Venice
July 1620, 21-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1910

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323-342

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'Venice: July 1620, 21-31', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 16: 1619-1621 (1910), pp. 323-342. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88762 Date accessed: 22 July 2014.


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Contents

July 1620

July 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
448. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
At a new petition from the merchants the States have summoned deputies from the Admiralty to consult about arming vessels to protect trade. The ambassador of the King of Great Britain asserts that they are arming six of the royal ships at the kings expense and fourteen others will be armed by merchants, so that everything will be done on their side to put down the pirates, chase them from the Mediterranean and whip them soundly if they meet them.
They think here that the arming of ships will produce two results, to bridle the pirates and extirpate them if possible, and alarm the Spaniards at the end of the truce if they see Dutch ships joined with those of England.
Your Serenity will have heard of the unsatisfactory reply given to the English agent by the Archduke Albert. (fn. 1) The Ambassador Carleton thinks his Majesty will not allow his son-in-law to be prejudiced in the Palatinate.
The Hague, the 21st July, 1620.
[Italian.]
July 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
449. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Your Serenity will have understood from my preceding letters the difficulties raised by de Lormes, and that he felt sure the pirates would not look at any thing except complete absolution for their misdeeds. I hoped the last ordinary would bring me something to permit of settling the affair. The viscount does not know what to do, as to go to those men without anything definite would be useless. He said the republic would stand to lose nothing as Pasini need not give them the patents before he is thoroughly satisfied about everything. He said that if two or three of them came to Venice they would not know which way to take. If they came by land they would assuredly be recognised by some one. By sea they would probably fall into the hands of the Barbary pirates; he raised various other difficulties also.
I will await the reply and decision of your Serenity. He told me also that the approach of winter and the report that some of the powers are arming to hunt them down may induce the pirates to take refuge in places where it will not be easy to find them.
The Hague, the 21st July, 1620.
[Italian.]
July 21.
Collegio.
Secreta.
Lettere Re.
dInghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
450. JACOBUS DEI GRATIA ETC. ANTONIO PRIULO, Venetiarum Duci etc., Salutem et felicitatem.
Serenissime princeps amice charissime: Quod Henricum Peytonum Chiliarcham una cum suis Serenissima Respublica retinuerit, caeteris sociis navalibus exauctoratis privilegium ognoscimus amoris vestri in nostros; quod illi forti fidelique opera nos mutuo affectu nitemur compensare. Et est Peytono voluntas bene merendi prona, facultas major fiet, si vestra venia illi licuerit raros et deficientes militum suorum ordines Transalpinis supplere auxiliis, vel ex iis quos Serenissima Respublica proxime exauctoravit: qua benevolentia aptiorem quoque posthac reddetis eum nostris ministeriis, Nos eum primo Vestrae Serenitati tradidimus: nunc postquam eam praestitit fidem virtutemque quam ejus nomine promisimus, speramus postulatum hoc aut verius votum ejus pro ulteriore Reipub, bono vobis non fore ingratum mediantibus praesertim nobis, qui incolumitatis Vestrae studio tenemur vel maximo, nullius promoturi desiderium nisi Vestris rebus utile et salutare.
Dat. e regia nostra Albaula xi. die Julii, 1620.
JACOBUS R. [autograph].
July 21.
Consiglio di X.
Parti Comuni.
Venetian
Archives.
451. In the Council of Ten.
Whereas Giulio Muscorno was unable to fulfil his duty in making the rubrics to the letters written to his Serenity, when he served as secretary to Antonio Foscarini, our ambassador in England, and whereas he cannot make them now, because he is departing to serve Antonio Barbarigo, Proveditore General to the fleet: that he be released from the duty and from the penalties involved.
Ayes, 12.Noes, 2.Neutral, 1.
Pending.
Proposed and carried on 31st July, 1620.
Ayes, 13.Noes, 1.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
July 22.
Collegio.
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
452. In the Collegio.
Colonel Peyton having requested time to be allowed him for the discharge of his debt of 1,300 ducats, incurred so he says for a loan to arm the English troops, we agree to satisfy him, enjoining that 250 ducats a month be deducted from his pay until the entire sum is discharged; and if the troops are disbanded before the completion of payment, then all the money shall be deducted which happens to be due at the time.
Ayes, 20.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
July 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
453. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I enclose herewith the copy of a letter written by the Secretary Naunton in the king s name to his ambassador in Constantinople with an Italian translation, which I had no time to procure when I sent my last despatch. I hope that it will please your Excellencies.
