Venice
April 1621, 12-19

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1911

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16-28

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'Venice: April 1621, 12-19', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 16-28. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88812 Date accessed: 02 October 2014.


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April 1621

April 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
18. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador Digby left Brussels on Wednesday. On reaching Antwerp he proposed to come on here, but was dissuaded, I believe by the Ambassador Carleton, who thought, very prudently, that he might not be welcome. He reports himself highly satisfied with his negotiations. Here is at least something to show, as Trumbull, the English agent at Brussels, left at the same time for the Princes of the Union and Spinola, to whom their Highnesses also sent a gentleman to tell him not to take any further steps. Trumbull was stripped by robbers on his journey, but proceeded on his way.
I expect that the King and Queen of Bohemia will be here tomorrow evening. (fn. 1) The Ambassador Carleton has gone to Rotterdam to meet them, accompanied by his wife and a gentleman who arrived yesterday evening from the king from England, I fancy in order to help Carleton to dissuade them from going to England, and to represent that it will serve neither their honour nor their interests to go.
His Excellency told me they had heard nothing from their ambassadors in England about the alliance or what the king there had said on the subject.
The Hague, the 12th April, 1621.
[Italian.]
April 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
19. GIROLAMO PRIULI and ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassadors in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Cardinal de Retz said to us that he hoped the affairs of the Huguenots would be accomodated. The Marshal Lesdiguieères was working hard to this end, and it was reasonable to expect that the Huguenots would ultimately yield seeing they could look for no adequate support from the States, England or Germany. If this question was settled the king would play his part.
Paris, the 13th April, 1621.
[Italian.]
April 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
20. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
His Highness has complained to the English resident about the delay of payment and the lack of any real action, saying he proposed to write to the pope, the Most Christian and the King of Great Britain for satisfaction. The resident defended his master, saying he believed that he would in time provide very considerable assistance.
Turin, the 13th April, 1621.
[Italian.]
April 15.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
21. The English Ambassador came into the Cabinet and said:
I remarked in audience the other week that his Majesty wished me to inform your Serenity of my negotiations in Germany, but I find that I have already punctually fulfilled the king's wishes, so I told the Resident Antelmi everything from time to time, and he will have reported it all. In effect my mission was a fruitless expenditure of money and effort.
I also had to communicate the disposition of a certain individual in those parts towards the republic, but I will await an opportunity. At this point he handed in the translation of a letter of his Majesty. The ambassador resumed: The prince has frequently expressed his desire, and this coupled with his Majesty's mediation ought to move your Excellencies.
I had another commission from his Majesty, and as, owing to the rules of the republic, I cannot execute it as I should wish, I will do it here. It is to salute all those who have resided at his Court, Sig. Antonio Foscarini, Sig. Piero Contarini, both of whom I see here, and all the others, for whom he cherishes particular affection and esteem. The same applies to the present Ambassador Lando. Neither does his Majesty forget Sig. Donato, in whom he recognised great ability and devotion to his prince, although his mischance cut short his embassy under unhappy auspices. This only renders his case the more lamentable to every Christian soul.
With your Serenity's permission I propose to betake myself to Padua, to get rid of a congestion, habitual to me but aggravated by the journey from Vienna here in the bad weather. But first I have a favour to ask, backing the petition of Colonel Peyton, for the release of twelve soldiers from the galleys. With this he presented a memorial.
The doge replied that they would consider the memorials. They highly esteemed the Prince of Joinville and his whole house. They would be glad to gratify the colonel, but the crime of the soldiers merited capital punishment. The Resident Antelmi had frequently testified to the good relations existing between his Excellency and himself. The gentlemen mentioned felt highly gratified that his Majesty remembered them. After remarking that he was sure of their good will to the king as if they were Venetian nobles they were also English knights, the ambassador took leave and departed.
