Venice
June 1621

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1911

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57-74

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'Venice: June 1621', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 57-74. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88815 Date accessed: 17 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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June 1621

June 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
63. To the Ambassador at Rome.
A company of royal arquebusiers claimed to pass without leave by the Cremonese road between Bergamo and Crema, in our undoubted jurisdiction. Some negotiations on the subject took place between the governor of Milan and our Resident Vendramino. His Excellency seemed only to desire what was reasonable, but said the same had been done before without leave. We see no grounds for this, and matters are now very different, although when some asked leave recently it was readily granted. The matter was discussed in the secret council at Milan and decided, we understand, in favour of the republic. But as we hear that his Excellency has sent to Spain on the subject, we also have sent thither the instructions necessary to uphold our case, letting it be understood that if leave is asked it will be readily granted, since we only desire to maintain our just dominion. When every reason led us to believe that we should receive a reply from his Majesty his Excellency sent for our resident and told him that the royal ministers were of opinion that the troops could pass without leave or any notice. In order to proceed with all propriety and show our desire for peace we sent to Milan to express to the governor our desire to settle the affair amicably, but declaring that we would not allow our rights to be prejudiced by force, though we would agree to the passage of the troops if they acted in a proper manner. We also sent to Spain so that similar representations might be made to his Catholic Majesty and the ministers, so as to leave nothing undone to show the good will of the republic for peace, and in order to remove every occasion for offence.
The like to the following, adding, we sent this for information to use as our service requires:
Germany, France, England, the Hague.
Ayes, 139.Noes, 2.Neutral, 34.
[Italian.]
June 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
64. GIROLAMO PRIULI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king is near St. Jean d'Angely with all the nobility of the realm. One hears nothing but rumours of war on every side, though they do not neglect the way of negotiation, but no one knows at present what may result from this. The fortress contains 2,000 foot and 300 horse, but insufficient munitions and food, so they are expected to yield. The King of England is making the strongest representations to his Majesty to divert him from these proceedings, letting it be understood that if the Most Christian persists, he will do everything in his power to help and encourage the Huguenots of La Rochelle, as he said he knew full well that they were not dealing with them after this fashion for reasons of state but simply because of religion. They make no direct reply to these threats, the king merely stating that he means to be obeyed by his subjects. He is so resolute in this that when some one gave him some falcons a few days ago he remarked that he did not mean to bother about hunting animals any more but to hunt men and fortresses.
In Normandy, Picardy, at Orleans and Rouen they have disarmed all the Huguenots, and it is said they will do the same here at Paris, although the English ambassador opposes by most strenuous offices in the name of his king. He has instructions to go to the Court on this very subject.
Paris, the 1st June, 1621.
[Italian.]
June 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
65. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The duke spoke to me about the emperor's progress in Germany and the prosperous career of the house of Austria. He told me that only the King of England could straighten out matters, and it would require no small movement to put the affairs of the Spaniards in confusion, but that king was as pusillanimous as any one could be (ma esser quel Re tanto vilipeso che niente più), and the Spaniards, recognising the advantage, will not on any account slacken the hopes of a marriage.
I asked about the truce. He said he expected a breach. The French would let be because so they will be able to suppress the Huguenots. He said that the opportunity of the Most Christian king kept improving, as although the King of Great Britain will make a great commotion about the religion, he will not move.
Turin, the 1st June, 1621.
[Italian.]
June 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
66. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The parliament met yesterday after the usual vacation of eight days for Whitsuntide and decided not to rescind or relax the order about the Earl of Arundel since he refused to obey them and ask pardon of Lord Spencer or the house, although the king himself wrote to urge him to do so. Some of his opponents would gladly charge him with new offences and his supporters are intriguing to induce his Majesty to release him of his own authority. But the king does not seem inclined to do this at present, thinking he would offend the assembly too much; so the earl must remain in the Tower until he relents or until the House lets him off.
The Marquis of Hamilton is selected as Viceroy in Scotland for the parliament which is to meet there at the end of July. The secretary of the English ambassador resident at Paris has come here asking leave for his master, who is sick, and bringing word that the Huguenots are disarmed at Rouen and almost everywhere and that the Most Christian is proceeding against them with great resolution, having already reduced many to obedience, while dissension has arisen among the people in La Rochelle, and if that is not appeased it will prove the worst enemy they could have. It is reported that they think of forming a republic and throwing off their allegiance to their sovereign. This would be most hateful to the king here and the rumour is intended to discredit them with him, and also to strike an insidious blow at other republics. There is also some fear lest the French in concert with the Spaniards may not be thinking of crushing the Protestant religion everywhere, and will not act sincerely with the States or in the affairs of the Valtelline but only for the benefit of the two crowns.
