Venice
July 1620, 11-19

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1910

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311-323

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'Venice: July 1620, 11-19', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 16: 1619-1621 (1910), pp. 311-323. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88761 Date accessed: 02 October 2014.


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Contents

July 1620

July 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
433. GIROLAMO SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Spaniards announce that they will make war in Flanders and the Palatinate simultaneously. Their king is making greater military preparations than any of his predecessors. It is quite evident that the marriage which they are negotiating with the Prince of England is simply intended to keep the king there undecided, so that he may not interest himself in the affairs of his son-in-law and in the war in Germany. So far it would appear as if the Spaniards would attain their object.
Rome, the 11th July, 1620.
[Italian.]
July 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
434. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
The resident of Great Britain has taken it very ill that the Ambassador Aerssens has not been honoured in a proper manner by Pessina. Only Gregorio among the ministers had passed the usual compliments. He told me that the ambassador had decided rightly in travelling by another road than this, although he has letters and commissions to treat with the duke, He told me with feeling that his Highness has asked the king his master to interpose for him with the States and Princes; his Majesty would never forget the jest they made of him. The duke, who is always cursing the Spaniards, puzzles the world by such incidents, but he ought to show gratitude to the king and some memory of the help given him in the time of his need, and the 50,000 florins paid by the States, moved simply by zeal with no interests of their own to serve, for which they merit some response.
Since speaking with the duke the resident is completely mollified, because his Highness says he ordered Pessina to visit M. d'Aerssens, and he wrote that he had done so and they treated as equals. The ambassador excused himself for not coming to these States for personal reasons, knowing that the Spaniards do not hesitate to lay hands on public men, as they have done before.
The resident will write to Carleton for fresh instructions about the negotiations. He seemed very pleased at what I said to the duke in praise of the King of Great Britain for the disposition he had shown and the favour he promised in the affairs of Constantinople. He told me with great earnestness, that in the present disposition of his Majesty, if your Excellencies asked for the ships which they say are for service against the pirates, you may easily obtain them, as that will be a short service. Once the fleet had passed the Strait, the expense of arming them being incurred, the king will not mind their proceeding further into the Mediterranean, where the most serene republic may command against the common enemy. The fleet will consist of fifty sail, six royal ships, fourteen merchant ships and thirty Dutch, all carrying the flag of the King of Great Britain. I praised his zeal for the welfare of Christendom and the interests of the republic. I expressed our obligations and said how much we esteemed the friendly exhibitions of his king. I promised to report the suggestion to your Excellencies, and hoped it would help to quiet the present troubles.
He read me, in confidence, numerous advices of the affairs of the Swiss and Grisons, but I leave them to those whose business it is to inform your Excellencies.
Turin, the 13th July, 1620.
[Italian.]
July 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
435. ALMORO NANI, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
The Imperial ambassador has asked leave of the Grand Vizier to depart. This was granted, although perhaps he thought it would not happen before the arrival of Cœsar Gallo. He has kissed the king's hand and will leave shortly. France and England called upon him and so did I, but not Flanders, there being an open quarrel between them.
The Vigne of Pera, the 13th July, 1620.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
436. ALMORO NANI, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
I hear on good authority that the English ambassador has a letter from his Majesty for the Grand Turk, saying that once when his predecessors proposed to attack Poland, the late Queen of England wrote to them about it and they decided to give up the design. (fn. 1) His Majesty now hears they entertain a similar unreasonable design, and notifies them that if they move he will help the Poles, but he exhorts them to peace, in virtue of the good understanding existing between them. They hesitated about translating the word unreasonable into Turkish, but the ambassador, who is a very determined man, said he would have it stand as it was in the king's letter; though ultimately he agreed to moderate those words and say they speak of a design to make war although the Poles have not inflicted any harm on the Porte.
The Vigne of Pera, the 14th July, 1620.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
437. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
I am awaiting the reply to my letter of the 16th ult. about the pirate ships. M de Lormes thinks it necessary for him to withdraw from here, as he appears to be persecuted for something he said against M. Pelicart, the French ambassador at Brussels. The French ambassador here showed me a letter from M. Pelicart saying that he had received orders to have this de Lormes put in prison, and asked him to induce the States to have him arrested. The ambassador asked me to send him away from my house, as he was a pirate. I thanked the ambassador and told him he had come to my house with two Venetians.
I have never taken the man for an angel, but the pirates employed him as their emissary. However, I will proceed with due caution.