22. Letter of KING JAMES to SIR HENRY WOTTON, his Ambassador at Venice.
We have previously asked the republic to confer the title of general upon Prince Joinville, in the room of the Count of Vaudemont, and they seemed likely to accede to our desire. We therefore direct you to renew this request to the Senate, although we do not wish to force our wishes upon them. If they satisfy us in this we shall receive it as a singular argument of their good will towards us, and we shall make a due return in any circumstances that the Signory may present to us.
Dated at the palace of Whitehall, the 9th March in the 18th year of our reign.
[Italian.]
April 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
23. To the Ambassador at Rome and the like to Germany, France, Spain, England, Savoy and Naples.
Our bailo at Constantinople in letters of the 9th ult. sends word that Ali the Grand Vizier is dead. The Sultan has chosen Cussein Pasha to succeed him, an Albanian, haughty and ignorant of the world, claiming that there is no other power but his master and that other princes exist by his sufferance. (fn. 2) The Turks have decided to assist Bethlem Gabor, which will help the King of Bohemia. It was resolved most secretly, and they decided to deceive the emperor's ambassador with fair words. War has been declared against Poland and the fleets made ready for the Black and White Seas. They have hastened on all other provisions for this war, the Grand Turk getting ready to set out although Radul, Prince of Wallachia writes that the Poles have a powerful army which is constantly increasing. However, the Sultan is so eager for the war that he threatened one who dared to try and dissuade him.
Ayes, 154.Noes, 0.Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
April 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
24. To the Ambassador in England.
Since the league into which the ambassadors of the Grey league allowed themselves to be persuaded by the Duke of Feria, the other two leagues have moved against some countrymen and against the troops of small Cantons which, paid with Spanish money and incited by Visconti, ambassador of Milan, fomented the disunion and oppression of that people. The latter took to flight with their Colonel Berlingher and the said ambassador, abandoning their baggage and guns. The two leagues, joined by the Grey league at their request, followed up their success, having no enemy in the country. They provided for garrisons in Chiavenna and Poschiavo and proceeded with great mildness, sparing the lives of those of the opposite party found at Giant and elsewhere, and showing every respect for churches and holy things, thereby utterly destroying the false pretext of religion originally invented by the Spaniards. Now the Catholic Cantons are enlisting fresh soldiers to be directed according to suggestions from Milan. Their ambassadors have returned home. Throughout these events the Zurich militia and those in the country of the Grisons never stirred, remaining on the frontiers of the Grey league. Both have been persuaded to favour peace and union by our ministers and because the Most Christian had undertaken to secure free restitution to the Grisons, his ambassador Montlon being on the road with money and orders and Bassompierre being already arrived at the Catholic Court, and so a few hours should decide the issue. Too much delay may lead the Grisons to take some rash decision which would leave them worse off than ever before. Gueffier himself fears it, and is acting in concert with our ministers.
So much for the Grisons which the Spaniards have been keeping so long in a troubled state. With these advices you will be able to show the true facts according to the latest news, the origin of the mischief and the necessity for making the governor of Milan desist from his unjust and prejudicial enterprises, as every one recognises the true aims of the Spaniards who though ready enough to enter upon negotiations here in Germany, and elsewhere, are very slow in doing what is just, in restoring the Valtelline to its ancient owners, but rather increase their forces and possessions in that country.
In your letters of this week we have received particulars of the levies and the conditions you have arranged with so much industry and zeal. We sent you our views a week ago; for the rest your news about the internal affairs of that Court show us your prudent application.
The like, except the last paragraph to:
The emperor, France, Savoy, Florence, the Hague.
Ayes, 157.Noes, 0.eutral, 4.
[Italian.]
