Venice
August 1620, 12-20

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1910

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360-373

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'Venice: August 1620, 12-20', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 16: 1619-1621 (1910), pp. 360-373. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88764 Date accessed: 25 October 2014.


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August 1620

Aug. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
492. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
His Excellency fixed his departure for to-day. Yesterday he visited the ambassadors of France and England, and also honoured the house of the most serene republic. I have also received visits from Prince Henry, the son of the Prince of Orange, Prince Maurice son of the old Count John of Nassau, Colonel Cecil, one of the French colonels and other leading captains, all expressing their devotion and esteem for the republic.
Colonel Vere still remains here, to follow on afterwards with his 2,000 foot. The delay is occasioned by arming them as they arrived here without arms, and also to make arrangements for the other 2,000 men. They propose to give a convoy to these men to the Palatinate, and apparently Prince Henry will have charge of it. There are already reports that the Marquis Spinola has prepared two forces, one to resist the princes and open a safe way into Germany, and the other to prevent these English from passing and oppose Prince Henry. This report is certainly well founded.
I am waiting for Pasini to report about the pirate ships. Your Serenity has already heard the difficulties about inducing two or three of the captains to go to Venice.
The trial of the Resident Sticke has taken place for coining false money. He was sentenced and beheaded on Saturday. (fn. 1) His relations went to ask pardon of the States and two deputies of Cleves came to the Ambassadors of France and England and to me to ask us to intervene. But seeing the nature of the case no one interfered, although he was minister of the Prince Elector of Brandenburg.
The Hague, the 12th August, 1620.
[Italian.]
Aug. 13.
Senato
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
493. To the Ambassador in England.
Our faithful community of Cephalonia, by special ambassador, has represented to us the damage they receive in the export of raisins, their principal and almost sole source of revenue, from the order issued by his Majesty that none but his own subjects of the Levant Company may take raisins to that kingdom, which is the chief and almost exclusive market for that trade. The English, knowing themselves without competitors, tyrannise, so to speak, over our subjects, who suffer notable prejudice in the sale of raisins. This you will clearly see, not only harms our subjects, but affects our customs. Accordingly we direct you to endeavour to obtain the fulfilment of the promise made to our Ambassador Foscarini in the year 1615, that our subjects might lade merchandise of things derived from out state in Venetian, English or ships of any other nation except the Dutch. This will serve to keep up our mutual trade and is due to the treatment which we accord to the subjects of his Majesty in every part of our dominions.
You will speak first with the ministers, pointing out the justice of our demands and saying that we cannot possibly suffer the trade in raisins to continue with so much prejudice to our subjects, and you hope that the promise given to the Ambassador Foscarini will be observed. You will also speak to his Majesty and try to get the affair settled upon such a basis that there may no longer be any doubt about the right of our subjects to lade upon any ships, native or foreign, except the Dutch, and send to that kingdom, raisins, wine or anything else derived from our state.
We send you copies of the necessary documents so that you may be enabled to act with the more effect, and we hope to hear in good time what you have done.
Ayes, 124.Noes, 6.Neutral, 6.
Not given in time.
[Italian.]
Aug. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
494. To the Ambassador in France.
We have little to say this week about the Valtelline. The Spaniards continue to help the rebels and openly declare their intention to arm, keeping their principal object in view, to disturb the peace of this province and take possession of the valley. They are also stirring up the Catholic Swiss, their allies, to prevent their countrymen from passing who seem anxious to help the Grisons. These operations should persuade all princes to hasten to defend the common liberty, and the republic will not neglect her part.
The like, mutatis mutandis, to:
Spain, England, Germany, Naples, Florence, The Hague.
