Venice
September 1620, 1-10

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1910

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382-395

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'Venice: September 1620, 1-10', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 16: 1619-1621 (1910), pp. 382-395. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88766 Date accessed: 01 September 2014.


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September 1620

Sept. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
520. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Resident in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In the matter of the pirate ships, I enclose a letter from Pasini, from which your Excellencies will perceive that the Viscount de Lormes has spoken the truth. I have told the Ambassador Lando that your Serenity desires him to treat with the viscount and induce him to get three or four to go to Venice to negotiate. I fear, however, that the ambassador will experience great difficulty, as without a general safe conduct and an indemnity for their crimes these pirates will hardly risk placing themselves in the hands of justice, as Captains Elis and Blach have done in England, who have been hanged there. From the viscount's letter you will see that he ascribes this accident to the delay.
The viscount and Pasini urge me to give my decision about their going to the Canaries, as the ships may proceed thence to Barbary. I have asked the ambassador to decide this point. Meanwhile I beg your Serenity to say whether we shall send after the ships. The matter cannot be settled without incurring expense upon travelling. Falgher and I fear that success will be difficult if not impossible, owing to the death of these two captains and also that of the son of Captain Rama, without a complete indemnity. Pasini and the viscount have said as much to Falgher, and the pirates will wait for it until the end of November.
On Sunday the Cavalier Aerssens came to dine with me, with the English ambassador and three other gentlemen of the States General. The ambassador then said to me that he knew the friendliness of your Excellencies towards him, and he wished to recommend Lieutenant Colonel John Vere to your favourable consideration, as a man of courage and experience as well as noble birth. He told me that he was kinsman to Sir Horace Vere who is going as general to the Palatinate, and when once in Germany he might, if need be, allow some of his veterans to join the companies of Sir John Vere in the service of your Excellencies. I perceive that the ambassador will gladly hear of the engagement of this individual as an honour to his nation, and in order to say that it was due to him.
The Hague, the 1st September, 1620.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
521. Extract of a letter of the VISCOUNT DE LORMES, written from London on the 20th August, 1620.
Giovanni Battista and I arrived here to-day from Salisbury. No doubt you have been informed of the fate of Captains Elis and Blach. I am exceedingly sorry, because they stayed behind on the strength of my promise. Delays never bring anything but misfortune. At Salisbury I heard that the ships had not been taken, but had left. Meanwhile one of the two sons of Captain Antonio was slain when Helis was taken. The captain himself was arrested as an accomplice and sent to this city.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
522. Extract from another letter of the 20th of the same month.
Since I last wrote I have heard that the ships are in the Canary Islands. A ship of Calais brought the news, which was lading wine there, and as she was French and known to the captains they did her no harm. I have not seen or spoken to the ambassador more than twice since my return to London. I particularly ask that this affair may not be neglected, as it is more than time either that something was done or else that it should be entirely abandoned, for reasons which I have already stated.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
523. Extract from a letter of PASINI of the 18th August, 1620.
We went from London to Salisbury, where the king was then staying, and there the viscount met a friend, who could give us information about the brigands. This saved us many Jacobus. When the Ambassador Lando arrived there to speak to the king, he praised my diligence, and said he had found information which fell in well with my business. He also told me that in this realm these men are believed to be enormously rich. The pirates remained on the coasts of Ireland until the 15th, in accordance with the orders of the viscount. But this led to the capture and execution of Captains Elis and Belig, while a son of Captain Antonio Ramat was slain. At this news the pirates took flight towards Barbary, to await instructions there until the end of November. I have heard, however, that they would not have left before the viscount appeared, only the news of the preparation of a fleet by his Majesty alarmed them. The ministers of this realm say it is true that the pirates showed themselves on the coasts of Ireland these last days.
I should be glad to have instructions as to how I am to behave towards the viscount, as the expenses are great. The Most Excellent Lando has given me 20 Jacobus, in addition to the 20 Spanish dubloons which I had before, and 5 Jacobus are left. This is a kingdom where one spends a great deal, especially foreigners. I thought of telling the viscount that I had no more money and he must look after himself, but his Excellency advised me to await orders from your Serenity.