Yesterday I had audience of his Majesty at Wanstead. I punctually executed the commissions of your Serenity of the 5th ult., presenting the letter of thanks and accompanying it with all the expressions of friendship enjoined upon me. I explained to the best of my ability the pertinacious obstinacy of the Grand Vizier; the tyrannical authority and unrighteous manner of his proceedings, by forging documents, by threatening the Bailo Nani and by refusing to admit his successor Giustinian; his threats to lay hands on and sequestrate the goods of the merchants and other resolutions of the worst nature such as the imprisonment of the Bailo and the menace of death itself. In short I fully expressed the commissions given me by your Excellencies, more particularly the reasons why the republic cannot and ought not yield to such extravagant and unjust pretensions, which were impelled simply by passion and by ancient hatred long cherished, like things poisoned or ulcerated, contrary to the capitulations and undeserved by the sincere goodwill with which your Serenity has always proceeded towards the Porte, maintained even in difficult and troubled times of the Ottoman house, although she had been invited to act otherwise with very lavish promises. I said all this and more in conformity with my instructions of the 19th and 26th ult. I thanked his Majesty most warmly for the representations made by his ambassador at Constantinople at the request of the Bailo, and your Serenity felt sure that he would have been employed recently if he had not been stayed by indisposition. I also thanked him for the letters recently drawn up by the Secretary Naunton both for the ambassador and for the Grand Turk, which entered into particulars upon the justice of the cause of your Serenity, and were expressed with the decorum which is necessary in addressing the Turks. I therefore hoped they would meet the need and that it would not be necessary to use the first letter written by his Majesty to the Grand Turk, as although that was friendly and expressed his excellent disposition towards the interests of the republic, it did not enter into particulars but confined itself to generalities and so one could not expect the same results from it as we hoped for from the last. I ended by saying that I prayed God that the letters would produce these results and thus render to his Majesty that glory which he had so readily acquired on other occasions by his interposition, as he was esteemed by all, owing to the high repute of his prudence, which is only equalled by the power of these realms, commanded by him and very highly respected by the Turks themselves. I tried by every means in my power to confirm him in his good will which he showed towards me and in the most courteous and friendly declaration made by him for the service of your Excellencies. In your name I further gave him the reply about the command of the Prince of Joinville, and communicated to him the news of the encounter between the ships of your Serenity and those of Naples in the manner shown to me in the letters of the 11th and 19th ult.
The letter pleased the king greatly. He told me that he would endeavour at every opportunity to deserve the favour of your Excellencies. Before I went further he interrupted me saying: I understand that the affairs of Constantinople are all settled. If that is so I rejoice greatly. Sire, I replied, I hear that they are in greater fluctuation than ever, and then I entered upon the exposition aforesaid. As I spoke he expressed both deep pain and amazement, beating his hands when I touched upon the threats of the Grand Vizier against the Bailo, exclaiming several times: How is it possible that such diabolical wild beasts and that men so unreasonable should be so exalted and should guide so great an empire and so powerful a monarchy. After I had finished speaking he remarked: I do not know, Mr. Ambassador, what to add to what I have said at other times. The most serene republic will perceive my opinions and readiness from the letters which I have recently consigned, and how willing I am to deal with this. I will willingly do anything that may be suggested to me. At the time of the trouble with the pope we had to deal with a prince of intelligence amenable to reason. But here I grieve to see that the trouble is rather with beasts than with men, that the Grand Turk is a child without knowledge or experience and without the slightest acquaintance with the affairs of the world or his true interests; that his ministers, who as you tell me are now the arbiters of his empire, are so hot-headed and full of fury, thinking of nothing except their own notions and caprices. The reasons which you have laid before me, and which the Secretary Naunton has also written, seem to me unanswerable. But reason avails nothing where arrogance is determined to prevail at all costs. I hear that they do not know what to say except that the republic ought to send the merchant galleys well accompanied. But if she herself has lost her galleys; if she herself has received as much hurt in her own subjects as the Turks can have received, if there is no obligation or any promise imaginable, while the republic, as I well know, maintained a great fleet at that very time at heavy expense, which incidentally guarded the coasts of the Turk also, and which could not be simultaneously everywhere and in every part of the sea, what charge could reasonably be laid against her ? In short, Mr. Ambassador, I know her position and the justice of her cause, and out of the friendship which I cherish for the republic and also in the interests of the whole of Christendom, I will always do everything that I can in her favour.
With regard to the Prince Joinville he seemed entirely satisfied with the reply, saying: I could not neglect to recommend him owing to the requests which have been made to me, but for my own part I only wished to supply the information in case the republic required such a personage at this conjuncture. As he is my kinsman, I dare hope that if, in case of need, the choice lies between him and another as good, the Senate will let my offices prevail over the others, although I never desire anything but her best service, that being the part of a good friend.
He was exceedingly pleased at the news of the success gained by the ships of your Excellencies over those of Ossuna. He seemed most eager to hear all the particulars. He said, however, that his advices brought him the same news. The Captain of the Ships could not have acted more prudently or with greater valour. He greatly praised the fact that no battle flag was displayed, and that they sounded the trumpets as a sign of friendship. He said in conclusion with a merry laugh: What! perhaps Ribera wanted him to lower his sails and afford him obedience. (Che! Voleva forse il Rivrera chegli mainasse le Velle e gli prestasse obbedienza.) He laid especial stress upon the point that the Neapolitan ships had made depredations in the kingdom of Candia and that upon the ship taken from the Admiral they had found artillery belonging to the republic. (fn. 2) His Majesty remarked that the excellent disposition of the republic was not only recognised by himself, but ought to be public and commended by the whole world, as well on this occasion when the fury of Ossuna has received a decided check, but as a simple necessity of the Venetians for their defence. By their good treatment of the prisoners and all their actions the Venetians have clearly shown their most praiseworthy disposition towards peace. In a final reference to Ossuna, he said: He has at last left Naples. The devil put him there. Don Pedro of Toledo at Milan and that man at Naples were placed in Italy, two hot-heads, to turn that province and half the world upside down. But Cardinal Borgia is known to be prudent and very discreet so I hope he will afford equivalent consolation.
I replied that your Serenity and all well disposed persons hoped the same. I then took leave of his Majesty, wishing him a good progress, which is to last six weeks. (fn. 3) He is to start on the 29th inst. with so much the more satisfaction as in leaving the city behind he throws off the weight of negotiations and removes himself from the annoyance of ministers and ambassadors, from whom he is naturally always ready to remove himself and of whom he wishes to be rid, especially in these days of trouble and involved affairs, and to get as far off as possible. They on the other hand need an exceptional amount of attention, and consequently their negotiations are so much the less acceptable to him.