Ayes, 91.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Aug. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
495. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I found the king at Salisbury, 100 miles from London, in which direction I journeyed, as I wrote on the 10th. Yesterday, when I arrived, he gave me audience, after he had returned from the chase, in a garden, since the very small rooms elsewhere did not afford accommodation. I told his Majesty the orders sent to me by express courier to present myself immediately before him. I told him in great detail all the course of events in the Valtelline with all the circumstances and considerations suggested to me by your Excellencies. I laid stress on the importance and manner of such a concert, and of the object of uniting, by means of that valley, the most important gate of Italy, the State of Milan, to the House of Austria, of closing a pass of such moment to the Princes of Italy and shutting out all the Ultramontanes under the false pretext of religion, while the concert arises simply not only from the exiled Catholics but also from Protestants, all rebels and dependent upon another power not only with the certitude of considerable disturbances in our province if the movement continues, but contrary to every right, when they interfere by force in the state and liberty of the Grisons, and to the same extent strike a blow at the interests of many princes, and especially at those of the powers which truly esteem and love this crown above all others and those most closely connected with his Majesty. I endeavoured to stir him to reflect in his prudent way upon such events, so that he might issue a declaration such as should be expected of him for so many reasons. I showed how displeasing it must be to him, after he has worked so hard for the peace and quiet of our province, to the greater exaltation and commendation of his glorious name, while your Excellencies by means of your offices and actions would not fail to play your part. I was particularly careful in the expression of these sentiments, owing to the doubt which I mentioned in my letters of the 10th that the present moment is not a good one for obtaining satisfactory results in this matter.
The king was very restless (si torceva molto) during my speech, so I tried to flatter him with the customary expressions of praise which he likes, especially of the esteem which all the world has of his power and his prudence, of the results which his authority, his declarations and his representations have on several occasions produced, and of the supreme confidence which the most serene republic places in him, to keep him in a favourable state of mind while I gently impressed upon him the chief points in the matter.
He answered me that he heard of these events with great regret, as he fully recognised its importance. In the course of the conversation he confessed that he considered it certain that this would prove more to the advantage of the Spaniards than if they recovered the Kingdom of Bohemia itself, but he did not know what he could do, as these interests were so far from his dominions, so shut in by land, chiefly of the Grisons, with whom he had never had any relations whatsoever, and meanwhile he felt sure that no matter what the Spaniards might say and answer, that could not prevent them from doing their work if they thought the moment opportune. He seemed utterly weary of the affairs that are taking place all over the world at this time, and he hates being obliged every day to spend time over unpleasant matters and listen to nothing but requests and incitements to move in every direction, and to meddle with everything. He remarked: I am not God Almighty. (Et mostrando satietà grande delli affari, che per tutte le parte del mondo girano in questo tempo et riuscirgli molesto il convenire tutto il giorno versare in cose dispiacevoli, et udire solo instanze et eccitamenti perche si muova a ogni parte, et s'ingerisca in tutte le cose, disse Io non sono Domenedio.)
He afterwards asked me what the French were doing and the Swiss also, who are so interested in the matter. I told him that in this also time did not permit me to have any news. But the importance of the affair persuaded me that every prudent prince would give the question his closest attention and try to settle it. At length he said several times, I will always do what is in my power. Remind me and tell me what is best and what I can do, but always suggesting to me that no good results could be expected from his offices in this affair. However I quietly repeated that his offices were always greatly esteemed by every body. He stopped me by saying that he would send instructions to Spain for very firm and energetic representations.
