Venice
June 1620, 16-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1910

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279-295

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'Venice: June 1620, 16-30', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 16: 1619-1621 (1910), pp. 279-295. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88759 Date accessed: 02 October 2014.


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Contents

June 1620

June 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
393. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In addition to the reports that the Spaniards proposed to throw themselves upon the Palatinate and Juliers we hear that they wish to take Frankfort. The task would be easy as only the Princes of the Union would oppose them. With regard to the news that the King of England, at the instance of the Secretary of Wirtemberg, has granted a levy of 4,000 foot, the Prince of Orange told me he did not believe it, but it would be better for that king to add another cipher to the number and throw himself into Flanders with 40,000 men, as that would provide very opportune succour to the imminent peril of the Palatinate.
So late as yesterday evening the English ambassador had heard nothing about it in his special letters from England, but only what was written from Brussels by his Majesty's agent. The ambassador told me that his Majesty again had him in his mind for the embassy to Germany, but it would only be after the report sent back by Sir [Henry] Wotton about the state of affairs and what the French embassy had done. He told me that he would have been sorry to go to Germany before because he foresaw that it would serve for little more than compliments when they had no succour in hand for the princes, but now they talk of sending troops he would be more welcome and would have greater advantage in his negotiations.
His Excellency has sent to the Margrave of Anspach urging him and the other princes not to allow themselves to be deceived by the Austrians and Spaniards. He and their High Mightinesses are in some doubt about what may happen, and are providing for all eventualities. Yesterday three deputies of the Assembly went to communicate to the Ambassador Carleton the news they have from their ambassador in England, and to learn the intentions of his king, by which to guide themselves. I do not find that they gathered anything except that he was expecting letters from his Majesty. It may also be that they are concerting something with Carleton for the benefit of Germany.
The Hague, the 16th June, 1620.
[Italian.]
June 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
394. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
M. de Lormes arrived here last Sunday and Sig. Peter Falghero brought him to me. The viscount confirmed everything that Pasini wrote. He told me that there were thirteen leading captains. The head of all was Captain Estinch, a near relation of a great lord. (fn. 1) Captain Elis, also an Englishman, ranks high among them, and is related to the Earl of Essex. There are five other Englishmen, Captain Belech, two brothers, George and James Pin, the last three, sons of English merchants. Captain Sanson, very well known to your Serenity, and Captain Jil, a sailor, or rather a former fisherman, are both English. Captain Mandoch, an Irishman and a brave soldier. A Dutchman, Giovanni Amburgh, and one Lambert of the city of Hamburg. Two Frenchmen, the Captains Casienes Valuert and Samuel Ebert, the first a Breton and the other a Norman, both said to be of good families, and there is a Zeelander called Cornelius in place of Captain James, a Fleming, deceased. The other captains are of low origin.
They originally had twenty four ships, now twenty two remain, two having been lost since the proposal made to your Serenity in an action. Sixteen amount to 1,000 tons, others to 800 and the smallest to 600; the rest vary between 300 and 400 tons. They mount 300 pieces of bronze ordnance and a good number of iron guns, have about 3,000 muskets and a good number of pikes with other weapons of war.
They have a quantity of unbeaten silver and in bars, money, jewels, pearls, diamonds, a quantity of silk made in the Chinese fashion, and some 1,800 bales of raw silk, some cochineal and some drugs.
The viscount says that they wish to settle under the protection of a prince, under whom they can live in peace and reputation, and give up their nefarious trade, as they had already proposed. They would rather be under the most serene republic than any other power. Three of them who had recently spoken to him at Dover, where they had been in disguise, told him they were very glad that the proposal had been made to your Serenity.
The viscount says that he has their promise on oath to abide by what they agree to. He could not say more at the moment, although he offered to arrange with the persons deputed by the republic for the ratification of the agreement, so that your Serenity should be assured of its observance. In the mean time he was ready to enter into a bond for all the rest.
This viscount is the only one carrying on these negotiations. He is a French subject of Angers, nephew of the Count of San Sira and of the Sieur of Siambeles. (fn. 2) From the enclosed paper you will understand why the matter was not negotiated in France.
He promised that the captains, when they arrived at the place appointed by your Serenity, would land where directed and pay down the 800,000 crowns of 3 florins each, equivalent to about 1,000,000 ducats and make a free gift to your Serenity of the ships, their armament, munitions of war, tackle, etc., except the merchandise. They wished to have liberty to take this where they can dispose of it to the best advantage.
The sailors will all land as your Serenity decides, to go to places apart, without any arms but only their goods.
I enclose the patents which the viscount obtained from the King of France, absolving the captains and sailors of their misdeeds and piracy, and also a copy of the special patent for the eighteen ships, with a commission from his Majesty to de Lormes to arrange everything with the captains.