London, the 23rd July, 1620.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
454. Letter of Naunton to the Ambassador at Constantinople.
His Majesty not contenting himself with the former letters which he hath directed me to write unto you in favour of the State of Venice which he understands to be inhumanly prosecuted upon an old grudge by the Grand Vizier, hath written his own royal letter to the Grand Signor himself, the copy whereof I have herewith sent you, that you might out of it inform yourself more particularly of the justice of their cause and of his Majestys direct apology and roundeur wherewith he pleadeth for them and presseth the integrity of their just defence like a Princely Protector and a faithful friend to his Confederates and allies in all their just actions. By your exact perusal whereof you will be furnished with variety and weight of argument wherewith to second his Majestys so noble entermise and mediation. His Majesty rests well satisfied with the report which the ambassador of that State hath made unto him of your former good offices and diligence which you have used in their behalf upon my former letters. But understanding withall that a general recommendation hath not hitherto prevailed so far for their security and immunity from further trouble and molestation as he did hope and wish he hath descended in these his letters (as you see) to their particular justification by dint of argument; wherein he would have you to second them effectually like a faithful minister and zealous to do him service, and to these worthy friends of his whom he doth so much and so duly respect and honour that he esteems any wrong that is done to them as done to himself and will expect a speedy and an exact account from you what operation and effect your own former good endeavour and these his own earnest interpositions by his princely letters shall have and obtain with that young great monarch. In all which passages so curiously incharged you from his Majesty I cannot make any doubt of your dutiful care and answer to his Majestys great expectation, in which assurance I rest your very loving friend assured.
Whitehall, the 8th July, 1620.
[English.]
July 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghliterra.
Venetian
Archives.
455. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I went to the Prince of Wales also to wish him a good progress. He rejoiced with me that your Serenity is now enjoying complete peace and tranquillity, that the Duke of Ossuna has left Naples and the charge is now in the hands of Cardinal Borgia, from whom one may hope for better notions. I said that in that direction, thank God, the sky appeared serene, and the most serene republic hoped that the molestation and trouble would cease which certainly were not deserved by the upright and straightforward conduct in all things, as they desired nothing more than peace and the preservation of their own liberty with the indemnity of their subjects. But in the direction of the Turks, out of all reason and owing to an old standing grudge of the Grand Vizier, clouds were gathering which looked very black and ugly. I knew that as I had communicated the circumstances to his Majesty your Excellencies would wish me to tell his Highness also. He seemed astonished and said he understood that it had all been settled. I told him all the essential particulars and the reasons of your Excellencies informing him of the offices undertaken by the king his father with his customary zeal for the universal peace and especially for our country, and the remarkable exhibitions and declarations which he had graciously made to me, as he had done before in previous difficulties, laying your Serenity under great obligations, in whose name I also wished to beseech him, to plant firmly in his spirit the same sentiments as those of his father, of whom he is a worthy son in every respect and to cherish the same feelings in his Majesty by his good favour. This office gave the utmost satisfaction and the prince showed the fullest and most sincere affection for your Excellencies. He said that he had always desired to serve the most serene republic and would continue to do so and he would lose no opportunity of forwarding her interests. The king his father was always disposed to favour your Serenity and this would be particularly the case as against the Turks. He afterwards asked me about the fight which took place off Crete. He greatly enjoyed hearing the particulars, and the ingenuousness and openness of his nature showed that he would have preferred to learn of a still more severe blow.
I will not fail to pass seasonable offices with the leading ministers to keep them stirred up to act for the advantage of your Excellencies, as you ordered me in yours of the 26th ult. But the few ill affected ones, partisans of Spain and invincible, will certainly go about and act against the interests of the republic and perhaps they started the report that everything was settled at Constantinople with the design of making his Majesty cold in the business. I also fear that even the well disposed will certainly press more strongly upon his Majesty the interests of the King of Bohemia, and so they will not devote themselves so whole heartedly to the affairs of the republic, as they did before. Thus whatever good results will be chiefly due to the perfect good will of his Majesty, whilst beyond the limits of representations and attempts at a composition we really require strong demonstrations, which would involve expense and assistance, and not further negotiation to divert trouble in that way but to seek redress with the sword and repel injuries vigorously. Nevertheless I will use incessant application and try to sow the good seed in the gentlest and most advantageous mannner possible and I will tenderly cultivate the favourable soil of their inclinations.
To pass from the subject to the scanty advices that I can send your Serenity this week of the events of these parts, leaving those from abroad and without emerging from my own particular groove, I will simply state that the ambassador of the Most Christian has informed his Majesty and the prince of these affairs, and they rejoice greatly here at seeing them so thoroughly involved, both because any treaty for peace arranged by that crown in Germany would win less renown and because they would not be displeased at the failure of their embassy to the United Princes. Thus this crown would more easily win the glory of an accommodation and the forces of that king will not afford any advantage to the emperor.