He was very pleased at the thanks I gave him for the affair of Donato in accordance with my instructions of the 9th ult., and he was also glad to hear particulars of Constantinople, contained in the same, especially the point that the invalidity of the pretensions of the Bosnians had been declared by several orders of the Grand Turk. In fine all expressions of confidence and honour afford great delight here, but on the other hand troublesome circumstances and involved affairs cause just as much disgust and their ideas penetrate but a very little way into external affairs. This appears clearly at the present moment, especially as for some days since it seems as if they hated to speak much less act in a way offensive to the Spaniards, who labour on in these parts promoting their interests. It seems that they more than any others at the king's side have got his Majesty to decide to go to Scotland next spring to stay there some months, and they have already planned out the journey by sea, not without great mystery, while of necessity all business, whatever its nature, will be prejudiced and delayed, if not altogether abandoned (in somma ogni termine di confidenza e di honore qui piace molto ma altretanto dispiaciono le occasioni travagliose gli invilupati negotii et poco a dentro penetrano li pensieri delle cose esterne come bene si vede anco in altro nella congiontura corrente massime nelle quale pare che da alcuni giorni in qua si abborisca anco di parlare quasi, non che di operare, a disgusto de'Spagnoli, che sempre avanzono bramamente in queste parti le loro fattiche, la quale a canto al Re più dell 'altra pare che habbia anco fatto rissolvere la Maestà Sua a andarsene la primavera in Scotia per fermarvisi qualche mese, et ne resti di gia divisato il viaggio per mare non senza mistero grande mentre necessiariamente saranno pregiudicati et prolongati per non dire abbandonati li negotii siino di qualsivoglia sorte).
However I have since had occasion to talk upon this subject with some of the ministers now here with his Majesty, as they are all most curious to learn my business, which at first was universally believed to be about the affairs of Constantinople. Some of them pretended not to know where the Valtelline was or the importance of what had taken place. I tried to enlighten them. But in some I perceived it was artifice rather than ignorance, whereby they try to render the question less important even in the eyes of his Majesty. All of them asked me what the other princes of Italy were doing and the other powers whose interests were most nearly concerned. The Secretary Calvert, the only one of the secretaries who has followed the king, whom in particular I thought it right to inform about the copy of the protest of the rebels sent to me, came after the audience and told me that he had spoken to his Majesty, who with all speed will send to his ambassador in Spain directing him to treat efficaciously on the subject with the king there, and to make proper representations. I suggested to him that the prudence of his Majesty, after thoroughly weighing the importance of this affair, made me feel sure that he would easily proceed to further offices and other acts without delay being led on by his desire for peace and by the part which he has always desired to play in the affairs of Italy. He suggested to me that the king might first reasonably wait to hear some advices from his agent at Turin about these events, a pretext which I readily discovered to be the invention of those who detest any action, in order to gain time and secure that nothing shall be done except write to Spain.
Ultimately the Marquis of Buckingham, the favourite, has been to call upon me, no ordinary honour, and highly valued at this Court, because he is never without the support of the king, with whose mouth he is always understood to speak. He told me that when he left his Majesty to come to me, the king had directed him to tell me that he had instructed the Secretary Calvert to write to Spain as aforesaid, and that he would think over what else might be done. He added that in such an occasion he would always afford the most serene republic perfect liberty to levy troops in this kingdom. He asked me to keep this to myself, as if it were known the representations in his letters would no longer produce any effect. He said all this with every sign of friendliness and seemed exceedingly anxious to serve your Excellencies at every opportunity. I responded in a suitable friendly manner, not neglecting fresh stimulants for a disposition which I found very apt to become more inclined to think better, and insisting more and more strongly upon the importance of the question. I will endeavour in like manner to cultivate tactfully the roots of every good inclination.
All this will be brought to the knowledge of your Serenity on the return of this same courier Basso, who was sent to me expressly, and to whom I have given 50 ducats for the journey.
Salisbury, the 14th August, 1620.
[Italian; the part in Italics deciphered.]
Aug. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
496. GIROLAMO SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The fact that no movement of the Marquis [Spinola] has been heard of gives rise to the belief that the Spaniards have become aware that in whatever they may undertake they will encounter insuperable opposition. Here they place great hopes in the prospects of Caesar, considering that as the Protestant Princes do not move resolutely the Bohemians by themselves, cannot stand firm amid so many disturbances and in the serious invasions which are flooding them; especially as it seems that the King of England puts more faith in negotiation and in sending his ambassadors to Germany, than in supplying prompt and powerful assistance to his son-in-law.
Rome, the 15th April, 1620.