A brother of the wife of Mansfelt, commander of the twenty ships, left recently with letters from his Majesty, they think with instructions to show himself in the neighbourhood of La Rochelle, to help in case of a siege as his Majesty declared recently and as report now states. (fn. 1)
Caron, the ambassador of the States has gone after the king to Windsor to offer excuses in the name of his master for the delay in sending fresh commissioners, caused by the delay of the old ones in returning to the Hague, assuring him that in a few days they will come to complete the negotiations about the East Indies. He will also inform his Majesty of the great preparations made by their High Mightinesses, who write that they have in being 60,000 foot, 45 companies of horse, and 150 men-of-war. This power, well maintained and well led would suffice to win half the world. Nevertheless after long discussion they have decided not to be the first to break by land. Every one here marvels at this, as so much expense and such a mass of armament seem superfluous for defence alone. The Spaniards publish falsely that the Prince of Orange and the Assembly are not in complete agreement, and doubtless now they have heard the result of this deliberation they will know how to take advantage of it. All the principal actions take place at sea and will do so. There are rumours of a great fight with the Spanish fleet going to the West, that it was roughly handled and dispersed, with the loss of many ships; but perhaps there is more truth in the news that many Dutch ships have been arrested in Spain.
Their High Mightinesses write to the same ambassador that they really believe the King and Queen of Bohemia will cross the sea, although for their part they fully understand the reasons against such a step; also that Gabor has written to that king urging him not to abandon his claims to Bohemia and offering him powerful and prompt assistance. The letters are quite recent, yet a rumour is current at Court that Bethlehem has taken to flight.
A Scottish gentleman has recently returned from the Hague, whither the prince sent him to visit his brother-in-law and sister. He brought letters for his Majesty in which the Palatine expresses his desire to move for the recovery of the Palatinate with Denmark and help from the States, seeming very tired of the length of the negotiations and hinting at an inclination to allow Mansfeld to enter Bavaria to divert the blows of that duke from the Upper Palatinate, although he has not enough men to encounter him, and being ill paid they are troublesome. He again recommends his honour and safety to his Majesty, from which it appears that he does not think he can give up his claims to Bohemia. His Majesty was much moved by this disposition and tries to dissuade and divert him from it, letting fall the threat that he will abandon him entirely if he does anything to prejudice the negotiations for peace, while he comforts him with fresh assurances that he will do great things for him if the present negotiations do not turn out well. However, some think that he would secretly welcome some well laid stroke which could not be laid to his charge and would not give him any trouble or expense. It is not actually known what the King of Bohemia will do. We hear that he had a promise from the King of Denmark of a loan of another 20,000l. made to the king here, who is now secretly preparing furniture for three rooms and bed furnishings to send to his daughter, who is so poor that she has nothing of her own whereon to sleep. This might move her enemies to pity let alone rouse her relations and friends, and it may serve as a notable example to posterity.
Some days ago the Secretary Calvert told the agent of Bohemia by his Majesty's order that he did not think it proper that anyone should live here any longer as ambassador for the Palatine, but only he or some other one as agent, and this is not unlikely because of the expense and other reasons, more especially because he considers that the majority of the ministers here are like his ambassadors, although for some little time all have remained dumb, his Majesty having arrived at such a pass that he cannot endure any one to express opinions differing from his own. (Sebene un pezzo fa tutti stanno muti, essendo gionta Sua Maestà a tale che ha in odio chi le parla con sensi diversi dalli proprii.)
Digby leaves this evening. He is going straight to the emperor by way of France. He expects to find him at Ratisbon, understanding that he has convoked a diet there. He will afterwards proceed to Spain. He told me he did not know whether he would touch Venice or the dominions of your Excellencies. I hear that this has not yet been determined, and it will be settled by the accidents of the journey. I hear that it depends upon his negotiations in Germany and Spain whether he will afterwards return to Italy with commissions which will then be given to him, both for your Excellencies and the Duke of Savoy, or to France, for the purpose already suggested. He has received an assignment of 400,000l. sterling or 160,000 crowns for his embassy, which would suffice to maintain an army for a month. The real reason for the delay in his departure was that in the present scarcity he could not collect so much money soon. He will ask the emperor for the restitution of the Palatinate, but he himself told me that he thought he would do well if he induced him to suspend the imperial ban since the ambassadors of the united princes, who made a similar request, received a very stiff reply, although he thought he was armed with better authority and while his Imperial Majesty is convoking the electors to choose a new elector and confirm this ban, the king here is very perturbed by the news, especially as it seems that the emperor will not open any negotiations for restitution unless they are preceded by a total renunciation on the Palatine's part of the kingdom and title of Bohemia, and he greatly fears he will not bring his son-in-law to this, though for his own part he would consent readily, even men of good judgment thinking that he should advise him to give up the electorate also to recover his ancient dominions. Digby will tell Caesar that he ought to be very grateful to the king here, as if he had cared to support his son-in-law by arms the house of Austria might not enjoy its present position. He told me that, by news arrived yesterday, the Archduke Albert had prolonged the truce in the Lower Palatinate until the end of the current month, and he thought it would be renewed month by month. To all this I need only add that I think it would be a prudent course, should he pass through the dominions of your Excellencies, that instructions should be sent to the frontiers for his proper reception, as a minister of such consequence, so that he may have no reason for complaint which might afford him pretexts for delay in his negotiations, and that he may not experience the same trouble as Viscount Doncaster, (fn. 2) especially as at the present time this kingdom is as healthy as it has ever been.