The Ambassadors Cornuals and Vueston have gone. The ambassador of Spain has received a part of their instructions as a sign of confidence, by means of Lord Digby. It is thought that this was by the kings command, since the ambassador still tries to have it believed that the Spaniards desire nothing except peace and that they would willingly consent to any reasonable accommodation, which his Majesty in particular, with his great prudence, might be able to arrange in the matter. They also cherish in him the hope that Spinola will not attack the Palatinate but will rather proceed to Bohemia. By these devices they hope to keep eyes sealed and hands bound in this quarter, especially with the opportunity afforded to them of the delay of Spinola in starting his march, either because of the disputes between him and Don Luis de Velasco, which, however, the Ambassador Gondomar denies, or owing to the condition of the archduke and the possibility of his death, or to await the arrival of troops from Italy, as the count himself professes, as for fear of some arrangements of the States with these parts, upon which I believe that the Spaniards are at present very suspicious. Accordingly they go about spreading the idea that if the king here really moves to some purpose, they can easily find a way to give him trouble and vexation at home, by stirring up the humours of these realms and reduce him to a very bitter and troubled state. (Onde vanno spandendo concetti che ben haveranno modo se questa Màstà si muove da dovero ad ingelosirli o travagliarli dinternamente agitare li humori di questi Regni e di ridurla a termini molto pongenti et molesti.)
Owing to the same suspicions, although the most secret replies to Prince Maurice and the States were so resolute, as I wrote last week, either they do not know this, which is difficult to believe, or else they place no reliance upon it and fear for the future once the conflagration is thoroughly kindled and fully ablaze with the damage which the Spaniards mean to inflict upon the Palatinate, it appears that they are trying to bring about a pause in the arming of the twenty ships which was being hastened on owing to the news about the pirates, under the pretext that the armament of their ships in Spain cannot be completed before the 25th August. Accordingly they have recently postponed their preparations here until that time, the spirit of making them ready being dashed by the very hands which gave it birth at the beginning. It is true that the preparations have been carried so far that in any case should the king take a decision it would be possible to have the ships ready very quickly. But the eagerness not to involve themselves, the subtlety of the artifices and the departure of his Majesty from the city to a distance, cannot fail to produce delay, and nothing but delay can be expected. Help will come late and very tardily, and all operations this year will be ambiguous and feeble, and one feels sure that what they do will come after the blow, which they do not fear or hardly expect, rather than to ward it off (la quale si aspetta al certo più tosto di far dopo il colpo o non temuto o poco sperato che per ripararlo).
The ambassador of the States asked for audience and was put off several days, until Friday. He is to tell the king of the situation of the affairs of his masters, of the troops which they have ready to the number of 20,000, so he says, with a notable quantity of munitions. He also has orders to urge his Majesty to do something, but gently, as the States perceive clearly that they can hope but little from him at the moment. They also are arming a number of ships, according to what this M. Caron told me. They do not neglect to perform their part boldly and with resolution and their action does more than anything else to restrain and delay Spinola.
The soldiers of Vere are embarking in great haste. They should land at Brill and afterwards proceed to the Palatinate through Dort. They will number about 2,500 and in the course of the month as many more will follow them. The captains say that they have many more than the number, nevertheless the drum continues to be beaten, so either the difficulty in recruiting is greater than they profess, or they keep on beating the drum for the sake of making a pompous noise to please the people, or again they wish to raise many more men than they give out, sending some across the sea in small companies. But as they have freedom to recruit at pleasure, and as the rumour of a large levy may produce a good effect, such a course would appear to be superfluous.
London, the 23rd July, 1620.
[Italian.]
July 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
456. GIROLAMO SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Spaniards hear with great dissatisfaction that the King of England is at length arousing himself to help the Palatine. They hoped that the Ambassador Gondomar, by his arts and craft would keep that monarch wrapped up in lethargy. But it is hoped that he will do something for his son-in-law, and once he has begun, his Majesty will of necessity continually interest himself more and more in those affairs.
Rome, the 25th July, 1620.
[Italian.]
July 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Dalmazia.
Venetian
Archives.
457. FRANCESCO MORESINI, Count and Captain of Spalato, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador returning from Constantinople left here a few days before your Serenitys letters reached me, so that I could not provide him with a galley, as instructed. However, during the days he stayed here I showed him all the courtesy and friendship I could, providing him with everything possible. He asked me finally to give him a passage in some peote, (fn. 4) upon which he embarked leaving very well pleased. I must also add that during the time that the ambassador was staying in quarantine, Dom Marc Antonio Velutello, prior of the Lazzaretti here, had occasion to employ his habitual dexterity and intelligence in carrying out my wishes and assisting in the favours rendered to the ambassador, who as a person of merit and prudence deserves the public favour the more.
Spalato, the 25th July, 1620.
[Italian.]
July 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci, Svizzeri.
Venetian
Archives.
458. PIERO VICO, Venetian Secretary with the Swiss, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Encloses translation of a letter from the Baron von Spietz showing the displeasure of the Duke of Savoy that the ambassador of the States did not visit him as he said he would, before coming to Venice, and that he thinks he was dissuaded by your Excellencies. I have thought it right to send this for your consideration and I have also written to the ambassador.
Zurich, the 27th July, 1620.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
459. Translation of letter of the Baron von Spietz from Berne, the 18th July, 1620.
The secretary of the English ambassador at Turin has arrived in this city. He told me that the Duke of Savoy had understood that the Cavalier Aerssens, who came to confirm the league between the republic and the States of Holland, proposed to go to Venice by way of Savoy to visit his Highness. He would have been very glad and would have accorded him extraordinary honour, but after some days his Highness learned that the Cavalier had changed his mind and would go back the way he came. This has made the duke very suspicious and he believes that the republic diverted the ambassadors purpose. He wished to tell Aerssens of his desire to enter a league with the States, and he is very angry at having lost this opportunity. (fn. 5)
[Italian.]