The Hague, the 14th July, 1620.
[Italian.]
July 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
438. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
A gentleman was here recently from Baron Dohna, the ambassador of Bohemia in England, to ask the advice of their High Mightinesses, if they would allow the 2,000 men levied by Colonel Vere, to pass this way. The States and Prince Maurice consented, so the gentleman left. Yesterday morning the sergeant major of that regiment left also to return with him with all speed. The troops will land at Brill, proceed to Dort and go by the Waal and Rhine to Emmerich and Rees, whence they will have an escort to conduct them to the Palatinate. The States would have desired to see a larger force from England or at least that the lack of men should be made good by money.
Colonel Cecil has arrived here from England. He seems much hurt at not having received employment, (fn. 2) but he also seems to think but poorly of the levy. He has come to attend to his command and will take the field when his Excellency leaves.
Eight merchants have appeared in the assembly of the States asking to have ships of war to secure their trade against the pirates as the loss of goods and ships is frequently reported at Amsterdam. They asked for twenty four ships. The States replied that it was impossible to grant their request although they would do their utmost to induce the other powers interested to do their share while they would not fail in their duty.
The Hague the 14th July 1620.
[Italian.]
July 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Zara.
Venetian
Archives.
439. ALVISE ZORZI, Proveditore of Zara, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
The infantry of this garrison, including the English troops of Colonel Peyton, will at the end of the present month be creditors for three instalments, and the money has not yet reached me to satisfy them. I have been compelled to have recourse to loans from the merchants to free myself from their continued importunity.
Zara, the 14th July, 1620.
[Italian.]
July 16.
Inquisitori di
Stato.
Dispacci,
Busta 442.
Venetian
Archives.
440. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the INQUISITORS OF STATE.
Some months since I discovered that very precise information was arriving here from Venice about the most secret and intimate affairs of the republic. I observe that these advices are not of old events but of the most recent, so that in the majority of instances they reach his Majesty, to whom they are communicated, long before the news that I receive from the Senate, with much more that very often does not come to my ears at all. From what I have been able to discover this news is always well grounded and true, and so far as I can ascertain the style denotes an experienced hand and comes from no ordinary subject. I find that the recipient of the news is Marc' Antonio di Dominis, late archbishop of Spalato, and who is always thus known here. This man by dint of his change of religion, his preaching, the printing of books and imparting such news as well as what comes from other parts, advances continually in the favour of his Majesty. I will endeavour cautiously to find out under whose name the letters are directed to him and the signature, although it is sure to be feigned. I am not sure but I have some hope that the letters come through the merchants and are delivered here by a merchant, I have thought it right to send this much to your Excellencies, vague though it is.
London, the 16th July, 1620.
[Italian.]
July 16.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
441. Yesterday evening, I, Giovanni Battista Lionello, went to the house in Canareggio where the English ambassador returning home from Constantinople is lodged. I paid him the compliment as directed by the Cabinet, saying you were glad to hear he was in good health and wishing him a pleasant journey. That as soon as the news arrived that he was coming here by way of Spalato, a galley was ordered to go and bring him, and we were very sorry that time did not permit this as the republic hoped thereby to show its great esteem for his king and its regard for himself, and would do anything to render his stay here agreeable.
The ambassador replied in Italian, which he knows well, having traded in Venice for several years, that their attentions covered him with confusion, but proved the truth of the esteem of the republic for his king and he was rejoiced at it. He thanked his Serenity for the orders given. The Count of Spalato had offered him a galley, but he would not take it, as he preferred a barque, to make a quicker voyage. The count had provided one and given him every other assistance, and for all this he returned hearty thanks, and he would inform his Majesty of everything. For the present he desired nothing further than to rest after his journey and enjoy the air here for a few days in a place he regarded as his fatherland. I replied that he might stay as long as he pleased. At this moment Signor Tagliapierra, minister of the Rason Vecchie, offered him in the name of your Serenity the refreshments voted. He received them gratefully and repeated his thanks, saying he would immediately report it to the King of Great Britain. He then asked me if it was true that I had been in England as the Secretary Monti told him, who was present, and what I thought of the country. I said I thought it the best piece of good fortune that had befallen me that I had served his Majesty there for four years, whose greatness and wisdom I admired, just as I considered the country the equal of any other.
After a further exchange of courtesies, we parted.
[Italian.]