April 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
25. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
An express gentleman recently arrived from Spain in all diligence, being sent by his Majesty's ambassador, bringing word of the king's death. (fn. 3) It is considered important owing to the alterations it may bring about with changes among the ministers and a different direction of many affairs, particularly the marriage with this part and for other reasons. The king here is very sorry and has ordered the Court to put on mourning. It has especially grieved those whose fortunes and plans may suffer, fostered by the Ambassador Gondomar, who is not considered here as capable of performing any negotiations before fresh commissions reach him from the new King Philip IV. Some hope, possibly merely because they desire it, say that he will leave and another come in his place. For the rest, the majority are rather glad than sorry, seeing that it coincides with the breach with the Low Countries, and news has already come that war has practically broken out and blood already been shed, whereof your Excellencies will have received better advices.
The Catholic Ambassador here came on Good Friday to visit the most holy sacrament in the sepulchre in this house, a thing he did not do last year, although I went there, and it is the custom of all the ministers of Catholic princes here to visit his. Although the occasion is not one of ceremony and is customary, and because I could not go myself owing to past events, I sent my brother Agostino and other gentlemen, who were received very courteously.
Since the election of the new pope, (fn. 4) the feeling shown in France about the Valtelline (although the disturbances in that kingdom, to which it seems fatally subject, render it doubtful if they will do anything), and the likelihood of a long and trouble-some war in Flanders, I understand that this ambassador has greatly moderated his language about the most serene republic, and they do not go about any longer saying so openly that they mean to attack her this year. God grant that it be so and that occasions for trouble and expense may cease.
Owing to the insolence shown to the same ambassador here by some of the apprentices or shop boys, who are naturally very unruly (ferocissimi), three or four of them passed under the lash of the executioner, but the others rose in great numbers and rescued them by main force. Owing to this their insolence has become general, and the experience of the Cavalier Pecchius in passing through Delft and Rotterdam may easily be repeated when he was greeted with stones and shameful insults. His proposals and the replies will have already reached your Serenity, so I need add nothing except that they seemed too extravagant and haughty to the king and his most influential ministers, the latter never failing to represent the worst ideas to his Majesty at every opportunity.
Of the forty ships of war we hear that they recently left Holland and Zeeland for various ports. Some have remained opposite Dunkirk where the twelve ships being built for the Spaniards are not expected to be ready for two months. As many of the merchants here have a quantity of merchandise there, they cannot venture to send them that way, but must find a longer route at great expense.
The troops recently enlisted in Brabant to go to the Palatinate are turning back, some to pass to the Pays de Vaes, others to garrison the fortresses of Flanders which have no guard except in time of war. We hear that a truce has been concluded for two months between the United Princes and Spinola through the efforts of Lord Digby; when he was returning home he learned at Flushing that Sir [Edward] Villiers, brother of the favourite, was also coming back from the King and Queen of Bohemia, and went to confer with him, and as he would not at that moment venture back to this kingdom owing to the numerous charges brought against him in parliament, gave him heart and brought him back in his company. Both proceeded to Theobalds to see the king, though we do not yet know what they reported.
Besides the question of the truce, for which his Majesty's agent Trumbull went to Germany, it is surmised that Digby has come stuffed with vain hopes, but as a fact the negotiations have been referred to Spain and to the emperor. It seems that at Brussels they raised the point that in any case an absolute cession by the Palatine and his sons of the kingdom of Bohemia must precede restitution, and he cannot have the electorship again because the imperial ban took it away and assigned it to others, and the two millions expended on the war, caused by the Palatine's action as they profess, must be made good. This news is not yet well authenticated, nor is that of the arrival of the King and Queen of Bohemia in Holland although the latest from Amsterdam states that they should arrive in two or three days and that the queen had reached Arnheim. Accordingly various lords and ladies here are preparing to go and visit her and they may not go empty handed.
