Venice
May 1620, 16-28

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1910

Pages

252-266

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'Venice: May 1620, 16-28', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 16: 1619-1621 (1910), pp. 252-266. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88757 Date accessed: 31 July 2014.


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Contents

May 1620

May 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
354. To the Ambassador in France.
A few families of Uscocchi are now in our service, this having taken place with the consent of the Commissioners. We hoped to remove them from inflicting fresh damage, more particularly against the Turks, to the general peril, especially in present circumstances. These remain quietly with their families in divers of our places in Dalmatia, without doing harm to any one, otherwise they would not be tolerated by us. Some other families of Uscocchi have offered our Proveditore Zorzi at Zara to enter the service of the republic, and we have consented. We hear that the Imperial ministers are seizing upon this pretext to lay upon our shoulders the damage inflicted by the Uscocchi, without any reference to their being received at Naples or their disinclination to carry out the treaty which we have so punctiliously observed. We have sent you these particulars for information to use as you may judge best for our service if you hear the facts misrepresented, in order to remove any bad impression.
The like to the following:
Spain, England, Savoy, Constantinople, Germany, Naples, Florence, Milan, the Hague, Swiss.
Ayes, 127.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
May 16.
Senato,
Secrota.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
355. To the Ambassador in England.
We hear from our Secretary Surian at the Hague that the Prince of Orange, who has a large share in the government, told him in great confidence that the Spaniards by various crafty devices are aiming at the subjection of free states. He heard on good authority that in addition to the marriage negotiations to induce England not to help his son-in-law, the Spanish ambassador had proposed to him an alliance with the Catholic and Most Christian kings, for the purpose of humbling the republics, and the same ambassador had made a similar proposal in France when passing through that Court. Although the Secretary Surian informs us that he advised you of these particulars, yet owing to their importance, we judged it necessary to send them also so that you may endeavour to obtain some light on the subject and send us word.
Ayes, 137.Noes, 2.Neutral, 6.
That the following be added to the letter for the Ambassador in England.
We must not omit to add that you will endeavour, with all circumspection and prudence, to throw obstacles in the way of this marriage. You will so govern your conversation and expressions of opinion, in which you will profess the greatest regard for the interests of that crown, as to induce the ministers possessing influence with his Majesty to show a good inclination towards our affairs and so they may be able to divert this marriage. This is our wish, but if you encounter difficulties we leave you to act as your prudence may direct, and to give it up if you think best.
Ayes, 13.
[Italian.]
May 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
356. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Secretary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In conformity with your Serenity's commands of the 9th April I informed the king how the Pasha continues in his ill will towards the interests of your Excellencies, and I touched upon all the points which are contained in the letter. His Majesty replied that he was indeed grieved to hear that the Pasha remained in the same unfortunate state of mind; he could say no more except that he would always be ready to endeavour to divert any evil consequences by his offices, and even to employ his power if they resort to force. He would always play his part with spirit to extinguish any conflagration against the republic he loved above any other power. He added: I declared myself against the pope, when her interests alone were concerned, think how much more I would do so against the Turk, who is the common enemy of all Christendom, and in such a just cause. He reminded me that he had exchanged friendly letters with the late Grand Vizier more than once; he was a discrete and prudent man; but this fellow is a devil. He went on to tell me that in such an occasion he should like to have with the Grand Seigneur such confidence as he has with Denmark and the other powers. However, he hoped that the letters he had recently written to his ambassador would produce a good effect, as they were very friendly and forcible and he felt satisfied that he had done his part. He reminded me of previous offers which he had made to your Excellencies in former difficulties with the Turks. He invited me to remind you of how much he could do for the better service of your Serenity. He told me that whatever I would suggest to him he would do and he would neglect no office which I might think useful under the circumstances, and he would never hesitate to declare himself the warm friend of the republic, interested above everything in its reputation and preservation. I beg you, he said to assure the Signory most fully, I swear by my faith and God be my witness, that they shall never repent of the confidences which they repose in me and their certainty of finding the most friendly disposition in me to favour their affairs. He remarked that in this affair he had thought but little of the trade and interests of the merchants his subjects, who trade at the Porte, because they are already very tired and disgusted with that traffic. In short he offered me not only his good offices but all his power, his tongue seeming powerless to express the fulness of his soul and the completeness of his devotion to the interests of your Serenity. He spoke with remarkable fervour and begged me to testify in the fullest possible manner to his perfect disposition towards your Serenity. He asked me finally if it were true that a Pasha had rebelled in Egypt, as reported here. I said I knew nothing about it.