July 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
460. To the Ambassador in France.
A band of the leading men of the Valtelline, exiled for past misdeeds, recently entered the Valtelline accompanied by about 300 armed men, and killed many officials and others. (fn. 6) They scoured the whole valley, acting in the name of religion. It is known, however, that they have correspondence with Fort Fuentes. Abundant provisions are supplied to them from the Lake of Como, and many from those parts and from the State of Milan are flocking to join them. The intentions of the Spaniards to disturb this province appear evident, and under the cloak of religion they are trying to take possession of the Valtelline, to join the state of Milan to the house of Austria and shut that pass against the other Italian powers.
The like to the Ambassador Lando with the addition of the following:
We direct you to go to his Majesty immediately and as a sign of our confidence inform him of all the above particulars, adding that a Spanish captain has been sent from Milan to command the troops of the Valtelline and help the rebels. You will insist upon the gravity of the matter, and the hollowness of the pretext of religion, as they are only trying to disturb this province, and they will undoubtedly succeed if these movements continue, for they will kindle a fire which it will not be easy to extinguish and close the pass against all ultramontanes. This event deserves his Majestys closest attention, and we feel sure that he will make a declaration worthy of him. This would tend to the quiet of this province, to his great glory and the relief of the Grisons, whose State and liberty are so threatened. The republic will also make representations at the proper moment, moved by her own interests. You will tell us what his Majesty says upon the subject, and what you can discover in connection therewith.
We send you a paper published by the rebels, giving the pretexts for their action, which you can use where necessary.
The present will be sent by express courier from the Ambassador Contarini in France.
The first paragraph to the Secretary at the Hague.
Ayes, 149.Noes, 0.Neutral 7.
[Italian.]
July 28.
Senato,
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
461. To the Proveditore Zorzi at Zara.
On the return of the trading galleys under escort, which you will duly instruct to call, you will embark upon them the men of Colonel Peytons regiment, to be sent to this city with all their necessary papers, to be landed on the Lido, and there do what is ordained. We instruct you to have this done without delay, and you shall receive satisfaction for what you spend. You will only give them money for the voyage if they ask for it.
Ayes, 80.Noes, 3.Neutral, 12.
[Italian.]
July 28.
Collegio.
Secreta,
Lettere Re d'
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
462. Serenissime Princeps.
Quum Serenissimo Regi parenti nostro visum fuerit nobilem Equitem Henricum Wottonum ad V. Serenitatem. transmittere, eumque ad recolendam et firmandam communem utrique amicitiam et comunicanda invicem consiglia et studia honorifica legatione insignire, ne videamur oblatae hinc occasioni deesse pauculis hisce constantem nostrum erga V. Serenitatem. animum et pronum erga Senatum Remque vestram publicam studium consignare voluimus: ut itaque V. Serenitas, omnia quae a nobis prestari possunt amoris veri et sinceri argumenta expectet obnixe rogamus.
Ex Basilica Westmon. 18vo Julii, 1620.
CAROLUS P. [autograph].
July 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
463. ALMORO NANI, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In conformity with your commands I have been to call upon the English ambassador to perform the office committed to me. I told him that on his king being informed by our ambassador of the trouble about the Bosnian merchants, his Majesty had decided to write a very strong letter to the Grand Turk in favour of the interests of your Serenity. I was instructed to assure his Excellency of the great indebtedness of the most serene republic to his Majesty for this express declaration of his royal will. I told him that the letter was in your Serenitys hands to be used on a more opportune occasion, as your affairs at this Porte seem to have taken a turn for the better.
The ambassador commended this decision and showed that he had heard of the letter as one of the leading secretaries of State had written to him about it, but from what I could gather from his conversation I do not think he had a copy of it. I took the opportunity of thanking the ambassador for what he had done in the service of your Serenity, for which he returned hearty thanks.
He afterwards told me of the letter written by his Majesty in favour of the King of Poland, which I have reported before. He said he had already performed the necessary offices on the subject with the Pasha and the Hogia telling them that the King of Great Britain had been moved to write this because he was informed that the war they proposed to make on that king was unprovoked. The Pasha replied: Do you not consider we have cause when the Poles are constantly inciting the Cossacks to trouble us by the Black Sea, and tried to invade Bogdania some months ago, with many other things contrary to the peace, as every one knows. Nevertheless they would induce the Grand Turk to write to his Majesty to justify these things, so that he might rest assured that there were good reasons for the war. The ambassador replied that if his Majesty grasped that truth it would satisfy him and he would say no more.
The ambassador afterwards went to the Hogia and performed the same office, receiving a reply similar to the Pashas. But the Hogia asked him not to pass this office with the Grand Turk. The ambassador interprets this as meaning that the Hogia desires this war more than any one else and does not want any one to advise the Sultan against it. He asked the ambassador to write to his king to exhort Poland to pay tribute to the Sultan, as in that way an accommodation would easily be arrived at, but the ambassador replied that he could not do so, still many believe that this Polish war will not take place.
The Vigne of Pera, the 28th July, 1620.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
464. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Pasini has remained here since his return from England without going to take the information required of him, in the hope of receiving from your Serenity the complete absolution for the captains and men of the twenty two pirate ships. But on hearing your commands recently received, he left for Dort whence he will proceed to Zeeland and England in the company of de Lormes. He could not have removed the uncertainty of the captains, and he fears, if they get wind of the preparations proposed in England here against them and other pirates it may cause them to set sail and depart from the coasts of England and Ireland. I can answer for Pasinis zeal; he does not mind leaving his home and business and accepts all risks, though he recommended his family to me when leaving. I gave him some money to go to London and asked the Ambassador Lando to assist him for the rest of the journey. I told him to confer with the ambassador, introducing de Lormes to him, and to follow his advice.