[Italian.]
Sept. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
524. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I maintain confidential relations with the English agent. He professes the most friendly disposition; he has written home about the current affairs and expects to receive a favourable reply. Our Ambassador Lando will perceive the fruits of his labours.
Turin, the 2nd September, 1620.
[Italian.]
Sept. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
525. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king has caused the Secretary Naunton to write to France also about the affairs of the Grisons and the letter was despatched yesterday. The Lord High Admiral informed me of this and the secretary himself communicated the same to me by order of his Majesty, so that I might send word to your Excellencies. Substantially the letter directs the ambassador to go to audience and say that his Majesty has been advised of the events in the Valtelline by me, and by his ministers in various parts, in which the Cavalier Giacomo Robustelli with many other rebel exiles of the same valley has been the leader, with much fury and wrong, cruelly slaughtering many of his fellow countrymen, and scouring through the whole of that valley, making himself master there. For many important reasons these events caused him grave dissatisfaction, as they were against all reason and contrary to the interests of many powers. Among these he considered that the crown of France was deeply interested, and therefore he felt sure that out of mere prudence his Majesty would move of his own accord to assist the Grisons, so that liberty might be fully restored and assured to the Grisons. Nevertheless be would not neglect to urge him on and remind him of the importance of this affair, especially as he knows, what is indeed notorious to all the world, that this conflagration is in large part due to his minister Ghiffiere, though not, he feels sure, with the consent of his Majesty.
The other day I sent a gentleman of mine to the Lord High Admiral on a complimentary visit, a good opportunity having occurred, so that the office might serve tacitly to recall the affair to his mind, since I know how easily in these parts they lose all diligence over foreign affairs, even the most important, in the delights of their daily and incessant hunting. The Admiral sent to me to say that his Majesty had caused letters in good form to be written not only to France but to the Swiss, but the secretaries from whom I have succeeded in obtaining the particulars, assert that they have only received orders for France. I find that they actually did consider the advisability of writing to the Swiss also, but they thought that they could give sufficient satisfaction to your Serenity without this, especially as at the present moment they prefer to limit as much as possible all operations which might not prove altogether acceptable to the Spaniards, and so they gave up the idea; notwithstanding that a certain good minister has gone about preparing many suitable incentives for his Majesty, not only upon the basis of my past exposition and by those incitements which I have gone about trying my best to sow abroad in many minds, but by letters in confirmation, which have come from individuals from many parts added to those of the royal ministers, notwithstanding that by himself the king recognises perfectly the importance of the affair, and better than anyone else. In this connection I must add that the Spaniards have gone about saying that the exiles made their attack in that country not with the assistance of people from Milan, but of certain Dutch, paid off by your Excellencies. However, the falsehood of this is generally recognised, as they say everywhere that the cure rests with those who are nearest, and many would like to see your Serenity take advantage of the circumstances and use them for the profit of your interests which they concern so nearly.