London, the 4th June, 1621.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
67. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The King and Queen of Bohemia have gone to Amsterdam where they met with an enthusiastic reception. They left on Thursday and are expected back this evening. They had a following of over 150 persons, including the Ambassador Carleton and his wife.
The Hague, the 7th June, 1621.
[Italian.]
June 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
68. GIROLAMO PRIULI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador is leaving for the Court by command of his king, to speak in favour of those of the religion. I know on good authority that he is going to open negotiations and to offer the dissolution of the assembly of la Rochelle, the reason why his Majesty here has hitherto shown himself so resolute against them. The ambassador has done his utmost to induce the Ambassadors of the States to make the journey with him, to unite their offices to his, thinking they would produce a greater effect. He has not succeeded, however, as the Dutch ambassador has refused, saying that he has no orders from his masters on the subject.
The people of la Rochelle have sent four deputies to England to ask the king for help, representing their hard case (fn. 3) ; and they have sent other deputies to the States.
Paris, the 8th June, 1621.
[Italian.]
June 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
69. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Many Huguenots of Dieppe and other places in France are daily taking refuge in this kingdom with their wives, children and possessions. A gentleman of the Most Christian has come to the Ambassador Triliers and gone on at once to see his Majesty at Greenwich begging him in his master's name not to hearken to those of la Rochelle who are about to come here, reiterating that they are rebels, and he would like his Majesty to do as he would be done by. The king replied that he could not regard them as rebels, for as such he would never help them, but that on account of religion he could not abandon them, and if he heard those who were coming he could give a more fitting reply.
A pinnace from the fleet of twenty ships brings about 3,000l. sterling of goods taken from the pirates and the news that they are very short of provisions and money, upon which account the men complain and are half mutinous, some having deserted to join the pirates, while many have died of sickness; in addition they speak of the wretched condition of many of the ships, especially one of the royal ones called the Prince, which is almost unmanageable. (fn. 4) It appears that they can obtain no results from a mass which is practically immovable unless it is strengthened and put in a thorough state of repair. So they are not likely to appear near la Rochelle either for succour or to support those who wish to help the place.
His Majesty has given a solemn promise to satisfy the Spanish ambassador's urgent request that he will not sign the decrees of the parliament against the Catholics which I have already reported. However the parliament has been fed up with large hopes in this matter, since the crown would benefit by a very considerable sum. Moreover the king has allowed the partial execution of a much more rigorous sentence previously made by the parliament against a lawyer named Flud, (fn. 5) who slandered the King and Queen of Bohemia, notwithstanding the resentment of the Spanish ambassador, condemning him to pay 5,000l. to the king, to imprisonment for life, to ride through the city holding the horse's tail, to be beaten, branded and have his ears and nose slit, according to the usage of the country, and to stand in the pillory.
Dominis, who always styles himself Archbishop of Spalato, by advocating in his sermons a union between the Protestant religion and ours, arguing that the latter is the true and well founded one though soiled by many defects, has scandalised many, especially as he has written a letter, which has been published, to the new pope; accordingly he has declared in the pulpit that he will preach no more. (fn. 6)
The accident of the interception of my despatches of the 10th with the duplicates of the 2nd April and the 16th will cause me henceforward to send the greater part of what I write in cipher, even the non essential, and obliges me to send second duplicates of those of the 10th herewith.
London, the 11th June, 1621.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
70. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Great events have taken place here this week. The king's wrath at receiving confirmation from Germany that the emperor is fully determined in the diet at Ratisbon to proceed to the choice of a new elector and to confirm the ban against Frederick, has suddenly changed the aspect of affairs almost certainly in the direction of affording satisfaction to the general sympathies of the people here and to the lamentable necessities of the King Palatine. I would venture to predict this absolutely had not previous experience taught me that such sentiments may change unexpectedly in a moment, while a great thunderstroke has just occurred unexpectedly in the dismissing (disfatto) of parliament. Consequently the only thing capable of bearing the expenses of war and of decisions adequate to the urgency of the circumstances has gone.
His Majesty recently expressed the most generous sentiments to the Ambassador Caron, assuring him that he did not mean a hair of the dignity, titles, dominions or privileges of his son to be taken from him and that he would do great things if Digby's negotiations do not succeed.
On Saturday he sent for Digby, after he had taken leave, addressing him in a warning and threatening manner. He told him roughly that in Flanders he had done nothing, at a great expense, and he must take care not to do the same now, and he must behave himself well and diligently as he did not want any more words but deeds which must complete the affair. On this account all the other ministers are greatly disturbed, as Digby himself departed at last, in more discontent and confusion than any ambassador who ever left here. He was hastened on by threats sent by an express messenger to make him start, since the king heard that he was still lingering in London.