Besides what I have written one sees no other sign of interest here, so it is conjectured that the negotiations are not proceeding to his Majesty's satisfaction. They are now making great efforts to raise money. The representations and proposals of the ambassador of Denmark to the Council went off very well, I understand, but I do not find that they are entirely completed yet. Owing to some disputes with the Dutch merchants the ambassadors of the States have promised that commissioners shall be sent here and they will also negotiate about the affairs in the East. If the commissioners of the merchants cannot settle these things among themselves they will be referred to his Majesty and the States themselves. At the end they took leave, the king being satisfied though he complained strongly about the negotiations over the fisheries being put off for a year owing to the constant preoccupation of their High Mightinesses. As regards the alliance with them here, which lasted during the truce, the king says he will always be ready to renew it with the King of France, if he does so, as it existed jointly throughout the truce. He would readily continue old alliances but could do no more. The ambassadors finding him so irresponsive did not press the matter further. They were invited to dine with his Majesty on Sunday, with the Polish ambassador, and one may call this the only considerable honour they have received; but this has now been revoked or postponed owing to the Court mourning.
It appears that the Council has raised some difficulties about the requests of the Polish ambassador, there being two important points, one that it will harm the merchants trading at Constantinople to grant levies against the Turk in this kingdom, as they might confiscate their goods upon that pretext or some other; the other that it might prove perilous to amass a number of troops in Ireland and render them warlike, especially of Catholics who would alone hasten to that service. However, it is thought that his requests will ultimately be granted.
London, the 16th April, 1621.
[Italian.]
April 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
26. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I managed tactfully to prevent the Cavalier Lazzari from continuing the affair for the Prince of Joinville, saying that your Serenity did not at present want any one. He understood me thoroughly and told me afterwards he had tried to induce his Majesty to let the matter drop, but I find that some weeks ago orders were sent to the Ambassador Wotton to speak to your Serenity, which will not be withdrawn so far as I can see. It may be that the matter in France between the Cardinal of Guise and the Duke of Nevers may postpone or even stop it.
Manuscript summaries of the Acts of the parliament have appeared; they are numerous but concern little except the affairs of the kingdom. Only two seem important, one that Flemings and French traders must make themselves free of the kingdom, otherwise they may not trade. The other that the India Company must not take gold or silver beyond the sea; which will strike them a severe blow. (fn. 5) They have discussed at length removing the monopoly on gold thread belonging to Villiers, mentioned in other letters; how the favourite his brother obtained about 40,000 crowns yearly from another for inns in the name of Sir [Giles] Momperson mentioned before. If this matter of gold is settled, as seems probable, it may come from Venice and Milan, although they will not use much in the future owing to the decision that no one shall wear gold or silver ornaments except earls, barons, and their sons. Many are thinking of removing the monopoly on flint glass, as when brought from Venice it would cost little more than what is made here and it is considered finer, while it would not consume the wood in the furnaces, there being a great scarcity of it in the kingdom. I have tactfully encouraged this idea.
I have also encouraged the grocers of this city, who also sell raisins and muscatels, to present a petition, as they have since done, against the proceedings of the Levant Company, who have acted very tyrannically. I will try to secure good results, which will be worth more if coming from an act of the parliament. I have chosen this way as the best to render the merchants more uneasy since they well know that there are many in the assembly who intend to destroy all the companies, the roots of a thousand disorders, and to make trade free. I have also spoken to the king upon the orders which your Serenity gave me. His Majesty appeared to remember the promises made to the Cavalier Foscarini and seemed to consider the request reasonable. He told me that I should draw up a paper and he would give it to the Secretary Naunton with instructions to get the Council to make the necessary notes thereupon. Forseeing this I had one ready, so he immediately gave it to Naunton; it is enclosed. As his arrest followed two days later the matter was not ended, but passed into the hands of the Secretary Calvert. After much delay, with much labour and discussion, with which I need not trouble your Excellencies, and which I have abstained from reporting, the matter has reached the stage shown by the enclosed copy of the Council's reply.