Apparently he claims nothing except what Pasini wrote, namely, ten per cent. of the money paid to your Serenity. Everything contained in Pasini's letter will be punctually observed.
The chief difficulty has been to induce him to await a reply to these presents, which will be four or five weeks longer, but he ultimately consented. Accordingly procrastination will risk the loss of all. I may add that much skill was required to bring him to me and take him away from negotiations which would throw him into the hands of the Florentines. They have done everything in their power to tempt him, but have not succeeded owing to the diligence of Falghero in forestalling them.
As the matter seems very important, I am keeping him here with me together with Falghero and Pasini. I pray God that all this may turn to the public service and satisfaction.
The Hague, the 16th June, 1620.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
395. In the year 1617 the Viscount de Lormes was deputed by his Most Christian Majesty to bring General Estinch and his captains, named in the Commission, to his Majesty's state. He brought their ships, to the number of nine with one of his own to the port of Barfleur (Berfror) in Normandy, but a difficulty arose, when he offered to pay half of what was arranged to his Majesty, amounting to 400,000 crowns, for which he bound himself to pay other 400,000 crowns. This was because M. de Luynes wished the whole of the 800,000 crowns to be paid down at once and the other ships to come when they pleased. M. de Luynes tried to induce M. de Lormes to bring the ten ships to Nantes, offering him great reward besides advancement with his Majesty, but M. de Lormes resented this as unworthy of a cavalier and a Christian to deceive those who had trusted their lives and property to him. Moreover, when he went to fetch the ships, on reaching Gambia on the Guinea coast, the sailors and soldiers of his own ship mutinied and put him on shore. However, he was picked up, and rejoined the nine ships. On reaching France he found his own ship in the hands of M. de Monbason, Governor of Nantes, who claimed it as a free gift from his Majesty. M. de Lormes, happening to meet with one of the leading mutineers fought and killed him. Upon this the captains of the ships took alarm, and no longer wished an arrangement with France. M. de Lormes retired to the Low Countries, where he met a Florentine whom he had known, one Baldesar Nardi, archpriest of Arezzo, who put him in relation with the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who lent a willing ear to his proposals, and no doubt they would have come to an agreement had not Pasini got wind of the affair and used every means of putting forward the claims of the republic.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
396. LOUIS, BY THE GRACE OF GOD, KING OF FRANCE AND NAVARRE.
Whereas from the beginning of our reign we have received divers complaints from our subjects and from foreigners who trade in our realm of robberies committed by pirates in the seas of the east and west, we determined to put an end to this pest and kept our galleys as well armed as possible giving them orders to clear the Levant sea. We also armed sailing ships. But the various advantages offered to the pirates prevented us from obtaining our ends. We used every effort and made representations to the Grand Turk and other powers. But in spite of all, a powerful fleet of eighteen ships, collected from every nation, remained in the western seas, and as no merchant ship could resist them the merchants decided to give up their trade. The pirates, fearing that the trade might cease and also being struck by compunction at their misdeeds for the space of sixteen years, have thought of giving up the business and leaving the seas clear, if they can find some safe retreat. They accordingly empowered one of our subjects to come and treat for General Estinch and the Captains Lambert, Ellis, Mandonch, Blech, Sanson, Pin, Meach and James, their leaders. We considered this a favourable opportunity for putting an end to this piracy, especially as it is hopeless for those who have been plundered to recover their goods, while what is taken by force becomes the property of the captor after it has been 24 hours in the hands of the enemy. We therefore have granted a safe conduct to the aforesaid general and captains, their soldiers and sailors with all their goods, upon condition that they hand over their ships and weapons. We have appointed M. de Lormes to take our safe conduct and receive their promise. We undertake that the said general and those with him shall not be called in question for what they have done during the sixteen years up to the date of the said safe conduct and may live in our dominions in peace.
Paris, the last day of July, 1617.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
397. Letters patent of King Louis to all his officials and subjects notifying that he has granted a safe conduct to General Estinch, his captains and sailors, who will bring their ships to the port of Morbihan near Vannes or to some port in Poitou, as may be most convenient, and has granted that they may freely dispose of their goods without rendering account to any one, with orders to respect the safe conduct and allow the general and his followers to live at peace without impediment.
Paris, the last day of July, 1617.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
398. Letters patent of King Louis giving power to Jean de Lormes, lord of la Pomere, to carry out the arrangements made with General Estinch and his followers.
Paris, the last day of July, 1617.
[Italian.]
June 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
399. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I presented to his Majesty the letters of thanks from your Serenity for the orders sent by him to his ambassador at Constantinople. I accompanied the office with a suitable speech, which he received with manifest pleasure. He again declared his readiness to do anything in his power, saying that he would always endeavour to deserve the gratitude which your Excellencies express towards him.