In order that those men may understand that the negotiations are not put aside, I gave him the patents, with orders to take the Ambassadors opinion upon them. All depends upon whether the men have moved, as in that case it would be difficult to find them. The viscount suggested this difficulty and said that if the ships could not be found on the coasts of England or Ireland it would be better to await a fuller and more resolute decision from your Serenity, to go with it after them to Safti or other resort in Barbary or even further afield, always provided that everything was as represented.
With all this I gave the patents or safe conduct to Pasini, though the viscount repeated that he did not think they would be of any use. Pietro Falghero remains with me in case more precise instructions arrive. M. de Lormes on leaving told me that he was the principal in this affair, but he did not wish me to believe his unsupported testimony, though Pasini would report the esteem these men had for him.
The French ambassador has again spoken to me about the viscount. I will try to have some private conversation with him. The day before yesterday I referred to the subject when conversing with a member of the assembly of the States. He said that the pirates were not received to be supported, but because they were giving up their business, and whatever power received them the States would rejoice. I gathered the same from others who visited me to-day.
In speaking with the English ambassador I referred to the fleet his king is arming. He remarked that to get rid of piracy two methods might be employed, either justice, which meant hunting them down, or pardon. He did not enter into further particulars, and I will seize an opportunity to learn whether their High Mightinesses would welcome the step.
Your Serenitys motives must of necessity be approved. The same spirit moved his Majesty to pardon the famous pirate Danzer, ten or eleven years ago, and six or seven years ago the Duke of Savoy received the Englishman Eston into his dominions, from whose soldiers he received such notable services. (fn. 7) The States here have also pardoned some and the King of Great Britain has done the same. The Grand Duke has quite recently negotiated with these very men, and it may be pre-supposed that he only had the general welfare in view. These form precedents, and I am sure that your Serenity will receive nothing but praise from the well intentioned.
The Hague, the 28th July, 1620.
[Italian.]
July 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
465. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I enclose the translation of a letter written by the Ambassador Haghes to their High Mightinesses. The English ambassador gave me the information and he has sent a copy to his king, in order, he told me, that His Majesty might see the present state of affairs, and also to stop the mouths of some of the Court who say that your Serenity has abandoned the King of Bohemia and Bohemian interests.
The Hague, the 28th July, 1620.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
466. The Vizier has to-day sent to the Venetian bailo to appear before the Cadilischieri, intending to detain him and make him pay. At the bailos request the French ambassador and I went to see this minister. After much debate he agreed to wait thirty or forty days, after which he would accept no excuses, and if the bailo did not pay he would declare the peace broken, stopping all Venetian ships. The Vizier asked if the merchants would be satisfied by the hanging of the bailo if he did not pay. They all agreed with one voice. You will perceive to what a position the matter has been brought by the action of this tyrant. I marvel that the wise Senate of Venice, with all its experience of Turkish methods, has allowed matters to come to this pass.
From Constantinople, the 21st May, 1620.
[Italian.]
July 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
467. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They are discussing morning and evening how they may satisfy the merchants and secure them against the pirates. The merchants abide by their demand for twenty four to thirty ships of war, but the States perceive that they cannot support such an expense single handed. They hear that the King of Great Britain is arming, but they know that things move slowly in that quarter. The English ambassador told me in conversation that some time ago two English Cavaliers went to Tunis and Algiers disguised as merchants, when they contrived to make plans of the forts and harbours. On their return they reported to the king how easily they could be taken, but they saw that without a large force or without Spanish help, or at least without their hindrance, they could not accomplish anything considerable. Nevertheless, the ambassador added, this report had much to do with the kings decision to arm the twenty ships which are being prepared. If they have such ideas I could not easily sound them, but I have sent word to the Ambassador Lando, who will see if there is anything in it.
They have heard nothing of the English troops for Bohemia, except that they are embarked, and they expect them with the first favourable wind.
The Hague, the 28th July, 1620.
[Italian.]
July 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna. Venetian
Archives.
468. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In response to your Serenitys letters of the 13th ult. I have done my utmost to discover what truth there may be in the reports current in England of a league between that crown, this one and France. I cannot find that the ambassadors here of either king have heard anything about it. I do not hear anything from any other source except that they are negotiating here for the marriage with the English prince, which forms a topic of general conversation here, that the conditions are arranged and it is nearly settled. But I knew there was no substance in such reports and did not think it worth while to write about them to your Serenity. The nuncio is keeping a sharp look out on this affair, and has frequently spoken to the king about it, by the popes order, receiving the most absolute assurances in reply that they would not proceed further in the negotiations without previously informing his Holiness, and there has been none of the usual discussions of the theologians on the subject. It seems likely that the Count of Gondomar, the ambassador in London, a minister who resorts to tricks more than any other Spaniard soever, as they form part of his business, goes about circulating such particulars on his own responsibility and pretends that this marriage presents no difficulties, in order to hold back the king there and afford him grounds for not proceeding to further resolutions which he might take in favour of the Palatine. The ambassador has very strong orders from hence to bring this about with all his might, and to make use of any good means he may find (et e da creder che il Conte di Gondomar, ambasciatore in Londra, ministro che più di qual si voglia Spagnolo si valle delli artifficii, che sono a sua carica, vadi promovendo da se simili particolari et mostri non esservi altra difficoltà in questo accasamento, per trattener quel Re et darle pretesto di passar più oltre delle rissolutioni che potesse prender a favore del Palatino di che tiene di qua efficatissimo ordine di procurarlo con ogni ufficio et dimpiegarvi ogni miglior mezo che puo).