Lord Digby has withdrawn from the Court, in order, so they say, to attend to his personal and private affairs and the provisions necessary for his departure for Spain, in which he is hastened on by the king, since it appears that he continues to procrastinate. He seems to be awaiting some reply from the Catholic Court and also the return of the secretary of the Ambassador Gondomar. These are all fictitious delays, calculated in order to stimulate still further his Majesty's desire for the marriage. They profess to be awaiting the reply and the secretary, in order to learn how the articles drawn up have been received. In substance they amount to three, as I have reported: the dowry, religion and the children. The prudent believe that all these things will be dragged out as long as possible, so that the results of the fighting in Germany may at least appear, perhaps by delaying the return of the secretary and a thousand other inventions, as for example by pretending in Spain to embrace and approve them, reserving them for the pope's consent, which will be given or not as the Spaniards please. Some think that a conclusion might suit their purpose now better than at any other time, as by sending one of their princesses to England they would provide their party with a great chief and much vigour, and for a long space they would hold this kingdom tight if not at their orders in the important events of the present time. Others think that it cannot be other than a long business, and when the articles have been drawn up and agreed upon it will not even then be effected and when it seems most nearly settled it will be actually furthest from a conclusion. Others again are not wanting who believe that the king himself does not really desire it, but keeps the negotiations alive as a cloak to cover his disinclination to involve himself in a war for his son-in-law and with the object of slackening the Spaniards in some of their attempts and designs. Be that as it may, I know that the Spanish ambassador with his intimates seems to mock at these negotiations and glories in having thereby attained his intent of gaining so much time and retarding his Majesty's resolutions. Thus we hear that in Spain the ministers go about loudly commending and extolling his worth, although many of high prudence attribute this not to his ability but to the king's nature, and believe that his Majesty would have done little more even if he had not come here. (Alcuni stimano, che in questo tempo più che in altro possa tornare a conto da dovero a questi la conclusione per che con ridure una loro Principessa in Inghilterra, darrebbono un gran capo e nervo alla loro fattione, e per longo spatio terrebbono inchiodato nell' importante congionture corrente, per non dire commandato, questo Regno. Altri pensano che non debba esser altro che un longo negocio, e che dopo articolarsi e concludersi, non sia neanche efettuato, e che quando para più concluso all'hora habbia ad'essere più lontano dalla conclusione, non mancando pure di quelli che giudicano che questo Re istesso non lo desideri da dovero, ma tenga viva la trattatione per sua coperta nella poca volontà d'imbarazzarsi in guerra per il Genero, o con mira di rallentare Spagnoli da qualche loro tentativo e disegno. Sia come si voglia. Io so che l'Ambasciator di Spagna mostra con suoi confidenti di ridersi di questo negotio, e si gloria di havere con l'istesso ottenuto l'intento suo di portare tanto il tempo inanzi e di ritardare le risolutioni di Sua Maestà. Onde s'intende che in Spagna quelli ministri molto vadino commendando et essaltando il suo valore, sebene molti di buona prudenza non alla sua virtù ma alla sola natura del Re cio attribuiscono, e stimano che poco di più fatto havesse la Sua Maestà quando anche egli non fusse qui venuto.)
London, the 3rd September, 1620.
[Italian.]
Sept. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
526. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The fleet of twenty ships is not yet entirely ready to start. They require eight or ten days more. The king who wished to review it at the isle of Wight, as I reported, seems very angry about it. But in addition to the natural slowness which invariably marks all proceedings in these parts, there is added the desire of some who do not want to see it leave simply with instructions to act in conjunction with the Spaniards and who would prefer to see the call of present circumstances arouse his Majesty to declare himself first upon some other subject of greater importance than the operations against the pirates, and for some union with the States, who, they say, also have their own ships ready to enter the Mediterranean. Many ministers direct their operations to this end, laying stress upon the marching of Spinola, upon the progress of the Duke of Bavaria and to no small extent also upon the rising in the Valtelline.
Two letters have recently been handed to his Majesty by one of his leading subjects and a great favourite, from his representatives, written in the greatest confidence and secrecy to a leading minister here, I believe from Turin and Brussels, begging him not to impart the contents to any one whomsoever (since the king is accustomed to be as liberal to his favourites with his secrets as with his riches), but to reflect upon it alone with his great prudence, in which they whisper something of danger to his life and against the peace of these realms, through the instrumentality of one of those who sleep in his chamber, contrived with a thousand devices, chiefly at Brussels, where so many of his rebels and enemies are gathered together, who, with the connections which they have in these parts are sufficient to make a powerful invasion. Many other things of the highest importance are also expressed so far as I have been able to gather somewhat piecemeal. Thus it appears that their hopes of changing the aspect of affairs has not altogether disappeared, as although everything which is said and promised here is by no means always effected, yet they still place some confidence in certain words spoken by the king to the ambassador of the States, that if the Palatinate were attacked he would not fail to do his part, suggesting that he would unite with the States in some fashion. But fortune seems held so absolutely fast in the hands of those who steadily support the designs of the Spaniards, with open and ardent zeal among the body of the leading noblemen (con aperta ardente rabbia del numero universale de principali Signori), that the Ambassador Dohna moreover obtains nothing further and finds his audiences are postponed, and his Majesty being apparently incredulous that Spinola would attack the Palatinate; neither do they arrange anything about the fleet, upon which I may add that there are a thousand opinions among the people.