[Italian.]
Aug. 17.
Senato,
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
497. Whereas it is only right that some decision should be taken about the debt in the name of Sir Henry Peyton of 13,527 lire 7 grossi, given to him in England by the Ambassador Contarini to bring soldiers to the ships, it being clear from the contracts that the money was paid:
That the executors of the deliberations of this Council be instructed to have the papers arranged and to set off against the debt of Colonel Henry Peyton the amount of 20 shillings per soldier, being the 13,527 lire 7 grossi aforesaid, given to him for the said cause, since it appears from the terms of the contract that the money was given to him for the expenses of bringing the soldiers to the ships, without obligation of abatement, and that the document be prepared as required.
Ayes, 108.Noes, 4.Neutral, 14.
[Italian.]
Aug. 17.
Consiglio
de'X.
Parti Secrete.
Venetian
Archives.
498. That by a secretary of this Council, after enjoining due secrecy, the letters of the ambassador in Savoy of the 10th inst. be communicated to the Savii of the Collegio and to the Senate, which letters contain a conversation with an intimate of his Highness about what passed between the Marshal Lesdiguières and the duke, that the latter should decide to declare himself entirely at one with France and hostile to Spain.
Ayes, 16.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Aug. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
499. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have spoken to the resident of England as your Serenity commanded. He approved of my opinions as agreeing with his own and adapted to present circumstances, and from his attitude I see that he will convey a good impression to the king his master. He promised to unite with me whenever necessary and to act as your Excellencies command. He said that his king had no aims beyond universal peace, especially in Italy. But after doing everything for peace he had to change his plans. His Majesty would do what was right; the republic had set an excellent example. If one heeded the false pretensions about religion raised by the Spaniards they would make the whole world heretical except those who accepted their plans.
I encouraged his devotion to peace, and urged him to show the king the importance of the affair and the need for a remedy, feeling sure that his Majesty will find in this an opportunity of consolidating his glory, both in preserving the integrity of the Grisons and in maintaining his reputation as defender of the liberty of Italy.
The resident, full of wrath and vehemence, told me he had begged the duke to write in a friendly way to the Governor of Milan, showing him that these disturbances are both unpleasant and insupportable. He had not done so, but was moving in lukewarm fashion. Hitherto he had served his Highness loyally, but he did not wish to lose his honour by serving the king ill and his friends. If the troubles continue he is called upon to give arms to Geneva and to publish to all the world the failure of the Duke of Savoy.
Before Colonel Amarino left he had said to some one that the duke was the origin of all these movements, the Spaniards worked in concert with him, with the purpose of setting the Grisons by the ears and thus subjecting the Bernese by the forces of all the Catholic Cantons, so that Savoy might invade the Pays du Vaud. He said this might be true, as the duke might easily alarm the Spaniards and relieve the Grisons by sending his cavalry to the frontiers of Milan. The Catholic Cantons received pensions from him. Colonel Amarino took his money, and the Swiss troops of Lucerne are dismissed. He did not understand the mystery, though he knew an attempt upon the Pays du Vaud would not be difficult. He assured me that he would speak strongly to the duke upon these points, as he wished for certitude, otherwise he would publish the matter to the world. I thanked him and confirmed his purpose of speaking to the duke. He has not yet seen him, but I will keep my eyes open and report to your Excellencies.
Turin, the 17th August, 1620.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Aug. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
500. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Resident of England has made complaint to the duke about the uneasiness caused to Geneva and the Pays du Vaud, and especially the announcement on the subject made by Colonel Amarino. The duke admitted that Amarino suggested that now was the moment for him to act, but he would not break the agreements he has made. He complained of some transgressions of the Genevese and threatened to indemnify himself. The resident tried to obtain a definite promise that no move should be made against them, representing the time, the need of friends, the protection of the king and all the present troubles. The duke would not bind himself or allow him to excuse the Genevese. (fn. 2)
The agent also spoke of the king's commissions, exhorting the duke to send his cavalry to the frontiers of Milan, and clearly to declare himself the ally of the republic, that they are threatening our States and though he is ready for peace he stands for liberty and security for all.