I thanked his Majesty warmly for his great expression of friendship and the letters he had written, and all this would greatly increase the indebtedness of your Serenity. I spoke of the glory which he has obtained throughout the world by the interposition of his offices and similar things which touch him most nearly and give him the greatest satisfaction and pleasure.
The Secretary Naunton, who seems to grow more and more friendly to the republic, told me that his Majesty wished to give the greatest possible tokens to your Serenity of his incomparable disposition towards the interests of the republic. Since my audience he had reflected further upon current affairs and had decided to write a letter to the Grand Seigneur, signed with his own hand, which I enclose together with another directed to his ambassador, to urge him on, which he gave me by the king's order, so that it may be sent and used in any way your Excellencies desire at Constantinople, and give greater spirit to the offices, and also show to the ambassador, who is actually paid by the merchants though authorised by the king, as well as the Grand Vizier and Grand Turk and every one else how much he has the interests of your Excellencies at heart.
From what he intimated to me his Majesty would also have written to the Grand Vizier, but abstained from fear that he would not receive a courteous response from that fantastic and extravagant brain. I thanked him and asked for a copy for your Excellencies to see, which I enclose.
At the same audience the king said to me: Some years ago the Prince of Joinville, my French cousin, expressed a wish to serve the republic and take the charge which the Count of Vaudemont had. I recommended him for the affection which I have for him, because he is my kinsman, of great worth and well adapted for the republic. The matter passed out of sight at that time, as possibly the Signory did not require him. Now I should like to know their opinion. He then charged me to write about it to your Excellencies.
London, the 16th May, 1620.
[Italian.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
357. JAMES, King of Great Britain, etc., to the SULTAN OSMAN, greeting:
God, who has divided the earth among many potentates, although he has given each one charge of his own affairs has nevertheless joined all by a common friendship so that they may develop the general welfare of the human race. We have often interposed as mediators in the wrath of princes, and by God's grace have restored peace to the people, which peace we grieve to see disturbed in Germany by the obstinate machinations of man.
We wish to perform this office of mediator with your Majesty at present, so that you may show your favour to the Venetians, who have been friends of the Ottoman house for so many years, and that the dispute now existing may be extinguished. The prudence of the republic is such that it grants what is just, without force, and its esteem for your Majesty is so great that it would inflict injury on any one rather than on your house.
It will become your Majesty not to raise grievances against your friends, but to conquer them by courtesy and not by force, arranging all disputes by reason. In this way all peoples will desire nothing better than the friendship of the Great Sultan. Out of our ancient affection for the Sultan Achmet your father we hope that the Venetians will be well treated for our sake, and we shall be grateful for anything your Majesty may do.
From our palace at Greenwich, the 2nd May, 1620. (fn. 1) .
[Latin.]
May 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterre.
Venetian
Archives.
358. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A person who frequents the Spanish ambassador's house, said some days ago in confidence to my informant that the ambassador had made some proposal to the king for a league between his Majesty, France and Spain, as with the junction of these three powerful sovereigns no one would dare to disturb the peace of the world, and every one would accord them the respect due to their greatness and power. With great application and dexterity I have endeavoured to get at the truth of this statement, and have touched the principal stops which hitherto have always responded to me. I have discovered nothing whatever, though I think it my duty to report the matter to your Excellencies, and I shall keep on the alert, because even if the proposal has not been made, they may be thinking of making it, especially if the marriage takes place, which seems to make ever greater progress. Thus I observe in those who do not want it a great reserve in speaking compared with what was customary before. They say that it may be arranged now but it will not afterwards be carried out. I hear that the prince inclines to it more and more every day. The king has spoken to him about it frequently these last days and informed him of all the negotiations. It is noteworthy that Lord Digby, who works hard at this affair, and who is a member of his Majesty's Council, stands constantly at the prince's elbow and has obtained the honour of being declared by him as his particular servant, being made a gentleman of his chamber, so that he can enter it at any time freely and have access to his Highness whenever he pleases. The king grants this, but never, I understand, to any of his own Councillors. It is even more remarkable that the Spanish ambassador is now trying to obtain that the old and rigorous orders made by Queen Elizabeth against the priests and other Catholics shall not be punctually observed, but that reserve and restraint shall be imposed upon the pursuivants, who are the spies and police against the English Catholics; and that they shall show mildness and indulgence so that it will facilitate the way of obtaining the dispensation from the pope. I hear on excellent authority that the king will agree to this.