Some speak of an agreement with your Serenity, that if the Palatinate is attacked the king will fall upon Trieste and other imperial places in the Gulf. Some think that in the same event he will join with the Dutch to attack the Canaries, Spain, Flanders and the like, or will fall upon the fleet of the Indies. Some think that the fleet is going to Spain for no other purpose than to fetch the princess, and they also say that General Mansfelt takes with him secret and sealed instructions to be opened only at sea, and he has made provision of an extraordinary quantity of the finest linen and especially embroidered sheets, which cannot serve for anything but the aforesaid purpose. But in reality this is all vanity and talk in the air with the differences in desires and sympathies permissible to all. The truth is that the instructions so far bear nothing else beyond orders to go against the pirates, as I reported, in conjunction with the Spaniards and to inflict damage upon Algiers.
These last days, they wrote to the ambassador at Constantinople to make a declaration to the Porte in the name of his Majesty that by this fleet and by the damage to be inflicted upon the pirates and their nests of refuge he does not intend to operate against the peace which he has with the Grand Turk or to cause him any imaginable offence, but simply to destroy those who have inflicted so much harm upon his subjects and upon all Christendom without ever wishing to obey the orders sent to those parts by the Grand Turk himself. These letters in the form of a manifesto have, I understand, been translated into many languages besides English, and will be published throughout the world for the general information. Other things have been drawn up directed to the Pasha of Algiers, demanding the restitution of 150 ships taken from the English in the course of six years, indemnification for all the damage inflicted and the complete clearing out of those infamous nests of pirates, protesting and declaring that if he does not do this they will continue the war with an ever stronger fleet until justice is done and so many rogues have been rooted out and destroyed. As a reinforcement they already speak of the preparation of eight more ships, two royal and six of the merchants.
Letters have arrived from the Ambassador Wotton from Ulm in which he reports that he has seen the Duke of Lorraine and the Archduke Leopold, and visited the towns of Strasburg and Ulm. The opening seemed good to them for starting negotiations for peace, and every one would have been glad to see the embassy earlier.
They attach great importance here to the news that the Prince of Orange is now under Wesel and that Prince Henry with 2,000 horse and 3,000 musketeers in waggons has gone to join the Princes of the Union.
We hear that the States have reproved M. d'Aerssens for not going to the Duke of Savoy.
Three packets of letters from your Serenity have reached me by the ordinary this week; one of the first and the others of the 6th August. I sent immediately to the Court, which, however, is now at Beuule, (fn. 1) 70 miles away, to ask for an audience, and without regard to the cost of the journey or anything else I will try to satisfy the duties of my charge at least with readiness.
London, the 3rd September, 1620.
[Italian.]
Sept. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
527. To the AMBASSADOR TRIVISANO at the Hague.
We enclose a copy of what our Ambassador Lando in England writes about the encounter between the Dutch and two English ships. We desire you to have this not only for information, but in order that when an opportunity occurs you may tactfully and prudently represent to the States how greatly such events prejudice their interests, and how greatly they are helped by a good union with the King of England. You will represent this in such a way that they may recognise that our principal object is to serve them.
Ayes 162.Noes 4.Neutral 4.
[Italian.]
Sept. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
528. To the SECRETARY SURIAN at the Hague.
If the Ambassador Trivisano has not arrived, you will open the despatch to him and execute the orders contained therein, sending word to us.
Ayes 162.Noes 4.Neutral 4.
[Italian.]
Sept. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
529. To the Ambassador in England.
We received your letters of the 14th by the extraordinary courier, and later on those of the 10th ult. by the ordinary. In your representations to his Majesty about the Valtelline you have entirely fulfilled our intentions. We have to add that the Spaniards have made themselves masters of that valley, where they propose to increase their forces, erect fortifications, set up magistrates and other measures which shew their intention to take possession; a grave threat to the general liberty which every one must fully recognise. Ten bands of the Swiss have started for the relief of the Grisons, part having reached Chiavenna and the rest have arrived in the Engadine, with the determination to effect what the present emergencies require. We send you these particulars for your information and we desire you to continue to inform his Majesty, persevering at the same time in your offices, with such efficacy as you may judge will best agree with his Majesty's satisfaction.