He met with no response. The duke spoke of good will, but showed none in action. He said it would be a small thing to leave. The harm would not reach London. Italy had no hope or trust but in the republic, which was neither French nor Spanish, but always herself. He showed much disgust with the duke, and warmth towards your Excellencies.
The duke told me a part of these things, laughing. He said he wished to leave the resident suspicious without an absolute promise, but he had not the slightest intentions against those parts. He said he told the resident that his king was the cause of all the danger, because he would not do what concerned him and clung to the Spaniards.
Turin, the 18th August, 1620.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
501. VALERIO ANTELMI. Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I hear from Brussels that the two ambassadors from England had audience of his Highness at Marimont. They received a favourable hearing, and upon their representations about the King Palatine they had general replies. They left to go on to the Elector of Cologne and then further afield.
Vienna, the 18th August, 1620. Copy.
[Italian.]
Aug. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci.
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
502.CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The 2,000 English under General Vere will join the army of the Prince of Orange and so will the 2,000 who are to follow, if they cannot proceed owing to the forces of the Marquis Spinola. Afterwards they will take the course which seems most useful. One of my confidants has discovered that their High Mightinesses have a very good understanding with the King of England, and although his Majesty does not wish to involve himself in the war, he has by means of M. Caron let it be known here that he will do everything possible for the service of the States and of the King of Bohemia, and everything that can be desired from his kingdom. He abstains from a declaration for reasons of State, and the States must keep these intentions of his to themselves as even if they published them, he would deny it. The Ambassador Lando will have discovered if his Majesty's sentiments are such. Some words said to me by the Ambassador Carleton make it look very probable. He said that allowing these men of Vere and the others to depart indicated his Majesty's inclinations were not such as the Spaniards declared, and even more manifest acts might he hoped for, but it might suffice to have begun so.
General Vere has formed two companies of his regiment and held a review on Thursday near Delft. One is under the Earl of Oxford and the other under the Earl of Essex, the former of 275 men, and the latter of 307. There should not be more than 250 in each, but their High Mightinesses propose to send supernumeraries with them to the Palatinate at their own expense. The ambassador invited me to see them, and indeed the levy was not one to refuse, as they are all excellent soldiers, especially the officers. They will leave in a day or two for his Excellency's camp, the cause of delay being a lack of arms, as they were not only delivered after the promised time, but of a quality inferior to the contract. Accordingly, in order not to lose time, Carleton has arranged that they shall receive their arms from the magazines of their High Mightinesses.
The admiralty is busy arming ships against the pirates. Twelve ships are said to be at Seville ready to join these and the English ships; but some think it impossible that the king of Spain will suffer his ships to unite with these.
The Hague, the 18th August, 1620.
[Italian.]