Madrid, the 30th July, 1620.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
469. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king left yesterday for his progress. I have seen some of the ministers here to keep them alive to cherish his Majestys goodwill in favour of your Excellencies in the affairs of Constantinople. They displayed a favourable disposition, every one of them approving the reasons of the most serene republic and assuring me that his Majesty was most strongly disposed to favour her, in a matter which concerned not only his own interests but those of the whole of Christendom. One of them asked me, as the king also did at the last audience, whether the new ambassador in those parts is dead, as report here declares. But perhaps this is false news, such as they had some weeks ago, namely, what I told your Excellencies, that Pindar had reached these shores on his way home, while the latest news now is that he has not yet got half way. One of them told me to hope that very speedily the prudence of your Serenity will kill and overcome the poison of the wrath of the Grand Vizier, inveterate as it is, with that ointment which always succeeds perfectly in healing all the bites of the Turks, however poisonous. Another suggested that in these days the forces of the Ottomans, especially at sea, are not so terrible as they were in the past generation, owing to their disorders of so many years standing. One said that the other Christian powers should be bound to take their share. The Archbishop of Canterbury came to suggest to me that the sailing of the fleet of twenty ships which are being made ready here against the pirates might not be inopportune at this moment, to go to the Mediterranean. Beyond a doubt they believe here that when this fleet goes to Algiers, as they profess, no longer to take it, as that design is considered practically impossible at present, but to inflict the greatest possible damage there and especially to burn all the ships found in the port, it will bring both advantage and reputation to your Serenity. But just at present they no longer speak openly about this, possibly because they may not have fully decided whether the said fleet shall really engage in this undertaking, as in the opinion of the wisest it may be directed and guided by matters of greater importance than this business of the pirates (et l Arcivescovo di Conturberi e passato di toccarmi che non sara neanche per listesso rispetto impropria luscità dell armata, che si va preparando delle 20 Navi in questo Regno, che do vera adanni de Corsari passare nel Mediterraneo. Non è dubbio che qui si stimerà, che andando essa Armata in Algieri, come pure professa, non più per prenderlo, poi che limpresa viene al presente creduta quasi impossibile, ma per fargli ogni maggiore danno, et particolarmente per abbrucciare quanti Vasselli si ritrovassero nel Porto, sia per render a Vestra Serenità anchora riputatione et avantaggio. ma non si parlera per hora di questo più apertamente, mentre forse anche non è ben risoluto in cio che veramente habbia adimpiegarsi la detta armata, che secondo gli accidenti di maggior peso che quelli de Corsari per giudicio dei più Savii dovera girarsi et vogliersi).
With regard to joining this fleet to the Spanish one, the Ambassador Gondomar no longer says anything, not even about the Spanish ships being ready by the 25th August. I think they let it be understood that for this year it is not possible for ships to come from the realms of the Catholic king for such a union. Thus they have clearly discovered here the artifice which was suspected and they seem inclined for their ships to set out in any case, and so far they profess to attempt alone what was proposed in conjunction with the Spaniards. Possibly, however, they will soon renew the negotiations for acting in concert with the Dutch. If they have to go alone, they have decided to increase the number. Although they had previously determined that not more than fifteen should start, owing to the bad condition of some of them, they have now returned to the original number of twenty, having recently selected some very fine ones which arrived from the Strait a few days ago. Thus they have been reinforced by a larger number of men, each one having a complement of forty additional men, as well as of provisions for combat and of victuals. And whereas the orders were originally given for six months, they are now increased to nine. Everything is being hurried on with the utmost spirit, money being readily spent upon everything. The ships will all be sheathed (fodrati) as a protection against the teredo and the worms. This shows that they are to pass the Strait and to sail in the Mediterranean, such precautions not being necessary in these seas or in others where similar dangers are not encountered. However there are no new orders, only those given two years ago.
They say that Lord Digby intends to go with these ships to Spain and land at Lisbon, to give greater reputation and pomp to his embassy. It is a point much noted here by the leading men owing to the occasion it may afford to discourse about the marriage, about which at the same time, they do not cease to talk. Thus at times it revives, just as at other times it is skilfully damped down, and this has become an ordinary game. Some hope for it, others are fearful, but the greatest lords here say openly that it is very far from realisation. (Anzi a tempo si raviva come a tempo sagaccemente viene mortificato, già fatto giuoco ordinario. Alcuni lo sperano, altri lo temono. Ma questi Signori più grandi dicono apertamente ch'è cosa molta lontana dall'efetto.)
While the Spaniards believe that the ships will actually sail, their uneasiness constantly increases, and they are willingly encouraged by the ministers here who say that the heart of their king is deeper than men imagine. At the same time, however, they use the familiar artifices and scatter abroad seeds of every description to confound and disconcert their progress as much as possible. Among the merchants they go about falsely declaring that his Majesty desires the money which was set aside two years ago for this armament, to be perpetual, and for the same reason, that the money hitherto collected and spent by the representatives of the merchants themselves shall for the future be controlled by the royal ministers. By filling their minds with suspicion and discontent in this manner it is not difficult to cool their enthusiasm or to damp their ardour especially with those, who by their own confession aim at nothing else than economies and what is profitable (agli utili).