They still continue to turn over in their minds the question of helping the Palatine and sending an embassy. These are the principal and one may say the only things now current at this Court, and I wrote about them last week. But all operations here partake of the nature of the cold climate and are generally very slow and late. In addition to this there is the intense dislike for current affairs in which they do not make a single step with frankness or without repugnance. They have not yet decided whether the levy, which will be called simply voluntary, and of adventurers, will consist of four or six thousand foot, or who will command them. It appears that the Earl of Southampton is absolutely excluded for the reasons already given. The persons now mentioned are Horace Vere and one Cecil. Possibly the uncertainty will last until the return or reply of the ambassador in Germany, if they go at all, as it seems that the notion of sending them is very discredited, and in the present circumstances they readily change their minds from one moment to another, just as the air does here, which in a single day gives examples of all four seasons of the year, so to speak. The reports now published and the plans prepared are rather calculated to create alarm by their noise than really to do harm. If in this way they could avert the evil, which doubtless they wish to divert, they would attribute the result to prudence. Thus although they feel certain that the Palatinate will be attacked, which his Majesty abhors above everything, yet they think they will put off as long as possible giving any effective assistance until they see extreme urgency for it. Many try to persuade the king that in order to divert the evil he should accompany his representations by making a show simultaneously by levying his forces. Although he recognises the truth of this he continues procrastinasing, and owing to the artifices of the Spaniards and the rocks which he clearly recognises ahead, he does not take a step forward, chiefly owing to the lack of money. On this point, in the long run, nothing of any use can be done without a parliament, and even so it would require a space of many months, for assembling, for passing resolutions and for carrying out the decisions. Accordingly every sensible man clearly perceives that assistance from this quarter cannot easily be very considerable, or in time for use this year.
Sir [Henry] Wotton says he will leave in a few days. He has received the bulk of his instructions, for the Emperor, the United Princes and the Dukes of Saxony and Bavaria. They also think of giving him some for the Archduke Albert, the Ecclesiastical Princes of Germany and the Duke of Lorraine, and that he shall act in lieu of other embassies. Many persons opposed his mission, and as regards his going to Venice, where he has been so many times, they say that he ought not to return either for the reputation of his Majesty or for the satisfaction of your Excellencies. As regards his going to Germany they point to the scanty success of his negotiations on the question of Cleves and Juliers; that he is by no means grateful to the emperor in particular, who will not feel honoured by the mission of a person not sent espressly to him, but simply returning to Venice. In this I observe that those who dislike seeing his close friendship with his Majesty would rather have another person sent, new, tender and easy to bend, as in these days, both here and elsewhere men seem to do everything in their power to see that the offices of state, commands of troops and embassies may be bestowed upon persons of their way of thinking, so that they may render themselves masters of affairs and advance their interests in all occurrences.
So far as I can discover Wotton has instructions to encourage in Germany the idea that war is nothing so delightful or desirable, his Majesty detests it and therefore is trying for peace, like a good Christian. If this calamity cannot be averted from Christendom, he will do his duty as a resolute prince and a real father to his children in the defence of their inheritance. Thus Wotton has instructions chiefly to try and arrange an armistice, after the French embassy, with which he has a special rivalry, has shot its bolt. But before anything is done they think this will prove fruitless, more especially because of the view held here that the new king will refuse any accommodation unless it comes by the interposition of the king here, his father.
His Majesty has recently written to his agent in Brussels to perform an office with the archduke, saying that as his Majesty has already interposed for peace by the mission of Viscount Doncaster, and has hitherto abstained from making any declaration with the same excellent object of keeping the peace, he thinks he has acquired sufficient merit in the eyes of the world, that every one should abstain from meddling and only inflaming the opposing forces, as although he is so deeply interested yet he has abstained. He still maintains his disposition towards the general welfare, but if the Palatinate be invaded he will be compelled to defend it for his grandchildren. He further directed the agent to obtain a reply in writing if possible. This may possibly render unnecessary any other embassy or representation in that quarter.
Thus his Majesty has also written recently to the Duke of Lorraine, seeing that he was beginning to mass his forces at the moment of the starting of the aforesaid French embassy, complaining that although he was a kinsman and consequently related to his daughter and son in-law he opposed him so openly and wishes to meddle in their affairs in which he has no interests; while his Majesty, who is deeply interested, still stands prudently aside and undecided. We hear also that the King of Denmark has written to the Duke of Saxony, blaming him in particular for his opinions on the score of religion.
The ministers here learn from Savoy that the duke is concerting something with the Queen Mother of France, who more than ever continues to plan great revolutions in that kingdom, and that the Duke of Feria has concerted some great design with the Duke of Ossuna, so that many here, I know not if in vain, amid the enjoyment of their own pleasures, are preparing for fresh commotions at the expense of others, and hope to be idle spectators very soon, at a safe distance of most important events (onde molti qui, non so se vanamente, si vanno preparando nel godimento delle proprie delitie al gusto di altrui nove commottioni, et vanno sperando di essere ben presto di lontano otiosi spettatori di altissimi eventi).