It also seems that they have renewed the project of uniting twenty ships of this kingdom with an equal number of Spanish ships, to go against the pirates. They are hastening on the preparations, more perhaps because the Lord High Admiral, the favourite, wishes to have the command of such a fine fleet, which would be the first under his orders, and will win him more glory and popularity among the people and sailors than he could obtain in any other way. They desire to arrange the question of the command already and the methods of sailing together, in flying the flag of one or the other king, according to the seas they may be in, the equal division of the booty and other essential and necessary points. Such an agreement between the two nations seems incompatible. Every man of judgment believes that neither this nor the marriage will ever take place, if the troubles of Bohemia are not appeased, as one of the leading ministers told me that he will not seriously interpose for the prolongation of the truce with the States before he sees the end of those disturbances. However it is at present very misleading in most cases to form judgments based upon ordinary conversation.
The Ambassador of Bohemia had audience the other day to learn the king's wishes, about treating for peace and an accommodation since he will not make a declaration or give assistance for war. He was told that he would hear the decision in a few days.
It is not known whether they will make a fresh choice of ambassadors, for it is not long since Viscount Doncaster returned, as the French do not send the instructions given to their ambassadors, and as it is thought that their embassy is only intended for pomp and show. Probably they want to wait here to see what happens, in order afterwards to try and obtain for themselves all the glory of an accommodation, when they think one is likely to be made. In addition to all this the new embassy is delayed by the irresolution in making a declaration, as it would be necessary to send it to the King of Bohemia as king.
Last week letters reached his Majesty from the King of Poland, offering likewise to interpose for an accommodation of the affairs of Bohemia. Mr. Patrick Gordon will return in a few days as resident with that monarch from this crown. He is a Scottish gentleman who arrived here a few months ago from those parts. (fn. 2) He is now making busy preparations for his departure and will take special instructions with him to divert all harm from that quarter from the King of Bohemia and the Confederate Princes, and to express to the king how laudable is his idea of helping towards an accommodation.
To-day the king is sending letters to his ambassador at the Hague to induce Prince Maurice and other leading men to strengthen and confirm the Duke of Savoy and include him in the bond of the league with the States and Princes of the Union. Meanwhile, as I wrote before, they wish to use every effort to prevent him from going over to the other side. They are also considering other designs and plans which at present are not fully matured or disclosed. This matter is kept a profound secret, and possibly the ambassador of the Duke of Savoy here does not know of it; especially as all the things which I mentioned in my last despatch took place, not at this court but at Turin with the Agent Wake. That shows fairly clearly that the ministers here and the king have not entire confidence and satisfaction in the Ambassador Gabaleoni, while the duke is of the same mind. Indeed it has been reported that he will very shortly be removed, and he himself professes to have earnestly requested his Highness for leave to return to Turin.
Of the seven English ships which served in your Serenity's fleet, I am advised that five have now returned to this kingdom.
The last letters I have received from your Excellencies are of the 11th and 15th April.
London, the 16th May, 1620.
[Italian.]
May 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
359. ALMORO NANI, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I induced the Ambassadors of France and the States to speak in favour of the interests of the most serene republic to the Oia. The new Ambassador of England excused himself, the old one having departed, because he had as yet neither seen nor met him, otherwise he would not have failed to take his share.
The Vigne of Pera, the 18th May, 1620.
[Italian; deciphered.]
May 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
360. ALMORO NANI, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In order to leave nothing untried in this serious affair, I arranged with the Ambassadors of France, England and Flanders to send for three of the leading Turks interested in the lost trading galleys to induce them to accept some sum of money, to abate their pretensions. They did not come yesterday but sent word to the ambassador that they would appear to-day. Accordingly three of them appeared at the French embassy, and there the ambassadors asked them to consent to something reasonable, as violence would do them no good. They advised them to await the arrival of the new bailo, who had full power to deal with the matter. The merchants replied that they would never consent to this as they had a sentence in their favour. They required the bailo to pay a part and the ambassadors to remain surety for the remainder. The ambassadors replied that they would do nothing of the kind; they had no property of any of the merchants; they must get such ideas out of their heads. The ambassadors would go together to make complaint to the king about any violence done to the bailo, and the Sultan would order that no harm should come to him or the others, representing powers friendly to the Porte.