July 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
442. To the Ambassador at Rome.
While our officials were engaged upon a serious matter at a certain house, opposite that of the Spanish ambassador, they were attacked with stones and by armed, persons and compelled to withdraw. The ambassador has been to the Collegio, complaining that shots were fired at his house. We told him of the violence shown to our officials and explained that any firing arose from that and not from any desire to attack his house. To satisfy him we have imprisoned the captain engaged upon that affair. We afterwards detained two persons considered to be outlaws, but when they proved to belong to the ambassador's household, we released them and sent them home with explanations.
These particulars are for information, to enable you to state the facts if you hear anything said.
The like to:
France, England, Savoy, Germany, Naples, Milan, Florence, the Hague.
Ayes, 120.Noes, 3.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
July 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
443. To the Ambassador at Rome.
Our decision to release the 200 men found upon Ossuna's ship (fn. 3) has been very well received by Cardinal Borgia when told by our resident Spinelli, through whom his Eminence has also asked for the restitution of the ship. We have complied, handing it over to him with all its ordnance and munitions.
The like to:
Spain, France, England, Germany, Savoy, Milan, Florence, the Hague.
Ayes, 120.Noes, 3.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
July 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
444. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE AND SENATE.
The king was at Oatlands (Hotlans), whence he honoured me with the present of a fine deer. On receiving the letters of your Serenity of the 19th ult., I sent my secretary to him there to ask for an audience. He sent word by the Lord Chamberlain that he regretted that he could not see me except in London, some days later, as he was in that distant place without resources, where he had been accustomed to stay at other times engaged in the diversions of the chase accompanied by a very few favourites, without doing any business and attending to nothing except the ordinary things necessary for his approaching progress. He therefore begged me, if I had anything requiring haste, to lay it before the Secretary Naunton, who would send the particulars to him. Accordingly, considering the urgency of the need, the importance of the commissions of your Excellencies, and that the gain of a week might do much to assist in obtaining the favour desired by the two letters, I decided to lay the matter before the secretary, reserving myself to perform the same office with his Majesty on his return to the city, unless he would receive me beforehand in any other place.
From the secretary, I gathered that they have immediately sent very urgent instructions to their ambassador to renew his representations to the Porte in the sense expressed by your Excellencies, and to write to the Grand Turk himself if the first letter, which was very general, did not serve the purpose. I offered to give it back if there was a breach. I tried to induce them to insert the same ideas, either entire or in part, as were inserted in the letters written. The secretary replied that he would make any representations with the utmost goodwill, and he ordered that the letter to the Grand Turk should not be written upon ordinary paper, but upon parchment, with minute and careful characters and gold letters to afford a more solemn appearance. I hope this will turn out to the satisfaction of your Excellencies. I touched in the most effective way I knew upon all the points that were indicated to me, as here they know little, especially in affairs other than their own and foreign, to which, indeed they customarily apply but little attention in this Court (che qui si sappia poco massime in negocii non proprii et esterni a quali poca applicatione in questa Corte veramente si suol tenere). I was also at great pains to make Naunton understand them thoroughly.
I continually receive fresh signs of his friendly disposition towards the most Serene Republic, and in the name of your Excellencies I passed the office with him committed to me, which he received with the utmost satisfaction. I shall enclose the two letters with these presents, but only the copy of the one directed to the Grand Turk as I had no time to procure the other. However, Naunton assured me that it was very strong and expressed every thing required. I will try to get that also to send next week. I pray God that it may fall in with the wishes of your Serenity and bear the fruit required by the necessities of the case. I have delayed the despatches this week till to-day in order to forward these with the despatches, though it has cost a little for the despatch of an extraordinary courier to catch the ordinary from Antwerp, who left the day before yesterday.
I will hasten as much as possible the audience of his Majesty, though with a due regard for his satisfaction and convenience, which helps extraordinarily with him and is necessary in every occasion whatsoever. I will represent to him as forcibly as I know how what has been committed to me by your Serenity. But I believe that he understands quite well already the importance of the affair and the unrighteous manner in which the most serene republic is molested.
Viscount Doncaster came to call upon me the other day on his behalf and to learn whether I had received any reply from your Excellencies with respect to the Prince of Joinville. This diligence did not proceed from his own motion, as certainly this affair does not weigh upon him unduly, as I well understood. It came from the Cavalier Lazari, who asked him and recently revived the question in the prince's name, to whom he carried the royal reply on his return to France. I told him precisely what was committed to me, and I have decided to tell the king the same at my first audience.