We have informed our Ambassador Trivisano of the news you sent about the encounter between the Dutch and the two English ships, in order that he may tactfully represent to the States how such events prejudice their interests, and how a good union with England helps them. This will serve for your information.
We enclose a copy of what we have written to the king about Colonel Peyton and our reply to his Majesty, to which you will speak in conformity.
Ayes 162.Noes 4.Neutral 4.
[Italian.]
Sept. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
530. To the King of Great Britain.
In retaining in our service Colonel Peyton and his men, we have been guided by the good service rendered by these in the fleet, but especially by our affectionate regard for your Majesty and as a further demonstration of our constant good will. We are also sure that this will prove a further incentive to the colonel to serve us well. Your Majesty will also perceive the great weight which we attach to your requests, and the extent of our obligations towards you.
Ayes 162.Noes 4.Neutral 4.
[Italian.]
Sept. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
531. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The States are concerned about the movements of Spinola. The latest news states that he has gone in the direction of Frankfort, and here they fear that the Princes may not be able to hold the bridges or that they may be deceived by promises or threats. For this reason Prince Maurice has sent Sir Charles Morgan, an Englishman with six horsemen and a cornet with all speed, to exhort the Princes not to give ground, to oppose the passage and to keep up their courage. He assures them that to whatever point Spinola attacks he will send his brother with over 2,000 English foot, 2,000 Dutch and the cavalry, which is all ready for the purpose.
The States are advised that some 2,000 more English are embarked or will soon be so to join those whom General Vere recently brought, and they would be glad if the news were true and the troops here, but I have not received any confirmation of it from London.
The Hague, the 8th September, 1620.
[Italian.]
Sept. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
532. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Court at the present moment passes its time in continual amusements, and the leading lords have represented to the king a very familiar comedy in the wilds of the country, wherein the favourite marquis acted as interlocutor. (fn. 2) They continue their ceaseless hunting, his Majesty being greatly rejoiced recently at taking a stag of two hundred years and more.
The ambassador of Bohemia strives hard to get a hearing and apparently he has become very noxious to his Majesty and to some others, by his staying in the country and with what they call his importunity. Audience of the French ambassador has been postponed until the Court gets into the neighbourhood of London. I myself, as I wrote in my last despatch, sent to ask for an audience and that a lodging might be prepared for me, but when I was already shod and about to set off I was besought in his Majesty's name to stay, as he was resolved not to hear ambassadors except in London or in the neighbourhood, and asked to lay before the Secretary Naunton all that your Excellencies instructed me to say. I consented to do this, thinking that the delay of a month or more which will pass before his Majesty's return, might render my office completely inopportune and stale. Accordingly I represented to the secretary what your Serenity commanded in your missives of the 1st and 6th ult. upon the disturbances in the Valtelline, dwelling especially on the point that there was no longer any room to doubt that the Spaniards were concerned in the matter, and that they had further endeavoured to involve the pope. Thus while they are about to strike at their prey it is most necessary that there should be a definite understanding of all the powers to prevent their pernicious designs. I expressed the assurance of your Excellencies that his Majesty with his great prudence will have considered these points, in his concern for the peace and welfare of this province, and I represented the gravity of the case to the best of my ability. It seemed to me an excellent thing to leave him well impressed as he understands these matters exceedingly well. He sent word to the king by letter, and I am sure, from his own opinions, that he has represented everything in a very proper light; but I do not expect they will make any reply at present. I told him particularly the matters contained in the letters of the 14th ult., touching especially on the points that the Spaniards continue to arm most openly and spread their troops along the frontiers of your Excellencies, inciting the Catholic Swiss to try and prevent the passage of others of their nation, who show themselves ready to hasten to the relief and assistance of the Grisons, and remarking that all these operations must afford all other princes food for reflection, and that the most serene republic, for her part, will not neglect to make the necessary provisions.