The merchants replied threatening the bailo. They could not wait, but would have patience if the Grand Vizier commanded. The ambassadors assured them that I would suffer anything rather than submit to the sentence.
I must confess that I have been greatly relieved by the action of these ambassadors, as their united action has a great moral effect, and I hope your Serenity will inform their masters of their worthy operations.
The Vigne of Pera, the 19th May, 1620.
[Italian; deciphered.]
May 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
361. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Agent of England has informed me that the marriage negotiations have proceeded so far as an agreement upon the amount of money, namely, 600,000l. sterling. Gondomar claims that the bride shall have a public Catholic church with the preservation of many privileges for the Catholics. This cannot be allowed, but only a chapel in her own apartments and for the exercise of seeing the mass she must have no person subject to the King of Great Britain. With these pretensions many rigours were now being renewed against the Catholics. He said that the weal or woe of the emperor depended upon the conclusion of this marriage, therefore the Spaniards will yield everything and England could not receive a more useful princess in all Europe
He added that the king his master will help his son-in-law secretly, sending money through the King of Denmark, and the Kings of Sweden and Denmark will also certainly send help to the Bohemians.
The people of Oneglia are complaining about the new duty which the duke proposes to impose upon oil, that being the market for all the oil of the Riviera. They fear they will lose the trade, which used to be free, since all the other foreign places impose a duty upon oil.
Turin, the 18th May, 1620.
[Italian.]
May 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
362. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I will use the copy of the letter of the King of Great Britain to his ambassador at Constantinople as time and occasion may require. I have not heard a word here about what befell the Ambassador Lando in England. The Ambassador Carleton called on me last Sunday and I returned his visit later but he never spoke of the matter on either occasion. I will keep on the alert and if I hear anything said I will uphold the public dignity.
The Hague, the 19th May, 1620.
[Italian.]
May 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
363. ALMORO NANI, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Chiaus Bassi, egged on by the Pasha, continues to press me for payment. Finally they sent to demand the money, otherwise they would send and fetch me to the Pasha's house. I moved the Ambassadors of France and Flanders to go before me to smooth the way. The Ambassador of England could not accompany them owing to indisposition. They saw the Pasha after my audience, when he threatened war upon Venice if I did not pay.
The Vigne of Pera, the 22nd May, 1620.
[Italian; deciphered.]
May 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
364. VALERIO ANTELMI, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
From Prague I hear that they are gathering troops and help has come from Flanders, while Silesia had sent 2,000 musketeers to the King Palatine. At Prague also they say that the King of England will send plentiful assistance to his son-in-law, and he intended to favour the affairs in Bohemia as a reply to what the King of Spain was doing for the emperor.
Vienna, the 23rd May, 1620. Copy.
[Italian.]
May 25.
Senato.
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
365. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The duke has offered to interpose in the differences which have arisen in England between the French and Spanish ambassadors, but was told that there would be no accommodation without the king's honour being satisfied. Marini has ceased to be seen with the English agent, who decided to be absent at the time when M. de Leon and M. de St. Remy, ambassadors for your Serenity, were passing through.
Turin, the 25th May, 1620.
[Italian.]
May 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
366. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
When I saw his Highness he spoke to me about the visit of the Duke of Mantua to Venice. On the following day the Resident of England came to see me. He said he had instructions from his king to embrace every opportunity that would conduce to the peace of Italy, and as Mantua and Prince Tomaso would be in Venice at the same time he thought your Excellencies might easily interpose your offices to accommodate the differences between the two houses. He spoke strongly to me in his Majesty's name, saying that he had consulted the duke who was perfectly willing but would not move himself or seem eager for it. He exhorted me to write very fully on the subject.
I replied suitably upon the king's solicitude for the welfare of Italy, that the republic in particular values that disposition to which she readily responds. I referred to the good intentions of your Excellencies and said that his Majesty's counsels would increase your desire to act. I added that I thought the opportunity would be fleeting as probably the duke was only in Venice for pleasure and I was not sure whether he and the prince would be there together, because the duke had sent couriers telling him how he must conduct himself, and nothing certain was known. Some said he was first going to Loreto and perhaps to Rome, only visiting Venice on his return. But he urged that any occasion that arose should be utilised.