London, the 18th June, 1620.
[Italian.]
June 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
400. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Donato, about whom I hoped I should not need to write again to the Senate, has transgressed the king's orders twice recently, coming as far as Lambeth which is only a stone's throw from London, and even in the carriage of the French ambassador in the company of the Cavalier Dionisio Lazzari, a Venetian exile, of whose arrival in the kingdom I informed your Serenity on another occasion. This man, accompanied by some ladies and English lords went to visit him that day in the said carriage. I thought it best not to let this evil root get a start, and accordingly I spoke to the Secretary Naunton, mentioning how little respect and obedience were shown to his Majesty, and the hurt that your Excellencies would reasonably feel. He informed the king, who was then at Theobalds, who seemed much moved and angered sending orders for Donato to be summoned, sharply reproved and threatened, and to report his reply to his Majesty. Donato confessed his error and wept at the reproval and threats, asking for pardon. He asked to be excused on the ground of his youth. He expressed his sorrow and endeavoured to excite compassion for his wretchedness. He offered his head if he again transgressed and asked that at least until September he might remain where he was. Naunton communicated every thing to the king and had orders to tell Donato, within a month, to go still further away from London, the distance to be ten miles, and the utmost rigour if he offends again. The secretary told me all this and asked me to send a favourable report to your Excellencies in his Majesty's name, assuring me that this should not occur again. I replied that it was neither my nature nor business to stir up strife, but rather to cherish good feeling and affection, especially that existing between his Majesty and the republic, and I carefully abstained from commending or blaming the king's orders. I observed the same conduct at audiences of his Majesty, when he raised the subject, saying, Perhaps Donato thought you were blind. He expressed surprise at his lack of prudence and seemed very angry at his fault. He remarked that frailty might easily be condoned or lightly punished for once, but if Donato dares to transgress these new orders, his wrath will never be quenched and he will make him feel his well merited punishment. He charged me to write this to your Excellencies. At this point he remarked I have recently received letters from France from the Duke of Rohan, thanking me for protecting Donato at his instance. I replied that hitherto I had helped him willingly, but if he did not behave himself better than he is doing at present I should become his stern enemy and the most bitter persecutor he has.
I think your Excellencies may rest assured that the same thing will not occur again, though I will not fail to keep my eyes open, as I have done hitherto.
London, the 18th June, 1620.
[Italian.]
June 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
401. To the Ambassador in England.
The news from Constantinople in letters of the 18th and 19th ult. relates the persistent obstinacy of the Grand Vizier in insisting that our bailo shall admit certain unjust pretensions against him in making reparation to some Turks interested in certain trading galleys which went to Naples. The offices passed at the Porte by his Majesty upon this occasion lead us to direct you to ask for an audience and tell his Majesty that the repeated efforts of his ambassador on our behalf render us most beholden to him, and we desire to return our warmest thanks. But the Grand Vizier and the Hoia, with whom all decisions of that empire rest, still persist in demanding this satisfaction, to which we can in no wise consent, as it would cause too considerable prejudice to our affairs. As his Majesty is so much concerned for the public peace, we beg him to get his ambassador to make fresh representations at the Porte of his desire to satisfy the republic, as he graciously offered to do on previous occasions. He might say that the republic had always acted sincerely towards the Porte, had observed the capitulations and had never done anything to prejudice his ancient friendship there, remaining constant even when the Ottoman house was in great difficulties, although strongly urged to act differently. She could not accept these unreasonable demands, which are contrary to the capitulations, but that ought not to prejudice the benefits conferred hitherto or which may be conferred in the future. No person is ever bound to make reparation for damage done at sea; the shores of Spalatro are simply open at the request of the Turks themselves, who asked urgently for it, without binding themselves to anything. The republic had undertaken a war against the whole house of Austria, which might be said to be solely in defence of the subjects of the Turkish empire, so affected by the Uscochi. The republic assured the Turk against the powerful fleet of Spain, the open enemy of the Ottoman house, by guarding the places of the Turkish empire in certain parts. So there is no reason why she should be called upon to make reparation. She has made no promise, nothing is said about it in the capitulations and so it is not reasonable to bring pressure to bear upon her.
You will adduce all these things with great force as you may think best for our interests, especially to show how unreasonably we are attacked, and it will doubtless assist our position very greatly if you can get the Secretary Naunton to induce his Majesty to express all or part of the foregoing in fresh letters to the Sultan, as we have not used the earlier letter for reasons already given, and because circumstances have changed so much that it would no longer serve the purpose. Accordingly we sent it back with these presents and leave it to your prudence to return it to the secretary or keep it in your possession, whichever you think best. His Majesty's letter, written in the manner suggested, as the dignity of the republic requires, would smooth away difficulties before they run to greater excesses. We believe that any office of his Majesty would produce good results beneficial to the general welfare and worthy of his own zeal and goodness. He has the welfare of Christendom at heart, and this provides a wide field for his energies.