Aug. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
503. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have returned to London where I go about imparting the news of the revolt in the Valtelline to the ministers and others who were not at Salisbury, in a way that I hope may turn to the advantage of your Serenity. I find that it distresses the most prudent exceedingly, the Ambassador of Bohemia in particular, who has gone with all speed to the Court, although with little hope of good results, to execute fresh commissions of the king, his master. So far as I have discovered there are fresh incitements to induce his Majesty to declare himself more fully and to grant more considerable and more open succours, since Spinola has moved and is now on the march. I hope that he will also perform some good office in the matter of the Grisons, upon which the king has already had letters written to Spain, which were sent off last Monday, expressing surprise that these commotions have been fomented, and requesting them to give such instructions that the disturbances in those parts may cease. His Majesty has also decided to discuss the matter with the Ambassador Gondomar here, but I find that this has been arranged by some of the ministers at Gondomar's request, and doubtless he proposes by the power of his customary artifices, to cloak things over and gain advantages for the purposes of the Spaniards, in whose favour they are already trying to publish that the disturbance is nothing else than the beginning of a civil war between the Grisons without the very slightest interference on the part of the Governor of Milan, but well contrived by M. Gueffier, the French minister and caused in great part by the ideas which the republic has caused to circulate in that country and by the negotiations of her ministers. Among the Catholics of the kingdom they lose no opportunity of scattering against the republic all kinds of evil seeds with false and poisoned ideas about religion, all carefully prepared. The king thinks also of writing to France and to Switzerland, although they do not hope for any good thing from that kingdom at the present time under the existing government, but rather fear all manner of ill in such a question. Similar ideas are also circulating owing to the news which has reached the Court of the movement of Spinola, mentioned above, which arrived in the evening of the very day that I had audience. This gave a greater success to my business and induced them to devote more serious consideration to it, and from this in a great measure arose the opinions expressed to me by the Marquis of Buckingham, as I have notified. Nevertheless they keep on postponing in order to await some news upon the subject from the Agent Wake at Turin, and they will not take any further steps before. The delay in the arrival of his letters leaves them with some suspicion that they may have been intercepted, since the interception of the letters of the Ambassador Carleton from the Hague, containing particulars of the league between the States and his Highness, which I reported, may have rendered them curious to learn some further details about it, and now the plan has been discovered no doubt they think it will be easy to destroy it and stamp out every spark, by the energy which not only the Spaniards but the French also devote to the subject, although this same event of the Valtelline makes them believe here that it may only serve to kindle still more the spirit of the duke, which is always so ready to take fire, and whose movements upon this point are awaited here with especial curiosity.
Some persons here have not hesitated to go about saying that it would help the King of Bohemia if the disturbances in the Valtelline continued, because the war would find a good counterpoise, since it would keep the State of Milan busy and would involve a considerable expenditure both of money and men. However, it does not appear that this idea has taken root in the king's mind or that it is approved by any except those who are openly of the Spanish party.
The Secretary Calvert has written from Salisbury to the ministers here in London that his Majesty was much stirred by my statement, as he recognised how important and pressing this business was, and accordingly he had given orders to write very strongly to Spain. A leading minister said to me that the king could have heard nothing at this time that caused him more distress, as shown by the disgust displayed in his answer to me. This simply arose from his sorrow at hearing of the event and his knowledge that his representations could not effect anything as he would desire, since he fully understood the importance of this affair. (Che poche cose poteva intender ella in questo tempo, che più moleste le riuscissero che il disgusto che ha mostrato meco nel rispondermi non è derivato da altro che dalla radice del dispiacere sentito per I'avvenimento, e dal conoscere che li ufficii suoi non possono riuscire fruttuosi, come ella desiderarebbe; che molto ben comprende I'importanza di questo affare.) Thus from time to time, when letters have arived from Turin on previous occasions with news of the affairs of the Grisons, he has anxiously desired the information. Recently he was greatly delighted to hear that the party well inclined to the most serene republic had the upper hand, and that the faction of la Pianta and the partsans of Spain and France were beaten down. I have since learned from a most secret and safe source that his Majesty for some time has had possession of some design of these Grisons, and that the Ambassador Wotton and only one of the Secretaries of State know it. (Ho poi inteso per secretissima et sicura via, che Sua Maestà, è qualche tempo, che tiene alcuno disegno di questi Grisoni, e che il Sig. Amb. Vutton et un Secretario solo di Stato lo sanno.) It may be about some league. I have not been able to gather more, and I fear that it will be very difficult to do so. However I will not fail to apply all diligence. I esteem this point the more because his Majesty expressed to me his feeling that a country so deep in the continent could attract the interests of this country but little, and was hardly a subject for their consideration.