I thought it best to send my secretary to inform the duke of this proposal by the resident, telling him that I had already decided to write to your Excellencies about the desire his Highness had expressed to me, but I would await his further commands. The duke replied that he had agreed with the English agent that the interposition of the republic would be most helpful, and he left the matter of writing to my prudence.
Turin, the 25th May, 1620.
[Italian.]
May 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
367. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The troops have arrived at Vado in the galleys from Naples to the number of 2,500. They received their pay and will begin to enter this state, to reach the Ponte di Gresin on the Burgundian frontier on the 6th. Troops have been ordered out to accompany them, and provisions are being made for them, for which the Spaniards will pay. The English resident has sent word post of these events to all those interested against the Spanish troops, and his Highness was going to send to Bohemia to the Prince of Anhalt.
Turin, the 25th May, 1620.
[Italian.]
May 26.
Collegio,
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
368. In the Collegio.
Captain Robert Tocle, an Englishman, having served the republic in the fleet upon the ship Matthew for about two years, we wish to express our satisfaction with his worthy and honourable service as a sign of our goodwill towards him.
Ayes, 20.Noes, 1.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Covered
by the
preceding.
369. Most Serene Prince:
I, Robert Tocle, have served the republic for about two years with the ship Matthew, showing a fidelity and devotion equal to that of any other foreigner employed by your Serenity. In order that when I return home I may be able to show to every one public testimony to the satisfaction felt at my services I beg your Serenity, in conformity with what has been done in the case of other sea captains, to be pleased to honour me with some testimony of the satisfaction received from my services. For this I shall be greatly obliged and it will serve as an incentive to others to offer themselves readily for your service.
[Italian.]
May 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
370. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
After I had sent off my despatch of last week I set out for Dort to confer with Pasini about the affair of the ships, proposed by him; but after reflection, I stopped and Pasini came on to me here. He confirmed all that he wrote in his letter to your Serenity, evidently feeling sure that there was no doubt about the proposal. He showed me the promise of the person from St. Malo to wait six weeks for a reply from Venice. However, he thought it best to arrange for an interview between me and the Viscount de Lormes, that being the name of the person who has the affair in hand. Accordingly he had written to Peter Falgher at Brussels to bring the Viscount here. This pretext will serve to gain time. I hope to have him here by Sunday, and to send word by the next ordinary of what takes place. I enclose a copy of his promise.
Although the Ambassador Lando will have written to your Serenity that the King of Great Britain thinks of sending an embassy to Germany, I may state that Carleton here has told me they are thinking about it. I also learned from him that as it will be necessary to send more than one they propose to send him as one of theirs, one of his intimates, a Councillor at the Court, having written to tell him so.
Yesterday his wife left for London. It is reported that she is going on the private affairs of her household and will return in four months at most, but I fancy that she is making the journey in order to advance the affair mentioned in the letters, as her friends may advise.
The Hague, the 26th May, 1620.
[Italian.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
371. I, Jan de Lormes, knight, lord of la Pouuraye, viscount de Lormes and Fredefoin, being this day in the city of Brussels, have made a compact with Peter Falgher and Giovanni Battista Pasini, two inhabitants of the city of Venice, upon an important affair; they have promised that within six weeks they will give me the reply and decision of their prince and republic, and I have promised that within that period I will not negotiate with any one until the reply arrives.
Dated at Brussels, the 11th April, 1620.
[Italian.]
May 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
372. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have received your Serenity's instructions to inform you about the petition presented by Sig. Giovanni Battista Pasini. He has served well, working for the various ambassadors who have been at the Imperial Court, in France, Spain and England. He also engaged Sir [Thomas] Stodder and others for the republic. He has always served the republic zealously, and has recently displayed his zeal in this affair of the pirates.
The Hague, the 26th May, 1620.
[Italian.]