I will continue the same drops from time to time, until the king's return, since I am not allowed to do anything else, and then I shall be able to revert to those points which seem most salient, as the needs of the moment may require.
I also charged Naunton with the office of returning thanks for the repeated and most friendly demonstrations of his Majesty towards your Excellencies in the affair with the Turks, with everything else committed to me in the subject, so that no failure on my part may appear in performing these offices, which are always very acceptable here, and that the gratitude of your Excellencies may in no wise appear cold or feeble. But I have also reserved to myself the duty of performing the same office with his Majesty on the first occasion when I am allowed to see him. With regard to those circumstances I have nothing further to add at present, except that just now the copy of a letter is passing through the hands of many persons, which was written by the ambassador of the States resident at Constantinople, to their High Mightinesses. The copy was sent here recently from the Hague by the Ambassador Carleton. It has reached my hands and as it touches so nearly the interests of the aforesaid question, I enclose it herewith.
With respect to the artillery for the States, as I wrote to the Secretary Surian, I should like first to see the results of the operations of the diver of Encusen, who continues his labours for the recovery of the shipwrecked pieces, and after that either to make a request for the recovery of what remains or to offer pecuniary satisfaction according to the event.
I have received your letters of the 11th ult. with the copy of the decision taken in the matter of the relations, which I will duly observe.
London, the 10th September, 1620.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
533. Copy of a letter written by the Ambassador of the States at Constantinople to their High Mightinesses on the 22nd May, 1620.
The Vizier, at the request of the merchants concerned, sent to-day for the Venetian Bailo to come before him in the presence of the Cadaleschieri, the leading magistrates, with the intention of detaining him and making him pay the said debts. The French ambassador and I, at the Bailo's request, appeared to try and mitigate his fury and ask him to await the arrival of the Ambassador Giustinian who left Venice on the 20th April last. After much discussion they agreed to wait another thirty or forty days for the last time, after which they would not listen to any more excuses. If the Bailo did not agree to pay, the Vizier would declare the peace broken and would arrest all the Venetian ships. The Vizier further asked the merchants interested, if the Bailo did not pay, whether their claims would be satisfied by his being hanged, as Borisi was. They agreed unanimously and the Cadaleschieri made a note of this. Thus if the ambassador is not authorised to pay, not only will the peace be broken, but he may pay the debt with his blood. We marvel that the prudent Senate of Venice has allowed matters to proceed to this extremity.
[Italian.]
Sept. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
534. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They have heard here with great hope of the beginning of the Grisons to recover their country, as the rebels are already much discouraged and can easily be subdued, especially as the moment is not favourable for the Spaniards to devote much attention to those parts. Wherefore it is desirable that the Grisons should be succoured by their neighbours without delay, with large contingents so that the plots and devices of the enemy may not be allowed to take deeper root, as they would soon lose all idea of evil action if they saw the country quickly and completely recovered. This excites still further the suspicion that the Duke of Savoy will take advantage of the opportunity to make some attempt against Geneva. Nothing of this, however, has so far been heard from the agent Wake, who is as a rule a most diligent minister.
The proceedings in France against the Huguenots cause considerable disquiet in these parts, especially since it seems that throughout the world they are kindling conflagrations under this pretext of religion and there may be some connection to join these affairs of Germany and Bohemia and the movement in the Valtelline and this design if it be true of the Duke of Savoy and the present proceedings of the Most Christian, lead, they think here chiefly by the advice of the Prince of Condé who has tried to make the most of the fine opportunities which have presented themselves to that king since the check imposed upon the Queen Mother and the Princes, showing his strength with such forces in his good fortune, which gives him a sense of power. His Majesty here has caused very strong and vigorous letters to be written to his ambassador at Paris to make strong representations and remonstrances to the king in his name saying he is sorry that he values so little the advice he had given him on previous occasions, and that he cannot hear without pain of any proceedings against those of the religion, and that he begs him to give no heed to those who with so little sincerity propose things from which good results can never be expected. Moreover the ambassador is instructed to speak very strongly against the Prince of Condé, saying that his Majesty bitterly repents what he has done for him when his fortune was very different, suggesting and even clearly stating that he shows himself ungrateful. They have spoken of his ingratitude at this Court for some time, while he has never so much as thanked his Majesty for what he professes to have done for him.