The merchants have opposed every point, alleging the privileges of their companies, the expenses they have to bear in maintaining the ambassador at Constantinople and many other things, and they have a most remarkable influence over the Lords of the Council, some of whom have brothers and relations in the companies, some being bought by presents and some having their own assignments upon the monopoly. Thus one may say that none is without interest and the leading ones have the most. They have finally conceded that your Serenity's subjects may come with raisins and other natural merchandise of the country in their own ships, the master and sailors being natives of your dominions. The merchants of the companies protest that they have never opposed this, although they have really done so to the extent of their powers, up to the present; but they could not prevail against the king's word and such a just cause. But they do not mean the things to come in English ships or those of any other sort, and although they have no decent arguments they add, very improperly, some grievances, in case your Serenity should ask for more. As they came with the Council's reply and are so unreasonable and out of place, I think they may easily be met. However, I have not ventured to make any further reply without instructions, as I do not trust my understanding in such affairs, which I have never dealt with before and of which I have little knowledge. I will therefore await instructions.
Actually, the merchants here mean to keep all the trade in their own hands, and they only agreed to the coming of Venetian ships under compulsion and in the assurance that your Serenity's subjects cannot send any owing to the lack of sailors and ships. It would prove a notable benefit and honour if some came, and your Serenity would find it advisable to devote much attention and pains to this as if Venetian ships came here and could bring the greater part of such merchandise it would undoubtedly be far better than if Venetians laded them on English or other ships, owing to the increase of our own shipping. Thus the English themselves would soon ask to lade the goods on their own ships, aiming at what they now forbid. It would also be important whenever your Serenity wished to levy troops from these realms, as you could take them at less cost in the ships of your own subjects. As it is very difficult to enter this river on account of the sand banks, tides and other hindrances, especially without English or Flemish pilots, I think the king might ultimately be induced to let us use these, although there will be no lack of opposition; but it will be superfluous to make the request if it be not possible for Venetian ships and subjects to sail hither owing to lack of ability or will. The Council's reply has been signed by one of the ordinary secretaries and registered so that it cannot be called in question.
London, the 16th April, 1621.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
27. Trade, which nourishes peoples and states and swells the revenues of princes, has always been protected and encouraged by this crown and the republic, especially with those states which are truly friendly. Owing to the damage suffered by trade when not free I am instructed to represent to your Majesty the notable harm done, especially to the inhabitants of Cephalonia in the export of raisins, the chief and almost sole source of revenue to that island, of the provision here forbidding all but a few English of the Levant Company from trading in raisins to bring to this country. Those few English knowing full well that they can buy without competition, tyrannise over the said people as well as over the inhabitants of this kingdom in selling, to their great detriment, and that of the republic's customs. The law of nations requires that if the English wish to enjoy free trade with all the Venetian dominion, such as they enjoy, they must grant the same in England, especially when dealing with the natural produce of countries, such as raisins and muscatels. To forbid this is as if the Signory forbad the English to bring to their dominions lead, tin, salt fish and other natural English produce. It is neither reasonable nor possible for this state of affairs to continue. When your Majesty in 1615 proposed to renew the decree which so affects the people of Cephalonia, the Ambassador Foscarini obtained a promise from your Majesty that Venetian subjects might bring all the native produce of their states on English or any other ships except Dutch. I now ask for the fulfilment of this, which is very reasonable and proper and recognised as such by your Majesty, for the preservation of mutual trade and by the treatment of your Majesty's subjects everywhere by the republic, so that there may no longer be any doubt that her subjects may bring raisins, wine and other native produce to these realms, a thing they have not ventured to do upon a simple promise. I think no one can oppose this, not even the Levant Company, because it is so reasonable and it has always been stated that the prohibition was not directed against the ships of the republic but only against the Dutch, and if the Venetians give up entirely there is a fear that the latter may absorb the whole in a short time.
London the 5th January, 1620.
GIROLAMO LANDO.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
28. At the Court of Whitehall the 25th March, 1621.
By the Lords of his Majesty's Privy Council.
His Majesty having referred to this board a manifesto of the Venetian ambassador, the Council having considered the matter and the allegations of the merchants trading in the Levant, have decided on the following reply:
The English merchants trading in the Levant have never offered any opposition to Venetian subjects transporting raisins to this kingdom on their own account, or the natural produce of their country if brought on their own ships manned by native crews. If the matter is pressed for increasing the trade in raisins with this realm we consider it just and reasonable in consideration of the petition of the merchants of this realm, the proclamations made and the prohibitions of trade made by the Signory of Venice and the burdens imposed, of which the English merchants complain.