May 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
373. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On the 25th the 1,000 soldiers levied by Gray should have left Scotland, and the day before yesterday the other 1,000 English left these shores, but owing to the contrary winds I hear that they have not yet passed Gravesend. They will land at Hamburg, to march thence to Bohemia. If the news which recently arrived here be true that the Duke of Saxony has declared for the emperor, they will either encounter some difficulty in obtaining a passage, or have to take a longer route. 6,000l. sterling or about 24,000 crowns have been paid for these levies before their departare from these realms. Possibly for this reason the new king will henceforward show much less eagerness to enlist troops in these parts at his own cost. His partisans are directing their energies to collecting money from the country. They have applied to the justices of the counties, as in the case of the city they went to the aldermen. These justices promise to raise a very considerable sum. It appears too that the aldermen, not satisfied with the small amount obtained continue with another collection with the intention of making it eventually a larger sum than is obtainable by single effort. The clergy are doing the same.
The Earl of Essex, with some twenty young gentlemen, all of good birth and many belonging to the leading families of this kingdom, is making ready to go as an adventurer to the army of the new king. Similarly Lord Giaret (fn. 3) is making like preparations with other cavaliers and lords.
Sir [Roger] Nort, since receiving the orders not to start yet for the shores of the Amazons in the West has left unexpectedly. The Spanish ambassador considers that he has been played with, and finds it hard to believe that he did not have some royal permission; although since the event he dissimulates and pretends that it was not such a great and important affair as he intimated at first. His Majesty manifests the greatest wrath about it, inveighing with remarkable vigour against the cavalier's brothers and against those members of the Council who had interests in the venture. He offered profuse apologies to the ambassador, and sent to Ireland to have the ship arrested if it appears in any of the ports there. He has also sent a ship after it to make it come back and finally has issued a rigorous proclamation against the knight for disobedience. This event has greatly exacerbated the minds of every one, both the nobles and the populace, and many voices are raised aloud either against the Spanish ambassador or against others: for while every one sees with disgust the marriage as good as settled, they also see the busy preparations of Lord Digby for his embassy to Spain, although he himself said that he would not start before September. But a thousand considerations may come in the way of a conclusion, and perchance that is much further off than is generally believed.
The other day the brother of his Majesty's ambassador resident in Paris arrived in haste. He brings word of the feeling aroused in that Court by the preference accorded here to the Spanish ambassador, and with regard to sending to his Majesty the instructions given to their ambassadors for Germany, the ministers there say that in their opinion the relations at present existing between the two crowns do not justify a union in this matter, because there is not such a good understanding. Similarly the ambassador in France does not consider that he has been well treated upon several occasions, and by the feeling evoked by the sentence upon a French merchant here (fn. 4) , and for other reasons besides, the sentiments of the two nations seem to become constantly more estranged and embittered.
The news that the son of the new king has been declared heir to the crown in the event of his father's death gives rise to the belief that if will be more difficult to arrange an accommodation in the present wars. But it also seems a stimulus to goad his Majesty to make some declaration now it is a question of keeping the crown for his own flesh and blood.
London, the 28th May, 1620.
[Italian.]
May 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
374. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
His Majesty has decided to despatch Sir [Henry] Wotton in a few days to return to reside with your Serenity, but with instructions for Germany, both for the emperor and the princes and for Bohemia, which are now being drawn up, and probably they will shut him up in those parts for a long while. He will try to go first, if it be possible, to the assembly of the princes, which should be assembled at Heilbronn, a short distance from Stuttgart, before it is dissolved, chiefly in order to observe the negotiations and behaviour of the French ambassadors, and so far as I can make out he will be more of a spy than an ambassador, and will feel the pulse of all to see if there is any way of applying a remedy and of quieting so many commotions. According as he prospers they will decide what to do here, either to give him a colleague or to send another embassy. They have already written, to give him a colleague, to the Ambassador Carleton at the Hague, to hasten his preparation to join him at the first hint. For another embassy one of the magnates seems to be ready, such as Viscount Doncaster.
Possibly the arrival here in diligence of a secretary from the Duke of Wirtemberg (fn. 5) will hasten the departure of Wotton. He brings letters for the king from the Princes of the Union, who have directed the Ambassador Dohna to join him, telling of the report brought by Bunyncausen, the obligations of his Majesty on many accounts and making anew urgent requests for assistance due by the terms of the alliance, as they see themselves surrounded on every hand by hostile forces, who may attack their states at any moment, and especially the Palatinate. They also ask his Majesty to declare what he will do if the emperor proclaims the imperial ban, begging for a speedy and immediate decision so that they also may be able to decide what to do, as their assembly is dissolving and the French embassy is leaving them. In their assembly they will expect a reply without delay, as without help from these parts they cannot stand, and they openly say that they will be compelled to abandon the defence of the Palatinate, as more cannot be expected from them than from his Majesty, who is bound by the alliance and by ties of flesh and blood. Thus his Majesty is besieged and is greatly perplexed, disgusted and angered at various opinions expressed in the letter of the princes with great liveliness, decision and sharpness.