The departure of the fleet is continually delayed. Actually the fleet is quite ready, and yesterday they held a review at Tilbury of all the ships and men. The captains are asking for new conditions and difficulties have arisen about paying them, but the fleet has undoubtedly been kept back designedly. After taking a general survey of the conditions I believe that first of all they wish to see definitely the trend of French affairs and what blows Spinola will strike. Many of the most prudent think that the king has some great design in his head, which, being most prudent, he does not disclose, and as he detests entangling himself above every thing, he puts off, as if he wished to avoid the consequences as much as possible; thus at the present moment he seems by so many indications to have no thought of any kind, either in order to strike suddenly with more effect, or because he hopes to mitigate the ardour of others by his own coldness. It is undoubted that the aspect of his extreme detestation of disturbances and affairs seems to inspire the Spaniards with greater confidence and operates too disadvantageously against any designs he might have. But it is observed that on every occasion his Majesty has shown his unwillingness to unsheath the sword, except at the last extremity, and that he wishes to proceed by the most regular course of proper justification. I perceive that they aim more and more at an arrangement with the States, though I do not find that they have even arranged what they were ruminating upon, and so far it amounts to little more than a discussion among the ministers of the Bohemian party. The King does not give the slightest indication of it either in word or deed, but rather the reverse. However, I observe that the Spaniards and their supporters do not place much reliance upon this, and that the confidence of their opponents increases. But hope comes as readily about things desired as suspicion over those that cause anxiety. One of the most important ministers told me in confidence that if the king decides to unite his fleet with that of the States and employ it for other purposes than against the pirates, he will make up his mind so secretly that no one will know anything about it except himself, the prince and the marquis and the blow will fall like a thunderbolt at the same moment that the lightning flashes. (Molti de più prudenti stimano che il Re qualche gran pensiero habbia nel capo, che prudentissimo non se ne scuopra, et abhorrendo sopra modo d'imbrogliarsi, differisca, e sia per scansare l'efetto quanto più possa anzi hora mostri con tanti segni di non pensare per immaginatione o per poter meglio improvisamente colpire o sperando con la freddezza di se stesso di mitigare anco l'ardore degli altri, e ben vero che l'apparenza di tanto suo abhorrimento a rumore et a negotii pare che renda con troppo suantaggio d'ogni disegno, che havesse, confidenza maggiore ne Spagnoli. Ma si considera, chi in ogni tempo per natura Sua Maestà ha mostrato di non voler sfodrare la spada, che per l'estremo di necessità, et di voler procedere con ogni maggior termine di vera giustificatione. Io comprendo che sempre più si mira al concerto con Signor Stati, sebene non scuopro che vi sia di concertato anzi quello, che si va macinando resti più tosto fin 'hora solo tra qualche discorso de ministri partiali di Bohemia, che altrimente. Il Re non ne da imaginabile segno con parole ne con fatti, anzi tutto in contrario. Tuttavia osservo che Spagnoli e suoi fautori non ben se ne fidano, e che li contrarii crescono in confidenza. Ma come nelle cose gelose facile è il sospetto, cosi nelle bramate è la speranza. Mi ha detto confidentemente Ministro principalissimo et prudentissimo se il Re delibererà di unire l'armata con li Signori Stati, et d'impiegarla in altro che contra Corsari, lo determinerà tanto secrettamente che altri che egli, il Sig. Principe et il Marchese non lo sapranno, e come di saetta il colpo si sentira con l'istesso apparire del Lampo.)
We hear that the King of Denmark has actually paid the 650,000 lire promised to two commissioners of the King of Bohemia. It will prove rain in time of need.