They say a letter has been found in the streets, purporting to be written by a lady to her friend, in which she informs him that from behind a wall she heard a plot being made to assassinate the Prince of Wales, one promising another 500l. sterling in the name of a great lord who is not named. It is believed to be an invention to excite alarm. All the same they have issued orders for a trial.
London, the 30th July, 1620.
[Italian.]
July 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
470. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They have also manufactured inventions to discredit and prevent any good results from the levy of Vere, very splendid with its new troops and for the number, which does not exceed 2,300, embarked and about to start. They have encouraged every imaginable pretension in the captains and excited all manner of fears in the soldiers, telling them that they will be ill treated and ill paid; that they must not expect any reward from this crown when they return maimed and battered to the realm from fatigues not sustained by the kings order but of their own free will. They have excited all manner of doubts in the people of the provinces to restrain them from freely pouring out their money and by recalling very ancient and ulcerous laws of the realm, that money may not be spent abroad without the express command of the king, and by the dissemination of a thousand brilliant ideas, using with great dexterity the differences in religious opinions, and finally by suggesting the enquiry how the money collected will be distributed and how the Ambassador Dohna will spend it, with a hint of a desire to see his accounts. Accordingly he inevitably encounters trouble and hindrance in the service of his master, as they set their snares in every small town and do not neglect the most insignificant things.
Some think that troops will be levied here in the name of the States, but so far this seems no more than gossip, none too well founded. The partisans of Bohemia hope that if Spinola will enter the Palatinate his Majesty will be compelled to act in earnest. Some propose that they make a levy for the needs of the kingdom of a large force of men, send them to the Netherlands as new troops and so allow the States to send an equal number of their veterans, well furnished, to the Palatinate.
We do not hear whether Spinola has yet marched. In addition, to what I wrote last week, they say here that the Spaniards fear, if such a large force leaves the country of Brabant, fresh troubles and unquiet humours may break out in Brussels, Antwerp and Lille. Moreover, they have to keep an eye on France, which is full of such large forces, so that they do not know in what direction to make their preparations. After they had prepared for so many eventualities the great disturbance there might suddenly cease, as is natural with the French, who are as easy to appease as to stir up, though at present they appear so excited.
We hear that all the princes of Germany, ecclesiastics, Catholics and Protestants alike, have united together in an agreement not to attack each other, but to join for their own defence and for the peace of Germany against the foreigners. This point is considered a very important one, if it be absolutely true. They think it is to abate in great part the flames of the present war, unless some great trick lies hidden underneath it all. They think this is the chief reason why Spinola abstains from moving. It gives great satisfaction here in certain quarters, if the conditions, which are not known, are proper. They think that the United Princes will be able to render themselves more capable of defending the Palatinate, and hope at the same time that the war will be diverted from that quarter and confined entirely to Bohemia. That would send them all back to their sleep here. On the other hand they think a good opportunity has been lost of striking an important blow at the ecclesiastical princes, the thing that was contemplated most of all by many.
They are sorry to hear that the Ambassador Aerssens does not propose to go to Turin although he has instructions for the duke because he was not visited in Venice by the Ambassador of Savoy, and because of the reserved and cold reply given by the latter to a gentleman sent by him on a friendly visit. They believe, however, that he will eventually go, as the action of a minister, possibly contrary to the wishes of his master, ought not to prejudice the public service. They hear with the utmost satisfaction of every one, of the honours which your Serenity has showered upon Aerssens; the more so because they think that your Excellencies have followed the example set here by what his Majesty did in receiving the Dutch Commissioners here when, he ordered that they should be met and received in the same way as that adopted for the ambassadors of kings. These results have been achieved by the esteem for the remarkable power which they have acquired in a few years by their valour.
London, the 30th July, 1620.
[Italian.]
July 31.
Collegio.
Notatorio.
Venetian
Archives.
471. In the Collegio.
That the English barton named St. Matthew, bought by Giacomo Balbi, be approved and made Venetian, as it has the requisites ordained by the Senate on 14 October, 1610, provided that it comply with the conditions provided in that order.
Ayes, 22.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 For the Archduke Alberts reply to Trumbull, given on the 19th June, see Gardiner: History of England, iii., pages 351, 352.
2 See No. 389 at page 273 above and note.
3 The king began a western progress on the 28th July. Nichols: Progresses of James I, iv., page 611.
4 Barca dell Adriatico di mediocre grandezza con una coverta o ponte; che va a più remi ed a vela. Tommaseo and Bellini: Dizionario della Lingua Italiana.
5 Wake sent his secretary Jacob to Berne at the dukes earnest entreaty in the hope he might meet Aerssens there. The duke suspected the Venetians of persuading Aerssens to give up his intention of going to Savoy because they had heard he desired to form a close alliance with the Dutch. Wake to Calvert, 10/20 July, 1620. State Papers, Foreign, Savoy.
6 The massacre in the Valtelline, carried out under the direction of Rubustelli, and begun at Tirano on Sunday the 19th July.
7 Simon Dantziger was pardoned by Henry IV. of France in July 1609, and not by James as stated here. Apparently he had offered the English monarch 40,000l. for a pardon, but James refused to consider the proposal and declared he would never pardon a pirate. Vol. xi. of this Calendar, page 430. For Peter Eston or Easton see Vol. xii. of this Calendar, Preface, pages xxi., xxii., and Vol. xiii. Preface, pages xlii., xliii.