On the one hand he is powerfully attacked by those ministers who favour his son-in-law, who direct all their energies to make him fear that he will lose all his old and faithful friends, owing to the difficulties in which they find themselves, as they begin to believe here from the reports of the Dukes of Bavaria and Saxony. They also urge the cause of relationship which should lead him to help his own children, and the obligation of the alliance, in which his honour is concerned.
On the other hand are his hatred of trouble, his desire for peace and his fear of making the war universal and one of religion, the thorny obstacles that every provision of men or of money must encounter, and finally the desire for the marriage and the very skilful offices of the Spanish ambassador, working also through his partisans few of whom possess any remarkable wit, but they stand very high in his Majesty's favour, and the ambassador knows full well what course to pursue in the present affairs, especially as the king would hate to incur any additional trouble and seems to shrink from the slightest approach to it. It will soon appear to which side victory will fall, matters being so narrowed down, (et dall' altra parte dall' abborrimento di travagli dal desiderio di pace dal timore di far universale e di religione la guerra, dalli contrarii spinosi, che è per tirare seco ogni provisione che voglia unire o di gente o di danaro, e finalmente dalla brama del matrimonio e dall Ambr. di Spagna quale valorosissimo con ogni artificioso ufficio e con suoi partiali, seben pochi di soprafina accortezza, però et in sommo grado nella gratia di Maestà Sua, si sa molto bene di portare nella congiontura corrente, massime nella quale abborrisse il Re d'aggiongergli disgusto, e mostra di temere ogni sua contaminatione. Presto si vedera dove caderà la vittoria, essendo ridotte le cose a cosi stretti termini).
His Majesty not only sent to the Ambassador Carleton to perform the offices, as mentioned in my last, with Prince Maurice and other leading men of the States, but also got the Ambassador Dohna to write to the King of Bohemia and the Princes of the Union for the same reasons. When the replies arrive, especially that from the Hague, Wake's secretary will be sent back to Turin, with the idea of keeping the duke well disposed at all costs. The secretary represents him as in a state of great doubt and suspicion, though this must be old news to your Excellencies. Thus Prince Filiberto has been sent to Spain by his father and for the same reason they think it a favourable moment here to press their cause with his Highness.
Thus his Majesty is trying to supply nutriment on all sides and between doing and not doing he keeps losing ground and would like to cherish hope and satisfaction in all.
The Secretary Surian writes me from the Hague that Prince Maurice told him something similar to what I wrote recently to your Serenity about a league to be made by the Catholic ambassador here, with the object of reducing the republics to subjection. This added to what I reported and to what I have heard from Brussels and France, although very vague, shows a mortal hatred in some Frenchmen and in the Spaniards against our own and every other republic. I will keep on the alert but so far I think nothing has been done here or that everything has passed simply between the king and the ambassador alone, as for the most part they meet thus without even the most intimate ministers being able to discover everything.
I have received your Serenity's letters of the 30th April with great relief owing to the clear instructions about the question of the Spanish ambassador. I will fulfil my commission to present the letter of thanks to his Majesty at the earliest opportunity.
London, the 28th May, 1620.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The Latin draft for this is preserved at the Public Record Office. State Papers, Foreign. Turkey, dated Kal. Maiis, 1620.
2 It seems probable that Gordon is the Scot referred to in Marioni's despatches of the 22nd and 29th November, 1619, at pages 53 and 58 above.
3 Gilbert, Lord Gerard. See Cal. S. P. Dom. 1619–23, page 152.
4 M. de Mantin for alleged depredations upon a ship called the Tiger belonging to Maurice Abbot, Orengshaw and others. See despatch of Herbert of 27th June, old style. State Papers, Foreign. France, Vol. 68.
5 Salvetti calls him an under secretary and says that he arrived on the 26th. News letter of the 28th May. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962A.