11.4 "
"29 for Venice10.10 "
100.8
654.4
924.8
1,679.8=83l.19s.8d.
Note by Pier Antonio Marioni that he paid those from 24 May, 1619, to 29 June.
The present account amounting to 83l 19s. 8d., of grossi equivalent to 50l. 7s. 10d. in sterlings whereof the Secretary Marioni paid 6l. 1s. 10d. on 3rd January last, leaves 44l. 6s. sterling. In addition 25 livres are due for a courier sent to Sig. Donato when he was recalled to Venice, equivalent to 4l.
Note of receipt of 48l. 6s. by Matthew de Quester from the Ambassador Lando on 10 February (old style) the money being received on account for Gio. Battista Roclants, master of the posts at Antwerp.
[Italian.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
268. To SIG. ANTONIO DONATO.
l.s.d.
April1 letters from Paris016
"letters from Antwerp0186
"9 letters from Antwerp0106
"13 letters from Paris056
"14 letters from Antwerp309
"23 letters from Antwerp0170
"27 letters from Spain050
May1 letters from Antwerp076
"4 letters from Spain026
"5 letters from Antwerp0140
729
Note of receipt by Matthew de Quester, master of his Majesty's post, from the Ambassador Lando on the 10th February, 1619, old style.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Their names were Monge and Marchisi; Wake wrote to explain to James the reasons for their execution, and was thanked by the Duke of Savoy for the manner in which he presented the case. Despatch of March 8/18, 1620. State Papers, Foreign, Savoy.
2 Probably Goring, but hardly George Goring of Hurstpierpoint, father of the celebrated royalist general, who would not be more than 36 at this time (Dict. Nat. Biog.) and therefore could hardly be described as elderly. His father. George Goring, of Ovingdean, was already dead, on 7 February, 1601. Elwes and Robinson: Castles and Mansions of Western Sussex. Goring pedigree at page 267; possibly Robert, a younger brother of the elder George Goring; or Sir Henry Goring, of Burton, who died in 1626 and was presumably about 50 at this date. Cass: Monken Hadley, pedigree of Greene at page 128.
3 Christian Gonzaga, Count of Solferino, younger brother of Francis Gonzaga, Prince of Castiglione, both sons of Ferdinand Gonzaga, first Marquis of Castiglione. Hübner: Genealogische Tabellen. Table 310.
4 This letter does not seem to be preserved at the Public Record Office. The Frenchman in question must be Baldassare Juven, as Gabriel Moncassin, the other informant, was slain in a quarrel in Crete in 1618 as reported by the French ambassador at Venice in his despatch of the 7th November, 1618. See Daru: Hist. de Venise. iv. page 381. Daru says that it is not known what became of Juven after the conspiracy. Loc. cit.
5 "Here is one Andrew Gray, a Scot, come from Bohemia, who makes for leave to raise 2,000 voluntaries." Chamberlain to Carleton, the 26th Feb., 1620. Birch: Court and Times of James I, ii, page 201.