We leave it to your prudence to carry out these instructions in the manner that may best lead to the fulfilment of our wishes. If you obtain a new letter from his Majesty, we wish you to send it together with a copy, as you prudently did with the other, so that we may be able to use it as necessity requires.
Ayes, 103.Noes, 6.Neutral, 56.
[Italian.]
June 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
402. To the Ambassador in France.
We wrote last week of the encounter between our ships and those of Ossuna. We have since heard from our admiral who adds that he captured the flagship, instead of sinking it as was previously reported. Those ships, after making depredations in Candia, undoubtedly wished to provoke a conflict with us. After the victory our admiral acted with moderation and gave orders for the prisoners to be well treated. We hope for a different spirit from the government of Cardinal Borgia. We send these particulars for information.
The like to:
England, Savoy, the Hague, mutatis mutandis. Also to Germany, Florence, Milan.
Ayes, 122.Noes, 1.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
June 20.
Consiglio
de' X.
Parti Secrete.
Venetian
Archives.
403. THE COUNCIL OF TEN to the AMBASSADOR in ENGLAND.
Order, if Angelo Badoer arrives in England or in his Majesty's dominions, to make urgent representations to the king and his ministers so that he may be arrested and handed over to the republic, asking that this may be done as a sign of his Majesty's perfect understanding with Venice, and sending word from time to time of all his operations in the matter.
The like, mutatis mutandis, to the Secretary Surian at the Hague.
Ayes, 15.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
June 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Zara.
Venetian
Archives.
404. ALVISE ZORZI, Proveditore of Zara, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Yesterday the Proveditore of the fleet Cuiran left with the 140 troops of Colonel Peyton on his galleys, for the East. He had already embarked them for other needs as I reported. As the lieutenant-colonel left in charge of the remaining troops has pressed me for money, I borrowed some from the merchants, the treasury being empty, and paid them up to the 3rd August next.
Zara, the 21st June, 1620.
[Italian.]
June 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
405. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
With regard to the marriage between Spain and England his Highness told me that one part had been settled but there were difficulties with the other. The agent of England had promised to show him particulars which would assure him that it would not take place. It appears that there are signatures to a treaty or contract, but to be carried out in some six months, but the conditions are so high that they cannot possibly be fulfilled (et pare, che sottoscrittione del trattato o contratto vi sia, da effettuarsi peò tra tempo di qualche sei mesi, ma son conditioni tanto alti chi impossibilmente siano per haver essecutione). This is what the English at this Court try to make people believe; though they do not say as much in so many words, but convey it by hints or broken phrases, thinking that everything is promised by the Spaniards in order to keep that king dormant, and await a favourable time for the advancement of their own interests.
Turin, the 22nd June, 1620.
[Italian.]
June 23.
Collegie,
Secrota.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
406. In obedience to the commands of your Excellencies, I, Hieroninio Trevisan will set down the substance of what the Ambassador Aerssens said to me when he came to see me yesterday. He told me the Duke of Savoy had suggested an alliance with the States. On arriving at Venice he had made various attempts to see the Ambassador Piscina, who had always offered some excuse. He did not know what to make of it.
He said he wished to get rid of his business as soon as possible and had asked for an audience this morning. He would speak about affairs in Germany and the advantage to both republics of keeping the fire burning there and the Spaniards occupied. The King of England thinks of nothing but the Spanish marriage, so he fears that the abandoned princes will make peace and the Union will break up. If the house of Austria tramples Germany under foot there will be no more hope of opposing it. If the princes are not succoured they must succumb.
I explained that the republic owing to the enormous expenses it has incurred and the trouble at Constantinople was obliged to look after her own affairs. It far more became the King of England, a great power so interested in the matter in every respect, to send immediate help to his son-in-law and the Princes of the Union, of whom he was the chief.
That is only too true, replied the ambassador, but if he wishes to lose himself we must be lost also. Everything depends upon lighting the fire, once that is done there will be time for the King of England to review his position and for the King of France to deliver himself from interested Councillors and others and to bring fresh fuel to the flames.
[Italian.]
June 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
407. ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
During the week I have had occasion to sup twice with the Prince of Condè. Among other things he asked me if I had seen M. de Vigliers, the ambassador for Venice. He said the republic need not fear the fineness of his intellect, as he knew little of his business. Before I could reply he went on to speak of the ambassadors here. Spain was a worthy old man, but he seemed to think little of England. He had had very little to do with Savoy, but he praised the nuncio.
Paris, the 23rd June, 1620.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 23.