Pasini has returned with the Viscount de Lormes, as without crossing to Ireland he received word in this kingdom that the pirates had certainly left the coasts of these realms some days ago. They remained until the expiry of the time promised, namely the 15th of last month, and were alarmed by the news of the approaching sailing of the ships of war and also by the capture of Captain Elis, who was put to death in this kingdom, and of Captain Blach, which is confirmed, and further by the death of a son of one Captain Antonio Rama, a participant in this affair, which took place as he was defending himself from the officers of justice. All these misfortunes are angrily attributed by the viscount to the delay in carrying on the negotiations. They have withdrawn towards Barbary according to their arrangement and to the agreement made previously with the viscount, and they will remain there until the end of November next. The viscount with Pasini will await instructions from the Secretary Surian as to what he is to do, so that I need add nothing further on the subject except that from the observations which I have made of the relations which he appears to have in this kingdom and at the court here, he is well supported and one must believe that the matter is well founded with no shallow roots.
London, the 20th August, 1620.
[Italian.]
Aug. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
504. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassadors Cornuuals and Vueston left Brussels without the final reply, but it was sent after them to Louvain. It contained nothing except that they had not as yet decided what the forces of Spinola should do. They hear with small pleasure that the French ambassadors have given such satisfaction to the United Princes by their negotiations, that the latter have pledged themselves to depend always chiefly upon the advice and dealings of his Most Christian Majesty. The Spanish ambassador here, in his last audience of his Majesty when the king told him that he did not wish to meddle in the affairs of Bohemia, but that he could not and ought not to abandon the Palatinate in any case, replied by throwing aside absolutely the opinions which he had previously expressed to keep up the hope that it would not be attacked, and saying that the best way to make peace was simply to allow the Palatinate to fall. Many believe that this is the feeling and opinion of his Majesty also, as I have indicated upon other occasions but now it is suspected more strongly.
Ill thoughts disclose themselves both among the nobles and in the body of the people, and though Spinola has moved, here we see nothing but coldness, while the desire for the marriage appears more ardent than ever and the design more potent while they seem to heed but little the advice of the old and heretofore most highly esteemed ministers, and they adopt it even less, while the favour and confidence of the king are confined to a few partisans of the Spaniards. Thus the wisest heads predict that if his Majesty does not resolve for his son-in-law and make a show of effective action, we shall hear of disturbances in these parts of no small moment. This is especially the case because the twenty ships which they are preparing, and most of which are now lying at Gravesend, though they will not sail for another fortnight, show ever greater indications of being intended to go in conjunction with the Spaniards and it has even been announced to the exasperation of the people, that they will actually have to obey the Spanish commander. The truth is that the king and the Lord High Admiral, so far as their intentions are at present disclosed, are fully determined that the ships shall sail in concert with the Spaniards, and the English vessels shall enter the Mediterranean where they will have free access to all the ports of the Catholic and be received and treated like good friends, as without this support it is thought they could effect nothing useful. They will attempt the destruction of Algiers and Tunis and of as many pirates as they come across, and the Spanish ships will have to scour the upper parts towards the Strait. (Onde vengono fatti pronostichi et da più Savii che se la Maestà Sua non si risolve per il Genero a mostrare di far da dovero, si habbino a sentire rumori in queste parti di non poco momento, mentre massime anco le 20 Navi, che si vanno preparando che per la maggior parte sono callate a Gravesenda, ma non partiranno però per 15 giorni anchora, sempre si danno segni maggiori che habbino da andare di concerto con Spagnoli, anzi si è divulgato con rabbia del populo, che habbino fin anche ad' obbedire al General di Spagna. Il vero è che et il Re et il Gran Armiraglio per quanto scuoprono fin hora, sono risolutissimi che eschino con il concerto con Spagnoli, che li Vasselli Inglesi entrino nel Mediterraneo, dove haverano libertà di andare et essere ricevuti e trattati come buoni amici in tutti li Porti del Cattolico, senza l'appoggio delli quali si stima di non poter far cosa buona; procurino il disfaccimento di Algieri di Tunesi e di quanti Corsari troveranno, et li Vasselli Spagnoli habbino a scorrere le parti superiori verso lo stretto.)