Before he left, having prudently considered that before the state embassy could reach Ratisbon the proceedings against Frederick would have taken place, they sent on Simon Digby, a relation of the ambassador, in order to show more feeling or resentment, to proceed with all diligence to the emperor with letters from his Majesty to ask whether he proposes to give satisfaction to the ambassador, as if not it would be better for him not to come. This has taken place with great secrecy. In this way they hope to make their representations in time and to deprive the emperor of all reasonable excuses. But it is not believed that this will suffice to turn aside the House of Austria from such an important matter, which it has desired for so many years, in order to secure the imperial crown for ever. This Simon Digby is to return with the reply with all speed. Meanwhile the Ambassador Digby will travel through Lorraine, in order that he may receive the instructions required by the events.
From these events one hears generous sentiments from the more generous ministers, that they would rather all die than submit quietly to such a great prejudice to their king's children, and their sovereign, they say, would never lack money, spirit and forces. However, even if he could and would recover the Palatinate with these he would not get back the electorate except by the total overthrow of Germany.
His Majesty in his wrath against the emperor's intentions has uttered expressions of anger and resolution to all, and in particular he has remarked several times I may well thank Naunton as were it not for him I should not hare summoned parliament. On this account and others many anticipate that the secretary will be reinstated, and the Spanish ambassador, feeling uneasy, has openly tried to dissuade the king.
His Majesty has requested the King of France to send his ambassadors to dissuade the emperor from his purpose, but that sovereign excused himself saying that those ambassadors were returning home, though he promised to order his agents with the emperor and the United Princes to make strong representations. These requests seem to have very little to do with the last declarations in favour of those of la Rochelle.
Because many inhabitants of the Palatinate sent their goods and property to Ulm, Spires, Frankfort and other free towns, the emperor sent word that they must be consigned into his hands. His Majesty has protested that if this takes place he will arrest all the goods of their merchants here.
His Majesty seemed much saddened by the news from Denmark and the fear that the king there might disarm, because of the heavy expense and in despair of doing anything effective amid the discord of the principal strings, and also by the scarcity of news from all parts for some days past. He also seems to grieve as he perceives how the confidence of his old allies and friends has grown cold, since all avoid imparting their secrets to him, for the manifest reason that they are immediately brought to the knowledge of the Spanish ambassador.
Notwithstanding all this parliament is adjourned from next Monday, which is practically a month earlier than usual, for the vacation of his Majesty's customary progress until Michaelmas or All Saints Day, no special day being mentioned. This is an indication that they are not anxious for it to meet again, although they say it will certainly assemble at the time aforesaid, though that is far enough off, and that an adjournment is not a dissolution, but whether it returns or no practically nothing of consequence can be done in the current year. The Houses are sorrowful and much moved, as when they proposed to send a request that they might sit a few days longer to finish some business which they had begun the king sent word that such an attempt would be superfluous and useless, and added many reasons for his decisions; that he suffered greatly by standing so often alone; that the hot weather made it dangerous for the plague with so many people in the city; that numerous foreign affairs require the presence of his councillors at his side; that the country militia, which usually receive their training at this time, are going without owing to the presence of their lieutenants in the parliament; and that justice is not being properly administered in the provinces owing to the absence of the judges for the same reason, and so forth. (fn. 7)
All these arguments do not appear sufficient to counterbalance the urgent necessity or at least the apparent necessity of backing Digby's negotiations if for nothing else. Thus this triumph is attributed to the sagacity of the Spaniard and the strong influence of the favourite, but really, in the opinion of those of the best judgment, it is due to the king, after having continued such a long while with indifference to see what could be obtained for the Palatinate, being afraid that if he now grants to parliament the enforcement of what it has enacted against the Catholics, he will lose all his hopes with the Spaniards, while if on the other hand he really satisfies the Spanish ambassador by not enforcing the decrees of the parliament, he will be in the way of utterly losing the loyalty of his subjects; and therefore, by this prorogation for some time, he perhaps reckons to avoid offending and breaking entirely with either, to act afterwards according to the issue of the Ambassador Digby's negotiations (onde la vittoria di questo trionfo è attribuita alla sagacità del Spagnolo et all' auttorità del favore tanto efficace, ma in effetto a parere de più sensati è derivata perche il Re essendo tanto tempo che continua con flemma a vedere ciò che possa spuntare par il Palatinato, hora ha timore concedendo al Parlamento l'essecutione di quello, che ha decretato contra Catholici di perdere le speranze tutte con Spagnoli, et al incontro concedendo effettivamente a questo loro Ambr. di non venirne all' essecutione con il Parlamento in piede di perdere in tutto l'animo de suoi populi, onde con tale suspensione di qualche tempo habbi forse stimato di non disgustare et di non rompersi intieramente ne col'uno ne col'altro per diportarsi poi secondo l'essito, che vedera nel negotiato del detto Ambr. Digbi.
London, the 11th June, 1621.
[Italian, the part in italics deciphered.]
June 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
71. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On his return from Amsterdam the King of Bohemia received letters from his Majesty of Great Britain, which the Ambassador Carleton was good enough to read to me. They express the utmost affection for his interests, and say that his Majesty hopes that by following his advice he will receive speedy consolation. The king states in particular that he will replace him in the ancient titles and honours of his house or will perish with him. He had decided to send Lord Digby to the emperor. He had with him a person, who in speaking of the Palatinate, advised him to send some one with Digby in a private capacity, to help him with information, and he recognised the necessity of this. The King of Bohemia at once decided to send Councillor Pauli, who had arrived from Heidelberg four days before. He left for London on Friday, although they felt sure that Digby had already crossed to Calais on his way to Vienna, but they thought it best for him to confer first with the king and urge him to give fresh commissions so that the offices of his ambassador to the emperor may proceed with vigour.