Senata,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
408. ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The marriage arranged in England with the Spanish princess has caused universal dissatisfaction here, chiefly owing to the great difference in the dowry, as they only gave the queen here 500,000 crowns, while to England they have promised 600,000l. sterling, equal to two millions of gold. It is true that as two years and a half are to elapse before the conclusion they hope here that events may happen in such a length of time to interrupt and break it off altogether. Some think that the Marquis of Coure will have orders at Rome to work in an underhand way so that the dispensation for this marriage may not be so easily obtained, but all this is mere gossip.
Paris, the 23rd June, 1620.
[Italian.]
June 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
409. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
As the Viscount de Lormes has passed the week with me, I have obtained further particulars. It occurred to me that the ships might contain goods belonging to your Serenity's subjects, and the viscount promised that if so they should be restored. But he, Falgher and Pasini assured me that Captain Sanson, who did some buccaneering towards the seas of Venice, had parted with all the goods taken for other merchandise and sold it. He also promised, notwithstanding the difficulties with France, that they would pay down the 800,000 crowns even if only one ship presented itself.
I wished also to have more particulars about the quality of the ships. He told me that he did not know their age but we might be sure they were good, adding that if a ship had some defect and they fell in with a better one, they exchanged, and they never kept ships that needed repairs or alterations.
What makes me judge well of the affair is that Falghero and Pasini assure me that he has never asked for any money beyond the sum agreed upon: he only asks for despatch.
He has written to the captains of the ships, telling them of his stay here and promising to bring them something good before long. He will send the letters to-morrow for London by a gentleman who is staying with the ambassador of the King of Bohemia. I have sent a recommendation to the Ambassador Lando.
Falghero and Pasini are ready to go to the fleet and arrange everything if your Serenity desires to commit this affair to them, both showing the greatest zeal to serve their prince.
The Hague, the 23rd June, 1620.
[Italian.]
June 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
410. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They hear with satisfaction the confirmation of the levy of 4,000 foot granted by the King of Great Britain to send to the Princes of the Union. And I hear at this instant that the States have received good news from England and they are about to communicate it to the Ambassador Carleton. If it is really good your Serenity will hear about it from the Ambassador Lando. I will try to discover anything which benefits the common cause.
The Ambassador Carleton will not go to Germany, as the king has decided he shall stay here, and is sending two cavaliers of whom your Serenity will have heard. Certainly Carleton is necessary here owing to the credit which he has acquired and the prudence of his behaviour.
The Hague, the 23rd June, 1620.
[Italian.]
June 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghiltera.
Venetian
Archives.
411. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The levy, which is to be made here under the name of volunteers and adventurers, has finally been entrusted to Horace Vere, uncle of that John who served your Serenity, who was asked for after the Earl of Southampton by the Ambassador Dohna, in the name of the new king. In Holland he enjoys the title of Colonel General, with the command of many companies. He is highly esteemed for his birth and his long experience. The king, however, persists that nothing shall be done in his name. However, he grants the ambassador permission to make the levies under Vere, to whom also, is submitted the choice of the captains and officers required by the number of soldiers. At present he will not enlist more than two thousand, although there are reports of larger numbers. He is doing this also without orders from his sovereign, in order not to lose a moment while his Majesty is well disposed. He will afterwards await orders for anything more. His Majesty encourages and covertly assists this levy. Thus, after having given the ambassador the placet for the nomination of Vere he sent word to him that he should make haste, and he would grant facilities and his protection. Vere considers that the honour of himself, the kingdom and the English nation are involved. For this reason, besides the universal popularity of the new king in this country, many of the leading nobles are exerting themselves with great spirit so that the levy may prove successful and the posts of the captains and officers are half filled by earls and gentlemen of position.
These sounds ring ill for the Spanish ambassador, especially as when he lately sent his secretary to the Catholic king he related that he had obtained a promise from the king that nothing should be done from this quarter even to help the Palatinate, and it seems that the English agent at that Court who returned here recently gave similar hopes. His Majesty is also beginning to say with great freedom that the ambassador plays with him, but he will not be played with any longer (la Maestà Sua similmente comincia con molta libertà a dire che esso Ambasciatore la burla ma che non vuol' essere più longamente burlata.
With these reservations on the one hand and the honour of frequent visits from the favourite on the other, and while the Count of Gondomar is more indisposed than usual, they aim all the same at concluding the marriage about which his Majesty remains infatuated for many reasons, among which the offer of money is not the least powerful and attracts a great multitude besides the king and the said favourite, exciting the highest hopes, though it has seemed somewhat dashed of late owing to the steps which have been taken, in spite of his Majesty's infatuation. The king was recently shown the letters of an individual who writes openly of the widespread opinion that once the marriage is completed and the Spanish princess definitely established in this kingdom, he will not have a year to live, a question that has stirred and roused him a great deal (con questo racinte da una parte, con honori di frequenti visite dall' altra del favorito, mentre il Signor Conte di Gondomar hora si ritrova più del solito indisposto, si mira pure di stringere il matrimonio del quale per molti rispetti et per quello dell' offerta de denari, che non è l'ultimo potente, e che tira con il Re c con esso favorito una gran turba ad altissime speranze seben paiono in questi giorni con li passi che si vanno facendo, un poco abbattute, e tuttavia invaghita la Maestà Sua, a cui sono state ultimamente mostrate lettere di chi liberamente scrive essere universale il concetto che fornito il matrimonio e posta in sede la principessa Spagnola in questo Regno, essa Maestà non sia per haver di vita ne anche un anno. Punte al quale si sorge e si risente molto).