I have used all diligence upon the purchase of the ordnance. I find, according to the note sent to me, which contains an error of 5,000 florins, that in the expense to be incurred there is a difference here to the advantage of your Serenity, the amount of the outlay coming to 6,768 florins 5, reckoning the expense at a rather high scale for carriage, purchase, weighing the pieces, and so forth, and upon which I hope with diligence to make no small saving. Accordingly, it seems clear that it will be better to make the purchase than expend the money mentioned, although at the moment the price of such commodities has been raised by the armament of the ships which is proceeding. From the enclosed account supplied by some of the leading founders who are ready to supply me, your Excellencies may see what advantages can be obtained. I have sent the same account to the Secretary Suriano, with all the particulars and remarks, although I know that his experience and zeal keep him alive to everything. I have heard that it is well nigh impossible that the ship-wrecked vessel carried pieces of such size and weight, which as a rule are not even placed in ships of 1,000 tons. However, despite the obvious and considerable advantage I think it better not to ask leave to take away from his Majesty, especially as this is not a matter requiring such speed, without fresh instructions from your Excellencies, because so far as I can ascertain at present I shall certainly receive an absolute refusal, to the undoubted displeasure of his Majesty, who certainly desires to satisfy your Serenity in matters of far greater moment. I have discovered that these last months, his Majesty, perceiving the great quantity of artillery being exported from these realms, and that it was also being used to the detriment of the ships and interests of his subjects, chiefly in the East Indies, where they have suffered so greatly, laid a proposal before the Council that no more licences for exportation should be granted, and further ordained at the same time that the number of furnaces or foundries in the realm, then amounting to seven, should be reduced to two only. Accordingly he has given an absolute refusal to the request of the Duke of Nevers, the Duke of Guise and even the States, the last not having succeeded in obtaining more than a promise of his Majesty that the first permission should not be granted to any one but themselves, although perchance they would make the grant less willingly to them than to others at the present time, the memory of the last encounter in these same East Indies being still fresh and bitter. The same thing would greatly increase the difficulty of granting my request, as it would have a bearing upon the reparation for the damage inflicted by the States. The Spanish ambassador, as I wrote on the 2nd inst. has received a fresh permission, but only in confirmation of an old one which he obtained two years ago, for 200 pieces, whereof not more than 100 have been taken. (fn. 4) So he recently obtained confirmation of the permission to take the rest, though it is doubtful if this new order may not also serve as an impediment. However, your Excellencies will signify your wishes to me, and they shall be promptly executed. Meanwhile results may be obtained more quickly through the offers of a merchant, a friend of mine, who has many good relations in Ireland, by means of which he will try to recover some of the ship-wrecked pieces, if it be possible.
London, the 19th July, 1620.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
445. Note that a kinter (fn. 5) (cantaro) of these parts is equivalent to 112 of ours, which makes them 3½ per cent. greater than those of Holland, and therefore:
6,430 lire for two pieces of bronze are equivalent to6,205
49,500 lire for 14 pieces of iron make47,80066,400
19,265 for 6 pieces of iron make18,600
68,765
The cost of the said pieces in Holland in florins:
the two pieces of bronze of 6,430 at 60 florins the 1003,858 florins385l. 16s. 0d.
the 20 pieces of iron, at15 florins the 10010,314florins151,031l.9s.6d.
Totals14,172 florins 151,417l.5s.6d.
So that there is an error in the copy received from Venice of 5,000 florins500l.
The cost of the said pieces here in London:
the two pieces of bronze of 6,205 lire at 4⅓ ducats2,688½florins268l. 17s.0d.
the 20 of iron, 66,400 at 13 florins, including the cost of powder and balls for testing at the purchase4,316 florins431l.12s.0d.
7,004½florins700l.9s.0d.
The cost of taking them to Holland400florins40l.0s.0d.
7,404½florins740l.9s.0d.
The cost of Holland as above14,172 florins 151,417l.5s.6d.
The cost here as above7,404 florins 10740l.9s.0d.