The Hague, the 14th June, 1621.
[Italian.]
June 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
72. The Viscount de Lormes having arrived in this city about the affair of the ships and pirates that he be required to put in writing all the particulars of the said affair from its inception in April last year until the present time, and anything else he wishes to represent, the whole to be laid before this Council to decide what may be most expedient and profitable for the republic.
Ayes, 111.Noes, 5.Neutral, 8.
[Italian.]
June 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
73. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king, on hearing of the commotion in Parliament which I mentioned, decided to proceed thither on Saturday, when he made a most eloquent speech in which he seems to have removed their apprehensions while granting them a fortnight longer if the Houses desired it. After a long consultation between them they decided not to accept the offer, as such a short time would not suffice for their objects. Accordingly they thanked his Majesty, and deferred to an adjournment to an appointed time which he should think proper. Accordingly the adjournment took place on Monday to the apparent satisfaction of everyone, the modest dexterity of the people under the control of the more prudent having rendered innocuous the poison so artfully prepared by the Spanish party, his Majesty having engaged his royal word that he will return to convoke them on the 14th November, while his subjects for their part have made the declaration and promise of which I enclose a translation, to serve to remove all imputations of dishonour against them, and to show their sovereign their perfect readiness to serve him with their persons and substance if he really wishes to take action for the Palatinate and his religion, in which they also tacitly embrace the affairs of France. Although this manifesto will not be printed, it will be registered so that any one may have a copy.
They have not actually granted to the king one penny more than the two subsidies, previously given to help him, so that he may recall them and because they are most determined not to give him any more until he has actually unsheathed the sword.
The Earl of Arundel having humbled himself in the Upper House and offered to satisfy Lord Spenser, doing so privately in the presence of the prince by the authority of the king, who spoke on the subject in that house, has been released from the Tower. The Lord Chancellor has also been released by his Majesty and pardoned the money which he was bound to pay for the favourite's benefit, as his prodigality did not allow him to satisfy any part of his sentence. (fn. 8)
Very remarkable is the popularity acquired by the prince during the time that parliament has met, as he devoted his talents and prudence thereto, which has overcome prejudice, but it is even more remarkable that the king has seemed highly gratified, as in some sense the prince has served as a tie to unite his Majesty and his people.
The king now imagines that he has entirely satisfied both his people and the Spanish ambassador, thinking that from their disposition he can do what will be necessary for the recovery of the Palatinate, and that he will be able to give the Spaniards plenty to think about, while affording them entire satisfaction also so that they can have no pretext for not satisfying him by the restitution. Many of his proceedings show that he has displayed so much patience merely in order to deprive them of every pretext; he has remarked to some that at their request he suspended the Secretary Naunton from his charge; that for the same reason he is not carrying into execution the recent edict against the Catholics, which would have brought him in an abundant harvest of gold, and with the same object he has daily showered countless favours upon the Ambassador Gondomar.
What recently took place between his Majesty and the Ambassador of the States shows this even more clearly. I had the good fortune to hear this although it took place with the utmost secrecy, while the ambassador also has preserved a remarkable silence on the subject, possibly by the king's order. When the ambassador insisted that one should not believe the Spaniards because their sole objects in negotiation were deceiving and delay, and that it might have been more useful to send Digby to Spain before going to the emperor since everything depended absolutely upon the will of the Catholic his Majesty replied: I indeed do not trust them very fully; but I am compelled to believe them, as I will show in writing, so that you will have just cause to praise rather than to blame me, as all the world seems inclined to do. As regards the Catholic king I could not have more explicit promises than I hold in a letter signed by himself in which he pledges me his royal word that he will make restitution of the Palatinate with all its appurtenances if the Palatine makes up his mind to give up the kingdom and his claims on Bohemia, as he will do, being willing to abide by my advice and having put everything into my hands especially as those people are so inconstant and untrustworthy. Thus I must have recourse to the emperor first to know his will and to negociate in accordance in Spain. In case of a negative I can insist upon the Catholic fulfilling his promises and in the event of any disagreement I can break with him also and put an end to the terms of confidence and respect which he has expressed so strongly. I have therefore ordered Digby to make haste to get to work and to send me punctual and frequent advices so that I may take the necessary decisions. He added I am a king who loves peace, I do not delight in shedding blood and therefore I strain every nerve to avert it if it be possible. But if notwithstanding my great dexterity and his promises the King of Spain will not do his duty and fulfil them, I shall then have every reason of right and justice to take up arms against him and his, hoping with God's help, in so righteous a cause, to make him repent of having aroused a pacific lion.
He then touched upon the parliament, saying that he prorogued it for the moment because it could serve no important purpose, but he would certainly summon it again at a fitting time when it could prove very useful and effective. If he found that Digby did not advise him according to the true sense of Caesar, he would consider him a traitor and he should be punished as such.