The ambassador of Bohemia professes to have money not only for the levy of the 2,000 foot but for many more, from what has been collected up to the present. His subscription among the nobles and in the counties goes forward. He sent them letters in the name of the new queen and king, and it seems to be going well, although some gentlemen have raised difficulties, desiring first to be assured of his Majesty's good will and that the money will be really applied to this purpose and not to anything else. But I fully understand that to maintain these troops in the Palatinate they chiefly rely upon the money supplied by the King of Denmark, as I reported.
His Majesty strongly pressed the ambassador of the States recently to write to his masters to be on the alert for any movement that Spinola may make to the detriment of his son-in-law as he understands that with patents of the emperor and as his general, not of the Catholic king, Spinola is ready to send 10,000 foot and a great quantity of munitions towards the Palatinate. This point excites interest above all others here.
News has come of the arrival in Hamburg of the troops levied for Bohemia by Gray, but one of their ships was driven to Elsinore (Elschelnur) in the kingdom of Denmark, though with nothing worse than prolonging their journey by some days.
I have received two packets of letters from your Serenity of the 16th ult. Not a word has yet been spoken at this Court about the Uscochi, and in any case I will use the information supplied by your Excellencies as instructed. With regard to the league proposed to his Majesty by the Spanish ambassador with the inclusion of France for repressing the republics, I have used all diligence with such caution as I deemed necessary in a matter of such moment, but I have not yet discovered anything more. Accordingly I feel sure that no such proposal has ever been made, unless between the king and ambassador when absolutely alone as I intimated, and I hope none will be without my knowledge. What I heard and Prince Maurice also, probably arose from the usual Spanish artifices, especially as it was brought to me with some amount of affectation. It is quite true that there are very cut and dried ideas in the mouths of many in numerous Courts and parts of the world, and a very free opinion has been printed upon this point, while it has been discussed, even with the king himself, not as a formal proposal, but to spread impressions and similar notions. I understand that this Spanish ambassador, especially at first when the Bohemians began their revolt, used to exaggerate greatly, saying it was a great matter that people nowadays took to revolution so easily and seemed so inclined to throw off their duty to their sovereign, with the idea of living like republics. It would be necessary for the monarchial powers to devote themselves to bridle such pernicious temerity. These opinions certainly produce a great impression in the mind of the king, who is the strongest possible enemy of change and disturbance among the people Thus by nature as has been observed, he has always cared little for the Dutch, although maxims of state, which when all is said and done are everlasting and prevail in the minds of prudent princes, have not allowed him to throw them over. The same feeling appears in his detestation and blame for the movement in Bohemia, although it has produced such good fruits for his son-in-law and daughter. (Sensi che al certo penetrano molto anche nell' animo di questo Re, inimico più d'ogn 'altro delle novità e commotioni de' popoli, onde per natura sempre, come si è osservato, ha havuto poco vera inclinatione ad Holandesi, sebene le massime di stato che finalmente sono immortali, et hanno la vittoria nell' animo de prudenti principi non l'hanno lasciato scostar da loro; Come anco si vede pur chiaro quanto habbia abhorrito e biasmato il moto di Bohemia, anchor che cosi bel frutto egli habbia produtto al Genero et alla propria figliuola.)
London, the 25th June, 1620.
[Italian.]
June 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
412. To the Ambassador in England.
The affairs of Constantinople in so far as they concern us remain in a fluctuating and troublesome condition. The Grand Vizier still displays his ill will in the affairs of the Bosnians, producing forged documents to support his case and threatening the Bailo Nani to obtain payment beyond any claims of the Bosnians, with imprisonment and even with death. He declares that he will not receive the new Bailo Giustiniano unless he first promises to pay. He also aims at sequestrating the property of our merchants and even worse designs. We send this for information, so that by an opportune use of these facts with his Majesty and the ministers, you may keep them on the alert to act energetically in favour of our interests at the Porte, as a further confirmation of his Majesty's good feeling towards us. We feel sure that his ambassador would have acted as he has done in the past, had he not been prevented by sickness. You will present the subject with the prudence required by its nature, to keep the king's feelings favourable to us.
Your letters which reach us this week are of the 4th inst. We have read them with great satisfaction.