This makes a saving of6,788 florins 5676l.16s.6d.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
446. JACOBUS DEI GRATIA ETC. REX, prepotenti et invicto Imperatori Sultan Osman Cham, Musulmanorum supremo Dominio Augustissimo, Orientisque Monarchae salutem et felicitatem:
Invictissime Imperator, amice carissime:
Non colimus nos vulgarem cum Serenissima Venetorum Republica amicitiam, quae valida in rebus prosperis, cessit in adversis, sed talem, quae omnia habeat communia mala pariter ac bona. Inter ea vero quae per aliquot annos indigna passi sunt gravissime tulimus nuperas et recentiores hasce molestias ad Praecelsam vestram Portam illis tolleratas, et vestrae Majestatis seriam sed immeritam offensam. Quis ne Princeps, quae Republica praestare tenetur navigationis infortunia, aut restituere ablata per vim in Mari ? Puniendus nemo est, nisi ubi deliquit quando autem injuria quis multatus est, altera est injuria et major priore novam aliquam illi irrogare multam, et compensationem eorum petere, quae amisit invitus; hoc vero non esset culpam vindicare, quae in Venetis nulla erat, sed malam ulcisci fortunam, quae divinae providentiae lege saepe arripit justissimos. Et sane in eo quod objicitur multo maximum erat ipsius reipublicae damnum, secundum Venetorum civium, tertium Musulmanorum, quos aequum est cum in eodem mari navigent communia cum Christianis pati incommoda, ut tempestates, naufragia, Piratarum incursus, hostium violentiam. Occurrebat Hispanica classis ipsa instructissima et homines jurati domus Ottomanicae hostes, et eo quidem tempore, quo Veneta classes alibi erat, oras vestri littoris defendens. Omnes norunt justissimam esse Rempublicam Venetam, et si quid deberet promptius soluturam, quam Vestra Majestas exigeret, et hactenus tardi non fuerunt ad vestra commoda difficilimis etiam vestri Imperii temporibus, et quando eorum fides ingentibus contra vos sollicitabatur præmiis Vestra causa contra familiam Austriacam susceperunt arma vindicaturi in Uscoccos infinitam praedandi licentiam, et plurimas Musulmanorum injurias. Portum quoque Spalatensem vestris mercatoribus aperuerunt, non quod tale quid deberetur ex pacto, sed et vestro desiderio et rogatui satisfacerent, ne quis jam arbitretur privatorum hominum damna Reipublicae hic esse praestanda aut resaricienda ullo modo; Nam id nee promisso aliquo in se receperunt Veneti, nec continetur in verbis fœderis, quod cum Familia Ottomanica sanctissime servarunt; nec consentaneum est rationi compensationem damni ab iis petere qui damnum passi sunt.
Haec pro amicitia libertate Vestram Majestatem putavimus monendam, ne aures praebeat calumniis, sed rationi et aequitati, et in tenera aetate ostendat quanti faciat justitiam et fœdera cum Amicis. Unde non nos tantum, sed et coeteri Christiani Principes qui curiose nobiscum satis observant, hujus negotii exitum, Sultanum Osmanum collaudabimus, et ultimum sic praestantissimum, nobilissimae suae familiae germen, si spretis malevolorum susurris, et calumniis, constanter adhaereat recto, et sui amatissimos vicissim amet, quem nos optimo et maximo junioris aetatis tutori Deo commendamus fovendum, augendum que ad sui nominis gloriam et Imperii Musulmanici splandorem. Dat. Londini e Regia nostra die iiii. mensis Julii Anno nostri Messiae ter beatissimi millesimo sexcentesimo et vicesimo, anno vero nostri Magnae Britaniae, Franciae et Hiberniae decimo octavo. (fn. 6)
July 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
447. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Agent Wake writes from Turin under date of the 19th ult. that he had reported to the duke the goodwill of his Majesty to foment his inclination to join the States and the Princes of the Union and the offices performed for the king by the Ambassador Carleton and by the Ambassador Dohna with the States. This communication was well received by his Highness, who continues to display the most favourable disposition. He said substantially that he would await in Piedmont the Ambassador Aerssens on his return from Venice, and the matter could be gone into with the interposition of Wake, to be subsequently completed by the sending of agents or ambassadors, saying it would be better to send them upon an affair already in train than to set it in motion. He added that he would offer the greatest honours to Aerssens and a show of the most cordial friendship, although he knew that it would give rise to much suspicion and would highly displease not only the Spaniards but the French also.