On hearing these things M. Caron could not refrain from praising his Majesty's prudence, assuring him that the States would never abandon him, and when they heard the particulars they also would approve highly, especially as the king swore and protested that he would never rest until he saw his son completely re-established in his former state.
This last idea his Majesty has expressed strongly to all who chance to see him, notably to the French ambassador, and I really believe it is at the root of his thoughts; although recently when speaking in confidence of the Spanish ambassador he remarked with great suavity that he did not believe a more sincere and true minister could be found. He believed the ambassador loved him more than he did his own master, who would punish him if he knew to what lengths he carried his confidences and the king said in secret, He even reads me all the letters with the most profound secrets which reach him from Spain, so that there is scarcely any possibility of deceit or any cunning trap in this (il qual ultimo concetto S. Mta. hora proferisse vivamente a tutti quelli che hanno occasione di vederla, come specialmente l'ha pronontiato all' Ambor. di Francia, et credo veramente sia il fondo dell' animo suo, se bene a' giorni passati con confidenza parlando ella di detto Ambor. di Spagna con molta dolcezza vene dicendo, che non credeva si potessi ritrovare ministro più sincero et reale di lui, che stimava l'amasse più che non ama il proprio Re suo Signore, il quale lo castigherebbe si sapesse a quali segni seco passi di confidenza, dicendogli in secretto mi legge fino tutte le lettere delli arcani più profondi, che gli vengono di Spagna, quasi che non vi possa essere in ciò artificio ne rete insidiosa).
Digby has absolute orders in going to the emperor and Spain to return here before Christmas if things go well, as they profess that they want to have them finished at that time at latest. If things go otherwise he has instructions to embark at Barcelona for Italy, which means for Venice and Savoy, to execute what will then be commanded, and to return through France for similar purposes as I have already advised, the king having mentioned to the parliament even that if necessary he will send throughout the world. With the emperor Digby is first to treat for a general truce in the Palatinate, including the Upper, attacked by Bavaria, as present advices state, though they make no apparent change in his Majesty's disposition; he will then treat of restitution and dissuade Caesar from thinking of choosing a fresh elector. In Spain he will ask for the observance of the promises referred to and for help with the emperor. If they refuse his Majesty has secretly resolved with the Council to make it a pretext, and a very reasonable one for making war on the Spaniards, without which he himself recognises that he can effect nothing useful for the Palatinate. Time will ripen this fruit, or bring it to earth.
London, the 18th June, 1621.]
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
74. Manifesto of the House of Commons, made on the 14th June, 1621. (fn. 9)
The Commons in parliament assembled, seeing the grievous condition of the king's children who are beyond the sea and of the professors of the same religion as the English church, and sympathising with their misfortunes as members of the same body, in the name of the whole kingdom which they represent declare to their Majesties and to all the world their cordial interest in this affair. They will pray God to protect their true church and to divert the present miseries. They also protest that if his Majesty's pious desires to procure peace by treaty do not succeed (while humbly praying his Majesty not to permit too much delay) they will be ready at his first declaration in parliament of his pleasure, to render him assistance with all their strength and their own lives. They hope for the Divine assistance which never fails those who put their trust in His name which will be sufficient to obtain by the sword what could not be obtained by a friendly treaty.
[Italian.]
June 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
75. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Landgrave of Armenstat (fn. 10) tried to persuade the King Palatine to make a treaty with him, but the latter refused while his affairs were in the hands of the King of England.
Last Saturday week news arrived that the Ambassador Digby had been at Namur, hurrying on to the emperor's court to arrive there as soon as possible for the negotiations about the Palatinate.
General Horace Vere with his English troops is staying in the Lower Palatinate. He is called general and also commands the troops of the King Palatine. He is a soldier of experience and valour with a great knowledge of his profession. Those regiments also need money.
Sir [Robert] Anstruther is trying to obtain a loan of 300,000 florins from the King of Denmark to give to the King and Queen Palatine. I find that the 200,000 ducats which recently arrived here were supplied by the King of Denmark on a loan, the King of Great Britain having asked for 500,000. That king does not readily part with his own; the sum is large and probably Anstruther will find it difficult to obtain all this loan.
The Hague, the 21st June, 1621.
[Italian.]
June 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
76. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The gentleman sent by the Most Christian left last week having been presented with a chain. The king refused to read the printed papers which he wanted to show him, with arguments against the Huguenots, showing very strong feeling upon the points already reported and others. However virile resolution is wavering with some thought of negotiation, Mansfeld being ordered to stand in readiness either to return home or to proceed to France as he may receive instructions.
The Spanish ambassador does not rest satisfied with the prorogation and not the dissolution of parliament, and because the king did not revoke, as he declares he intended, the law against the Catholics, although he did not sign it either. He is also very ill pleased that the assembly made the declaration enclosed in my last, saying it was flour kneaded by his Majesty himself, who therefore was not going the right way to secure either the marriage or the restitution of the Palatinate, though it might easily lead to the employment of artillery and muskets.