Firstly, that no goods may be brought from Turkey to the state of Venice except in Venetian ships, a rule strictly observed, and if by chance an English ship is laded by Englishmen or by merchants of other nations if a Venetian vessel is in the port or arrives twenty days later, a protest is entered, and there is no means of recovering the hire for transporting the goods.
(2) During the last ten years no English ship has been allowed to relade at Venice unless it went there with a full cargo. Moreover the Signory would not promise that English merchants should trade in the Levant either on English ships or their own but strictly forbad it, even the transport of soap from any place.
(3) At the beginning of the negotiations in 1580 a tax of 10 ducats was imposed on every migliar of raisins bought and laded at Zante and Cephalonia, which tax the Signory has recently forced English merchants to pay at Venice, releasing their own subjects.
(4) At the same time the Signory imposed a tax on English merchandise taken to those islands, namely 7 ducats on each cloth, 2 solleri on every hundred of tin and 2 solleri on every kersey cloth, 6 ducats on every cask of muscatels, and in the last twelve years they have imposed this tax on all other merchandise to the end that it may all be taken to Venice and they do not wish to allow English merchants to unlade from our English ships and lade in another, although the said merchandise is never landed without paying these duties.
(5) No merchandise from Turkey may be landed in the said islands from English ships or others, which may afterwards be laded for England but the merchants must first send their goods to Venice and pay the duties there before they are allowed to lade for England, to their great detriment, there being a gulf of 200 leagues between those islands and Venice, of great danger and causing great loss of time.
(6) Afterwards in the year 1618 when the Signory of Venice had contracted for a number of ships, which went against the Spaniards in the Gulf of Venice, they valued their money at 12 per cent. More than it was worth at the time of the contract whereby his Majesty's subjects lost 6,000l. sterling.
(7) Whereas the people of Cephalonia and all the other islands have complained to the Signory of Venice that the English merchants have tyrannised over them in buying their goods, one can easily see that the companies have not had so much power over them, but quite the contrary, as in time past they have bought their raisins for money and goods of slight value at about 13 ducats the migliaro and after a few years the price was raised to 35, 40 and sometimes 45 the migliaro in hard cash, whereby the poor people of the country became very rich and therefore they have not the smallest reason to complain.
CLEMENT EDMONDES.
[Italian.]
April 17.
Senato.
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
29. ALVISE CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador told me that he had made fresh representations about the Valtelline in his king's name.
Madrid, the 17th April, 1621.
Postcript.—The Ambassador Gondomar of England has been admitted to the council of war. Don Luigi Bravo is trying to obtain the same honour.
[Italian.]
April 17.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
30. Antonio Morosini appointed ambassador to the Court of Savoy, came into the Cabinet and reported a conversation he had had with the duke's ambassador. In the course of this he remarked:
All the world is in movement and in the balance. Let us begin with England. We have to see what decision the king there will take about the Spanish marriage. I have letters stating that the parliament intends to protest against the Prince of Wales making an alliance with Spain. The king keeps all thought of war out of his head; he considers pleasure the summit of all happiness; he is a man of letters and would have made a better doctor than a king (il Re vive alieno da pensieri di guerra; ha le delicie per colmo d'ogni felicità, è huomo di lettere, e meglio sarebbe stato Dottore che Re). However, I must speak with proper respect of so great and worthy a prince. He allows himself to be deceived too much by the blandishments of Spain. It is true that the fact that the revenues of the kingdom do not exceed the ordinary expenses of the court removes an incentive to warlike thoughts; but he really believes too readily those who deceive him. The ambassador of France told me the other day that he had letters stating that the King of England is more governed by Spanish ministers than the King of Spain himself. He sent Digby to the Archduke Albert to ask for the restitution of the Palatinate and is expecting the reply, which will be full of promises and empty of results. He thinks he will recover the inheritance of his son-in-law by this treaty of marriage, without drawing the sword. I think that this accounts for his intimacy with the Spanish ambassador. At this point he asked my opinion. I said I thought it was a pernicious idea to think of putting out fire by fire, and Spanish negotiations ought to be equally suspect whether they concerned peace and alliance or war and destruction. They are much mistaken, he said, if they think the Spaniards will give up a foot of land unless compelled, and for my part I think it will be better if they do not restore the Palatinate, as thereby they will make all the princes of Germany their enemies, and even the King of England himself could not submit to see his kin deprived of their necessary support.