By the gentleman who arrived here last week as I reported, sent by Prince Maurice and the States, I am assured that in addition to what I advised, great offers have come to the king of great weight, to induce him to unmask and declare himself openly in the present affairs. The States to some extent give his Majesty carte blanche, to prepare a royal armament, either by sea or land, and particularly to make some diversion in the states of the Archduke Albert, they make him offerings of money, of good soldiers and of everything else that may be needed, even to the offer of the port of Sluys as a haven for his ships and the disembarking, and of any other position that he might desire to set foot on the continent. They further hint that a declaration would suffice for them, and, so to speak, a standard of his Majesty, to perform beneath it what the needs of the situation require; as for themselves, they cannot make a diversion without breaking the truce.
In spite of these fine proposals he has not been able to captivate his Majesty or to turn him aside from his own proposals. Thus the king replied decisively that he had sworn to God, the Spaniards, the Bohemians and all the world to use every means in his power for a good accommodation. For the moment, until he saw how the affairs of his ambassador proceeded he did not wish to take any steps besides those which he had adopted or to act otherwise either directly or indirectly. He had given his subjects freedom to go and help the Palatine, whom he does not wish to perish, and he also gives them liberty to go and serve the States themselves. He ended by saying that if the States wish to enlist men here with their own money, he gives them leave to do so throughout the kingdom.
This and the aforementioned affair of Savoy are two points which are proceeding very secretly at this Court, are not known to every one and are not communicated by the king himself to many of his councillors, thus they should be kept quiet at Venice as the prudence of your Serenity will understand.
The Spanish ambassador is trying hard to promulgate the idea that peace will not be obtained in any way more easily than by the occupation of the Palatinate, which alone would serve, with reciprocal restitution of this and of the kingdom of Bohemia to its original masters, to quieten everything. just as the capture of Vercelli served the Duke of Savoy as a gate and ladder to settle his affairs. Some think that even the king, with his great eagerness for peace, is entirely possessed by the same opinion, but his words, which after all are the windows of the soul, do not disclose this as certain. Thus the whole matter, being in the very entrails of princes, mostly like the sovereign here, of great prudence, is very difficult to penetrate. Nevertheless, the Spanish ambassador assures his Majesty that Spinola will not go to attack the Palatinate, although he adds that it would be the best way to make peace; and he has sworn again and again that he has written to Flanders to prevent him from going there. Accordingly the king, in speaking to his favourites the other day upon the question, said that either Spinola will not attack the Palatinate, or the Count of Gondomar is without faith and without God. Yet at the same time we hear from France, which is involved in serious disturbances, that the Catholic ambassador there has informed the Most Christian in the name of the king, his master, that Spinola has received definite instructions to go and attack the Palatinate. The like news arrives from every quarter and from Brabant in particular they write that the forces of the Archduke will divide into three parts. The first, under Spinola, for the Palatinate, and it was to march on the 10th; the second for the frontier of the States, to keep them busy, and the third to meet any decision which the king here may take for a diversion at sea with his fleet.
Owing to the news here that the pirates are at sea with seven ships in the neighbourhood of these realms, and have made booty of some English ships, they are paying more attention than ever to the arming of the twenty ships.
Every day they embark soldiers of Vere's levy, who will thus travel in small groups, and will only be gathered together, clothed and armed on the other side of the sea.
On the 10th Donato left Putney, and has crossed the sea from Dover to Calais. Three days before his departure he called in a hired coach upon the Spanish ambassador, who lives half a mile from the city. He had a short interview with him and afterwards with the French ambassador, remaining with the latter for two hours. On his return to Putney he broke both the new and the old regulations of his Majesty, as he passed through the middle of London, from one end to the other, although with some reserve, in order not to be recognised. On another occasion he transgressed on the water, going up and down the river in a boat. In addition to what I wrote, I hear that he has some idea of proceeding to Italy and betaking himself to Lucca.
London, the 19th July, 1620.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 See Vol. ix. of this Calendar, page 8.
2 Cecil was deeply mortified at being passed over, and on the 24th June he had quarrelled seriously with the Ambassador Dohna on the subject. See Dalton: Life of Edward Cecil, i., pages 320–329.
3 The Almirante di Napoli taken by the Venetian admiral Federigo Nani in the fight with Ribera off Crete. Nani: Hist. della Republica Veneta, Vol. i., page 228.
4 The license granted to Gondomar on the 9th November, 1618. was for 100 pieces of iron and two pieces of brass ordnance. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1611–1618. page 593.
5 A hundredweight English, according to Florio.
6 The draft of this letter, differing in many respects from the text printed here, is preserved at the Public Record Office, State Papers, Foreign, Turkey.