The collection of money proceeds very coldly here, more so than ever, since those about the king have quietly spread the report that the great readiness of the people and nobles in making these contributions does not at all please his Majesty. In this were there is not difficulty for every one to withdraw from what is of no service. Thus the same persons try to impress upon the mind of the king various suspicions to make him hate his son-in-law and daughter, and go about whispering that the Ambassador Dohna is making himself the chief of too powerful a faction in this kingdom. I understand that the wisest heads fear that some disturbances may easily break out here, since both the Spanish and the Bohemian parties are more and more pushing and become more and more inflamed. (Cosi gli istessi varii sospetti sagacemente procurano d'imprimere nell'animo del Re per mettergli in odio il Genero e la figliuola, et vanno sussurando che l'Ambasciador Dona si faccia capo di fattione troppo potente in questo Regno, dove in sento che li più Savii temono facile qualche rumore mentre e la Spagnola e la Bohema fattione si va sempre più stringendo et accendendo.)
The Spanish ambassador, moreover, has made a special progress these last days at some distance from the city, going more than 100 miles away to visit his devoted adherents and many Catholics in a manner that excites great suspicion. (fn. 3) But his Majesty suspects that all the information supplied to him in this connection is carefully invented, and seems to put confidence in no one.
Sir [Henry] Wotton writes that he has visited the Duke of Wirtemberg, who complains bitterly of the tardiness of his Majesty, and declares roundly that for his part he will break up the league, as the other princes will do also, if the Palatine be not succoured by his Majesty, in accordance with the obligations of the alliance. He proposed to see the Duke of Bavaria at Linz, and is now thought to be with the emperor. He writes further that he has discovered and it is being discussed among the ecclesiastical princes of Germany as a means of settlement that the emperor will consent to enjoy the kingdom of Bohemia for his life only, upon condition that after his death it shall descend to the son of the new king.
The Cavalier Nedersol, who went as the agent of his Majesty to the United Princes and has gone to reside with the Queen of Bohemia with the title of secretary, writes that the Duke of Saxony, with what object he knows not, has sent fifty horse to take him prisoner on his journey out, but by a miracle he evaded them.
Sig. Giovanni Mocenigo son of Sig. Marc' Antonio, after having honoured my embassy here for the space of eleven months, and having at Salisbury kissed the hands of his Majesty, who embraced him warmly owing to the high opinion which he has earned universally in this Court, is now proceeding to the Hague to join the Ambassador Trivisano and return home with him. In the sum of the virtues of that most excellent Signor he will have opportunity to cultivate his fruitful talents, which are as great as can be expected in one of his age.
London, the 10th September, 1620.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Beaulieu; possibly James went there with the intention of seeing Mansell's flcet, which was, however, weather-bound in the mouth of the Thames. Nichols: Progresses of James I, iv. page 615.
2 "In England all goeth prosperously and joyfully (thanks be to God) as you will guess by the merry passing of the 5th of August at Salisbury, where there was a show or play of twelve parts, wherein the lord of Buckingham acted an Irish footman with all his habiliments and properties; the Marquis Hamilton a western pirate; the Earl of Montgomery a Welsh advocate of the bawdy court; the Earl of Northampton a cobbler and teacher of Birds to whistle; the Lord of Doncaster a neat barber; the young Lord Compton a tailor; the Lord Cromwell a merryman (also the fool); Sir Henry Rich a curious cook; Sir Edward Zouch a bearwood; Sir John Millecent a earier about of baboons; Sir George Goring a perfumer; and Sir William Fielding a Puritan that marred the play." Letter of Carleton from the Hague, dated 4/14 Sept., 1620. State Papers. Foreign. Holland.
3 He went to Buckinghamshire to Lady Dormer's and Lady Tresham's and started a collection for the Emperor. Letter of Chamberlain to Carleton of the 16th September. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–29, page 178: L'Ambasciatore di Spagna è andato fuori in campagna in visita di molti di questi Gentilhuomini Cattolici, suoi amici, havendone prima per ogni rispetto ottenuto il placet di Sua Maesta. Et gli Inglesi dicono che come generale dell'ordine de' Cattolici è andato a visitare et riformare i suoi conventi. Salvetti, news letter of 3 Sept., 1620. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962A.