He went on to speak of the affairs of Flanders, France and elsewhere.
[Italian.]
April 17.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
31. Nicholas Starzinich, the nuncio of Poland, was summoned and the deliberation of the Senate of the previous day was read to him. He returned thanks and went on to speak of the preparations of the Turks for war and the danger to Christendom. By the last despatches he learned that the ambassadors of France, England and Flanders at Constantinople were waiting for instructions from home before opening negotiations. He had forgotten to show his Serenity the letter written by the King of England to his master, saying that he did not wish to remain a simple spectator of his troubles, but would do more. If the republic could do nothing else she might instruct her ambassador at Constantinople to join the other ambassadors in endeavouring to procure a truce, at least for a year.
[Italian.]
April 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
32. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The King Palatine and his consort made their entry last Wednesday, being received in state. Many officers have arrived and are expected from England, with the Countess of Brefort and other ladies of that Court who come to salute the queen. Perhaps the countess will repeat that their passage to England will not please the king. (fn. 6) Their court is magnificent from the persons there, but their condition lamentable owing to their misfortunes.
The English ambassador and Denmark give them the title of Majesty, but France does not.
In Brabant and here among the people they talk of nothing but the truce. The fact that France and England do not speak of breaking the alliance persuades the people here that peace must ensue. I have been able to discover nothing but doubt and perplexity from the Prince of Orange and Count Ernest Casimir, and they think that the Kings of France and England have an understanding together to bargain about the truce. The English ambassador here has let slip that since the alliance between his Majesty and the republic was made for the maintenance of the truce, it will be necessary to enter upon new negotiations for alliance if war breaks out on its expiry. His Excellency remarked to me: If they think so doubtless the King of England desires the truce.
The Hague, the 19th April, 1621.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 They made their entry on Wednesday, the 14th. See Surian's despatch of the 19th April, No. 32, at page 27 below.
2 Tschlebi Ali, who showed himself such a bitter enemy to the Venetians, died on the 9th March, 1621, and was succeeded as Vizier by Husein Pasha. Eyre regretted Ali's death, as he had become very friendly to him, though Husein was also friendly.—Despatch of 10th April, 1621, State Papers, Foreign: Turkey.
3 Philip III died on the 31st March, 1621, not having quite completed his forty-third year.
4 Alessandro Ludovisio, who took the name of Gregory XV, was elected on the 9th February, 1621, to succeed Paul V.
5 There is an MS. list of 28 Acts in the Domestic State Papers, CXX, No. 55, in which the Acts referred to in the text are Nos. 2 and 13, the latter to the effect that all Dutchmen and Frenchmen shall make themselves free denizens or else be banished out of the land.
6 Lucy Russel, Countess of Bedford. Salvietti, writing on the 16th, thought their object might be the exact contrary: molti di questi Signori e Dame preparano di passare il mare per visitarli et confortarli, ma principalmente per persuaderli a venirsene in questo Regno dove sono fuor di modo desiderati della fazione Puritana. Nondimeno non concorrendo la volontà del Re et molto meno quella del Principe che di già comincia ad esser molto sensitivo delle consequenze che la loro presenza potrebbe portar seco fara forse alterar queste determinazioni.—Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27,962 B.