Ayes, 135.Noes, 1.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
June 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
413. To the Bailo at Constantinople.
We have received your letters of the 18th and 19th ult and are glad that you did not pay the 10,000 sequins on account of the galeot, and have succeeded in having everything stopped until the arrival of your successor. You have also done well in availing yourself of the help of the Ambassadors of France, England and the States. You will continue to do so in the future, as we are sure they will always be ready to assist you, knowing the consequences of these movements, as they do, and how contrary they are to the general welfare. Although you have thanked them, you will further say that we have expressed our thanks to their princes, in the way which you will see by this copy, and how much we value their goodwill. You will also thank them again on our behalf, assuring them of our gratitude, and telling them that such action increases the belief among the Turks that these mutual declarations of wishes and interests denote an understanding between their princes and our republic, as this idea alone can humble the Turkish pretensions in all questions involving our common interests.
With this view we should like the Ambassador of the States to confirm the news of the alliance between his masters and Venice. You might also say in conversation that the King of England, who is so great and powerful, has also declared in favour of our republic, while France might speak of the friendly relations between Venice and the Most Christian crown.
Ayes, 142.Noes, 2.Neutral, 30.
[Italian.]
June 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Consiglio de'X.
Parti Socrete.
Venetian
Archives.
414. The Council of Ten to the Ambassador in England.
Your letters of the 4th inst. with news about the proceedings of Angelo Badoaro and of what you said on the subject to Mr. Huton (fn. 3) call for no answer from us but commendation. Badoer as a rebel, ought to be a subject of suspicion in every state, especially in England since he has everywhere shown himself zealously devoted to the tricks and secret practices of the Spaniards, to the prejudice of the common liberty.
Ayes, 16.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
June 27.
Senato,
Secrota.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
415. GIROLAMO SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ministers of Spain here go about saying that the marriage between their princess and the Prince of England may easily take place, and if so it will be arranged with clauses and conditions devised for the advantage of the Catholic religion. But this anthem excites no pleasure here, as they think that the Spaniards who accompany the princess to England will much more easily fall away from the bases of the holy faith, than the English will be converted. This took place when Philip II married in England, when very many of his court fell into evil ways and when he returned to Spain the Inquisition had its hands full in rooting out the numerous evil seeds of heresy which had been scattered among those Catholics, and very many were rigorously punished (ma qui non piace questa antifona stimandosi che con maggior facilità li Spagnoli chi accompagnano la Principessa in Inghilterra divertiran della base della santa fede, che habbino a convertir gli Inglesi, et cosi segui, quando Filippo 2do si marirtò in Inghilterra, che moltissimi della sua Corte prevaricarono, et ritornato che fu in Spagna hebbe assai che fare l'Inquisitione a sradicar molti mali semi di heresia, che tra quei Cavalieri si eran sparsi, et moltissimi furono rigorosamente condennati).
Rome, the 27th June, 1620.
[Italian.]
June 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
416. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They expect letters from the Ambassador Aerssens by the next ordinary. They rejoice at the honours accorded to him even by enemies. The English ambassador here has heard of some insulting words used by the French ambassador, M. de Leon, who at Padua called him minister of cow keepers. But their High Mightinesses scoff at this, making light of such an extravagant way of speaking.
From several packets of letters and from what the English ambassador says the decision of the King of Great Britain about levying 4,000 foot for the Princes of the Union, has become more definite. But his Excellency says he fears that his Majesty will decide too late, and the succour also will arrive late. It would have been much better to follow the example of the Spaniards, who when sending their troops to Germany used the emperor's name to invade the Palatinate, so these states would use the name of the King of England to defend the Palatinate for his son-in-law.
The Spaniards have published a letter stating that his Catholic Majesty has a very good understanding with the King of England, about sending the troops of the archdukes to take the dominions of the self styled King of Bohemia, to preserve them for the children of the Princess of England. When spoken to about this the Ambassador Carleton replied that he also had letters with news of a secret compact between his king and the Catholic, providing that the latter would agree to his Majesty, even with the assistance of these States, taking possession of the country of Flanders to preserve it for the children of his Imperial Majesty. The ambassador told me this laughing. He added that the marriage negotiations were well advanced, but some mistrust had arisen which might upset them. He did not tell me more. Their High Mightinesses live in the hope that this alliance will not take place, and their hopes are raised by this grant of a levy of 4,000 men by his Majesty and because at the same time he understands the tricks of the Spaniards.
The Hague, the 30th June, 1620.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Probably a Hastings of the family of the earls of Huntingdon, but I cannot find any likely member of the family from a perusal of Bell's Huntingdon Peerage.
2 He was apparently connected with the house of Bueil. John de Bueil, who died at an advanced age in 1638 was Count of Sancerre at this time, and his sister Jacqueline married Francis de Montalais, Seigneur of Chambellay. Père Ansèlme: Hist. Généalogique de la Maison Royale de France, Paris 1726–33, vol. vii. page 851.
3 Sir Robert Naunton, the secretary, see page 269 above.