The sharp reply given by the emperor to the ambassadors of the King of Denmark has caused grave dissatisfaction. That king has written to the King of Bohemia showing the impossibitity of any attempt after the failure of the Princes of Germany, unless they show some enthusiasm in this quarter. They rejoice on the other hand that the diet of Ratisbon has been postponed for some days. They sent frequently to the Ambassador Digby to hasten him on and supply him with information. The day before yesterday Councillor Pauli arrived in this Court, the private secretary of the King Palatine to serve him in a private capacity, as the king here desired, and this may prove advantageous for many reasons.
The Ambassador of the States presented a letter to his Majesty from the Prince of Orange, deploring the condition of the King and Queen of Bohemia, and endeavouring to arouse him. He had another audience of his Majesty who in reply answered to the effect previously noted, swearing roundly that if they did not keep their promises he would make war on them by sea and land to create a diversion, joining with the States and Denmark from whom he had the most liberal promises. When the ambassador hinted that some had gone so far as to say that he would advise his son-in-law to give up the electorship, the king answered with great excitement, Those who say so lie; if my son were willing to do this I should hold him unworthy and base. I have written to tell him that I mean either to replace him in his former state or to perish with him. You know that in so many years I have never told a lie; if you do not find me truthful upon this point never believe me more or think me honourable or religious. We are all the same in this. I will not deceive you in this either but will always deal perfectly frankly. Thus I tell you plainly, if the Palatinate is restored I shall not be able openly to assist your masters, although always wishing them well and rejoicing at their success. When the ambassador urged him to levy 6 or 8,000 foot to reinforce Vere or to begin to get himself ready, he answered, No I am bound by the truce not to start anything fresh, but if the negotiations are overthrown I will do this even in the heart of the winter. My subjects are at present ready to give me every assistance. So far I have not been able to do much for lack of means; Spinola has left the Palatinate with the greater part of his forces; two or three truces have been made at my request. I shall now try to have them prolonged for six weeks or two months and hope to succeed. I am greatly rejoiced, he added, that the United Provinces are so well armed, because they will serve to keep a knife at the throat of the Spaniards and also to keep them busy.
When the ambassador touched upon what Philip III said at the end of his life about the marriage of the infanta to the emperor, he answered, I really do not believe this, because not only the Ambassador Gondomar, but my minister in Spain denies it, but if they do not restore me the Palatinate, the marriage does not matter.
M. Caron had confirmation of all this in writing by a letter in reply to the prince's. He told me about it in confidence and of the admission and ratification of what I reported in my last despatch, begging me very earnestly for my silence.
I have received simultaneously your Serenity's letters of the 21st May and the 1st inst.
London, the 25th June, 1621.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
77. To the Ambassador in France and the like to the other Courts.
The Spaniards utterly refuse to give up their command of the Valtelline. The president of Dole persists in his claim to be regarded as ambassador of the Catholic king, although not invested with that character, and has succeeded in suspending all negotiations until the question is settled. Meanwhile at Rome and elsewhere the Spaniards seek to slacken the vigour and good disposition of the other princes. This and their progress with the fortifications show their real intentions, and they already say that they cannot abide by the articles arranged at Madrid, as the late king was deceived, and the present king has decided to protect religion in the valley.
To the other Courts add:
We do not direct you to make any express representations at present, but we desire you to avail yourself of the above information for the common service when you hear the subject discussed.
Ayes, 63.Noes, 2.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
June 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
78. GIROLAMO PRIULI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On the 6th inst. the English ambassador had audience of the king. He told him in a loud and angry tone that the King of England would not suffer the damage being inflicted on this realm upon those of the religion, and if they continued as they have begun he would not be able to desist from coming with a large force of his subjects to the assistance of the people of la Rochelle. These remarks were ill received and still worse the way in which they were made. The king's countenance showed his resentment and the constable in particular told the ambassador that he had performed his office too bitterly. To this the ambassador replied angrily and a noisy altercation ensued between them, the ambassador ultimately leaving the room without being followed by the constable. When this reached the king's ears he sent the Marshal Lesdiguières to appease him, a task in which the marshal succeeded. However, they told the ambassador that just as this king does not meddle in the kingdom of England or help the Catholics there, so that king ought not to meddle in France or foment those of the religion, who are the subjects of this crown. That is not an affair of religion, but of obedience. They desired him to write to England to ascertain if his master really intends to protect rebels against this crown, because if they know this, the king will give a reply such as becomes his interests.
Paris, the 27th June, 1621.
[Italian.]
June 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
79. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The fact that the Ambassador Gabaleoni has obtained release from his charge in England without leaving a successor, has given rise to much comment, but I have not been able to learn the opinion of the English resident as he has been away some months to enjoy the mountains.
Turin, the 27th June, 1621.
[Italian.]
June 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Sta'i.
Venetian
Archives.
80. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
News arrived here last week of the dissolution of the English Parliament and of the enclosed resolution. The English ambassador immediately informed the States. It gives pleasure but would have given more had it been more effective. This news was followed by a letter of M. Caron to Aerssens saying that the parliament on separating decided to give twenty subsidies to the king to recover the possessions of the king, queen and their children, each subsidy being worth 250,000l. sterling, and similar extravagances which only offend the ears of those who wish that they were true. Aerssens gave the States the same particulars; but Carleton laughs at the news, and General Cecil, who arrived three days ago, having made the journey in thirty hours, only brings word of the first part. However, all are impressed by the news, and the desire that it may be true makes some unwilling to be persuaded otherwise. The princes here are satisfied at the decision of the parliament and consoled by seeing the people there so well disposed towards their interests.
The Ambassador Digby must be well on his way towards the emperor, and in a few weeks we ought to see whether his negotiations will turn out well.
The Count of Mansfelt has written to his Majesty here showing how he can attack Bavaria and even penetrate to Prague. But his Majesty, having placed his affairs in the hands of the King of England, and as the restitution of his possessions depends upon negotiations, now in Digby's hands, has written to stop him.
The armistice continues in the Lower Palatinate, and they are negotiating a new one for two months or six weeks through the English Agent Trumbull, with good hope of success.
The Hague, the 28th June, 1621.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
81. Resolution of the Commons assembled in Parliament. (fn. 11)
[Italian.]
June 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
82. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A report was current here last week, apparently from the pen of the English ambassador at Venice, that Rome was urging your Serenity to restore the Jesuits. I find he has since written to the Ambassador Carleton that things are not so advanced. Yesterday evening Carleton told me he heard from Wotton that the pope asked two things of the republic, to restore the Jesuits, and not to mix with heretics, withdrawing from this alliance, in which case he would not fail to further your interests. I do not know what effect such rumours may produce upon their High Mightinesses. I simply reply that I do not know and do not believe them.
The Hague, the 28th June, 1621.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
83. To the Ambassador in Spain.
On the first we sent you word of the proposed passage of troops through our undoubted jurisdiction. We now add that in our desire to settle the affair amicably, we have, at the governor's request, consented to allow the troops to pass, without prejudice to either side, as otherwise his Excellency let it be understood that he would not negotiate. We have done everything in our power to arrange the question in a friendly way but have met with little response from the governor, who claims that the concession ought to cover future occasions as well. To cede this would be to give up everything; but his Excellency apparently will not listen to further negotiations and is said to be increasing his forces with the idea of attempting the passage, a thing that would lead to a breach of the peace since we shall be compelled to maintain and defend our jurisdiction, our state and our subjects:
The like to the following (adding, We send this for information to use as our service requires):
Rome, Germany, France, Savoy, England, the Hague.
Ayes, 108.Noes, 3.Neutral, 9.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Captain John Roper, who met the fleet at Alicant on the 8/18 June. He took orders for sending home four of the king's ships, the Vanguard, Rainbow, Constant Reformation and Antelope. S.P. Dom. CXXII. 106, Journal of the Algiers' Voyage.
2 Who was detained at Pontebba, when he was on his road to Venice from Gratz, owing to the quarantine regulations, and consequently returned home by another way without going there. See the preceding Vol. of this Calendar, pages 49–51, 57.
3 Their names were Courelles, De Fos, Basnage and David. On the 25th June Salvetti reports a rumour of their arrival in London on the previous evening, for secret negotiations, but he was not certain about it even on the 2nd July.—Brit. Mus. Add. MSS., 27,962B
4 No ship called the Prince is included in the list of the Algiers fleet. See Corbet: England in the Mediterranean, i. page 114.
5 Edward Floyd.
6 According to Salvetti, writing on the 4th June, Dominis offended the Puritans by saying that Roman Catholics might be saved, and that was the reason why he gave up preaching.—Brit. Mus. Add. MSS., 27,962B.
7 The adjournment was decided on Sunday, the 6th June, and announced to the Lords on the following day. The reasons given then, not after the representations of the Houses, were: (1) The season of the year, by the continuance of the great concourses of people, may cause infection; (2) the use that the time of year may have of the Lieutenants of the Shires and the Justices of the Peace in the counties; (3) because the courts at Westminster Hall have not had the ordinary proceedings during the Session; (4) for that the profits of His Majesty's revenues are, as it were, at a stand; (5) the omission of State (Journals of the House of Lords, iii, page 136). The reasons as stated to the Commons by the Secretary on the same day were: (1) Heat of the year; (2) His Majesty's progress farther off; (3) absence of many Deputy Lieutenants and Justices of the Peace; great want of Justices in the Courts at Westminster; (4) use of Council of State great in respect of foreign troubles; general musters appointed (Journal of the House of Commons, i, page 629).
8 Bacon did not receive a formal pardon before October (Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 299). He was released from the Tower on June 12th. The alleged payment of his fine to Buckingham seems to be a confusion with Yelverton, who was sentenced to pay 10,000 marks to the king and 5,000 marks to the favourite (ibid., page 256). But Yelverton had insulted Buckingham, and that part of the fine was for damages. There was no such reason in Bacon's case.
9 Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 261.
10 Louis V, Landgrave of Darmstadt.
11 The manifesto of the 14th June—the same as No. 74 at page 70, above, enclosed in Lando's despatch of the 18th June.


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