The suspicions of the Ambassador Gondomar that in this quarter they proposed some union with the Dutch and to make a diversion in Flanders, Spain or elsewhere, to the detriment of the Catholic King, appears now to have almost absolutely disappeared, as he has received assurances not only by Digby, Arundel and the Secretary Calvert, but by the favoured marquis himself, and he sees that although the Dutch are arming thirty ships to send also into the Mediterranean, yet this does not apparently suggest to his Majesty any idea of joining with them, particularly at this moment when he seems most disturbed by the events in the East. Accordingly the designs in this direction, although deeply rooted in the minds of the greater part of the most experienced ministers, remain idle for the moment or unproductive. In addition to this the ambassador takes fresh assurance from the consideration that the said ships, although well armed and in good repair, do not contain soldiers to land, but only sailors and seamen adequate to fight at sea. He also takes consolation from the fact that they contain no captains of repute, for they are mediocre, no commander of remarkable courage, or one ill disposed towards the Spaniards or otherwise affected so that they might suspect opposite results to ensue, without orders and contrary to the intentions of his Majesty, such as the English nation has carried out upon other occasions and as some of the leading men would like to see even now.
However, there are still some who hope that his Majesty will act and speak in different fashion in a few days when the Palatinate is actually attacked. They think that he is restrained by the belief that the forces of Spinola are aimed solely at Bohemia, and they say that agreements can be effected with the Dutch and troops to land be embarked upon the ships in an instant. These latter days they have observed two indications of which they make a great deal, one that his Majesty has heard with sorrow of the troubles in the Grisons, saying that he has enlarged much upon the subject with his ministers; the other that he has been exceedingly perturbed by a certain report which has reached his ears that twelve days ago a body of some three hundred priests entered this realm from France and Flanders in the space of ten days. As this coincided with some information conveyed to his Majesty by the Duke of Savoy, I know not how, it has affected the king so much that for an entire day he would not leave his room. (L'altro che si sia perturbata sopra modo da certo aviso capitatole all'orrecchie che dodici di fa nil spacio di dieci giorni dalla Francia et dalla Fiandra sia entrato in questo Regno un numero di trecento Preti in circa il qual incontrandosi con qualche aviso fatto provenire, non si sa per qual via alla Maestà Sua dal Sig. Duca di Savoia, ha causato che ella per un giorno intiero non volse uscire mai dalla sua stanza.) All this has been communicated to me in the utmost confidence from a thoroughly trustworthy source, although it does not seem that he grows disquiet or uses any apparent diligence.
It was universally reported that the King of Denmark had arrived on the coasts of this kingdom and it was believed by many, since upon other occasions he has arrived unexpectedly at this Court. However, the report died away, especially when it was understood that he has a great deal to do in his own country and that the disturbances there had not quieted down as the advices reported.
The gentleman who came from France, as I reported last week, with proposals for marriage was sent not by the Duke of Guise, as they said, but from the Prince of Condé, upon the business which I notified. It now appears that on behalf of the Most Christian King, who now calls himself most victorious, he has made some representations that the Duke of Longueville, who is now at Dieppe, may not be received into this kingdom or have any favour or assistance, and that the reply given about receiving him was general and not binding.
I have received two packets of letters from your Serenity this week of the 18th ult., with advices which I shall use as directed. So far I have heard nothing said about the accidents which befell the house and household of the Spanish ambassador at Venice.
I enclose duplicates of the 10th and 14th sent by the courier Basso.
London, the 20th August, 1620.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 The 8th August. See Letters from and to Sir Dudley Carleton, page 486. Although Ambassador of Brandenburg Sticke was a Dutch subject and as such amenable to the laws of his country. Ibid, page 462.
2 The dispute was over the jurisdiction over a village bordering upon the lake. Wake to Calvert, 21/31 Aug., 1620. State Papers, Foreign, Savoy.