Venice
July 1621

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1911

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75-95

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'Venice: July 1621', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 75-95. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88816 Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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Contents

July 1621

July 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
84. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Councillor Pauli of the King Palatine has not yet left for Germany as he is waiting for a reply to the letters he presented, and he has once again recommended to his Majesty the honour of his master. He asked his Majesty to include in his negotiations those who have devoted themselves for him and his innocent brother and ward, telling him that at the Hague there are some of the leading men of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia who offer to return to those countries if assisted with a little money, and communicating a letter from Gabor declaring himself resolved to benefit by the help of the Sultan, although unwillingly, knowing him to be the enemy of all Christians, but he would rather be dependent upon one who left his soul at least free than on one who desired to enslave it. He asked his Majesty's advice how to act in the alliance he has with Gabor, which he cannot tear up for his honour and oath's sake. The danger of the coming of the Turks like a flood, which might overwhelm the kingdom of Bohemia also had induced him more readily to accept that crown, as he knew if he did not accept the people were disposed to give it to Bethlehem, with very great danger. He had tried to make an accommodation with the emperor without including his interests. He pointed out that Gabor professed the same religion and his son was educated at Heidelberg; and in all his negotiations the Palatine had honourably insisted upon the inclusion of his allies, on which account alone one might say that the emperor had rejected them. He had never received any help from the Porte, saying that the ambassadors should ask for the confirmation of peace with his kingdom and to resolve other doubts. The councillor further mentioned that as the Palatine's people desired him in the Palatinate he ought to go there. If on the conclusion of the truce hostilities broke out in that country and Mansfeld being attacked had to defend himself and came off victorious, he ought to follow up his good fortune by entering Bohemia across the border. He then asked for help in money to the amount of 30,000l.
Amid so many intricacies his Majesty seemed wrapped up in much doubt. He remarked once again that he would rather die with his son than agree to anything not entirely to his honour, and ultimately said that the ministers should give his reply.
The day before yesterday the Earl of Southampton was put under arrest in a house. (fn. 1) He is a leading nobleman, very popular throughout the country, and is considered here to be almost the only person capable of commanding an army. They think he will be sent to the Tower with some members of parliament, also arrested, and it is whispered that other arrests will take place of persons accused of private meetings and of speaking against liberty. This serves as revenge for the imprisonment of the Earl of Arundel and the attempts against the favourite, like Jove fulminating against the monsters which rose against his Heaven. At present he inspires the opposing faction with fear. They happen to be also the supporters of the King of Bohemia and those most zealous for the honour, safety and religion of this kingdom, in fact they maintain these alone while they favour the interests of friendly princes.
The Spanish ambassador by inspiring and fomenting such serious steps plays to win at all hazards, either to remain in possession of the field and master of the flock by seeing persons of this description vanquished, removing the mastiffs which might bark at and bite him or else expects to drive them to tumult and rebellion. The king is convinced that if these plants which do not love the shadow of peace are crushed he will the more easily be able to obtain the desired results of restitution and the marriage, and he considers them the roots of sedition, but if so they enjoy universal credit. The medicine they employ will prove more poisonous than salutary, as if they ever reach the point of deciding to recover the Palatinate by force or to take any other virile, spontaneous and forceful action, the king will be obliged to have about him only those who will either try to stay him even more or to second him by a feigned appearance of zeal, now much in use, while raising difficulties and troubles and throwing everything into confusion. Finance, army, navy, secret matters and all business are falling into the hands of their party, which they are making every effort to strengthen by the ministers whom they are choosing and appointing every day, so that even if the parliament does assemble again they may fill it with dread and terror.
London, the 2nd July, 1621,
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
85. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
There is nothing fresh about the Palatinate. On the expiry of the truce the emperor sent to Spinola to say that he did not wish anything fresh to be attempted pending these negotiations with the Kings of Denmark and England. The ambassador of the latter is expected here shortly. The delay does not please the Duke of Bavaria who has sent his chancellor to urge the emperor to continue the undertaking of the Palatinate, showing that the interval gives time to Mansfelt and the Palatine to increase their forces.
Vienna, the 3rd July, 1621. Copy.
[Italian.]
July 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
86. ALVISE CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The emperor's ambassador has left in haste. The opinion is that he is going in the Catholic's name to persuade his master to make a composition with the Palatine and give up what has been occupied if that prince will resign his claims to Bohemia and the electoral vote also, which they suggest should be given to Bavaria.
I learn on good authority that the same ambassador is to offer his imperial Majesty the Catholic's sister as wife for his son and the infanta of Savoy for himself.
Madrid, the 5th July, 1621.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
87. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
News has reached here that on the 24th ult. Lord Digby reached Franchendal where the councillors of Heidelberg and possibly the ducal governor were to confer with him, on his way to the emperor. Meanwhile all things in the Lower Palatinate are to remain in suspense, that being the desire of the King of Great Britain. The Ambassador Carleton, however, told me that he feared that Mansfelt could not remain quiet, although he thought the news of the 150,000 florins granted by the States as a loan would do more to keep the troops quiet than the count himself. In spite of the instances made by the King of England through his ambassador for restitution, they think his imperial Majesty will not consent, but will insist upon unconditional submission, since his forces are victorious in the field. In conversation the Baron Dohna remarked to me that the King of Great Britain and the most serene republic might do much for his master. I replied that it was generally recognised that your Serenity had done a great deal.
The Hague, the 5th July, 1621.
[Italian.]
July 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
88. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Encloses copy of letter of the King of Great Britain to the Princes of the Union.
The Hague, the 5th July, 1621.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
89. Letter of the King of Great Britain to the Princes of the Union.
Notwithstanding our letters you have made peace with the emperor. We do not blame this, but you would have done better to dissuade our son-in-law from accepting the crown of Bohemia. We think it strange indeed that you have abandoned him in the midst of his difficulties, expressly excluding him from the benefits of the treaty. You might have made a truce and gradually have secured a firm peace for all the members of the Union. You seem to have forgotten all the promises you made to him, and lay the blame upon us. Since the return of Morton we perceived the drift of your intentions. After you have clearly shown your intention to act without us or our son-in-law, you send us impossible proposals and conditions, upon which you would promise to continue in the Palatinate, but without which you could not hold out any longer. What judgment do you think wise men would pass upon such instances? If you really expected to obtain what you asked why were you in such a hurry to make a treaty with the Landgrave Louis of Darmstadt without asking our opinion? You clearly thought the conditions impossible and hoped to evade responsibility by throwing the blame upon us. You pretend that we urged you to make a truce. We leave judgment upon all these things to those who know and rest assured that they will never cast any aspersions upon our honour. After you have thus abandoned our son-in-law and ourselves you can do no less than vindicate our honour by a letter written to us and to our son-in-law.
From the palace at Greenwich, the 2nd May, 1621.
[Italian.]
July 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
90. GIROLAMO PRIULI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English Ambassador left the Court for Paris in great dudgeon, but hearing on the road of the fall of St. Jean d'Angely he turned back immediately to negotiate with the king and ministers and try to procure some means of preventing the harm from going further. If he succeeds everyone says that his Majesty will return to Paris, and if the war proceeds he will go to Montauban, leaving la Rochelle, which is understood to be making strong preparations for defence.
Paris, the 7th July, 1621.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
91. To the Ambassador in Germany.
The governor of Milan has sent provisions to the forts of the Valtelline, where the Spaniards are constantly improving their defences. The Duke of Feria urges upon his king the importance of the valley and some of the inhabitants beseech his Majesty not to allow them to fall again under the dominion of the Grisons, and so he endeavours to suspend or modify the orders for restitution, and as a distraction has raised his pretensions for a passage by our Crema road. He also endeavours to soothe the pope and raise scruples in him on the score of religion. However, we hope these efforts may fail as the Catholic king persists in his desire for the carrying out of the treaty. On the other hand, they are increasing their forces on our frontiers and we have directed our representatives to regulate our forces according to the proceedings of the Spaniards. The governor has recently arranged for our secretary to negotiate with the Presidents Aresi and Salamanca, and if there is any show of goodwill on that side the results should speedily appear. This is greatly to be desired, owing especially to the movements of Leopold. Some also say that Prince Filiberto proposes to make some attempt to enter the Gulf with the royal fleet, which we shall certainly resist, as it might induce the Turks to attempt the same.
The like to:
France, Rome, Germany, Spain, England, Savoy, Constantinople, Milan, Naples, Florence, the Swiss, the Hague, the Proveditore General, the Proveditore beyond Menzo.
Ayes, 163.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
92. To the Ambassador in France.
Prince Gabor has sent an embassy to us with proposals for an alliance. We made a courteous reply but expressed no more than a general wish to satisfy him. We send this for information and in order that you may be able to remove any sinister interpretation and show the sincerity of the republic, which consistently aims at the general peace.
Ayes, 77.Noes, 13.Neutral, 64.
Second vote: Ayes, 78. Noes, 9. Neutral, 68.
As it was only one vote more, it was not announced as carried, but postponed to another Council.
The like to:
Rome, the emperor, Spain, England, Savoy, Constantinople, Milan, Naples, Florence, the States, the Swiss.
On the 10th the above letters were again put to the vote and carried:
Ayes, 109.Noes, 10,Neutral, 50.
[Italian.]
July 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
93. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Most unhappy is the lot of the King Palatine. He has nothing but promises and offices without hope of results. He is afraid of offending the King of Great Britain, owing to the negotiations proceeding, and dare not move himself or allow others to move. Denmark is disarming and will not spend any more money despite the solicitations of the Scot Anstruther, who serves as resident for the King of England.
Digby after conferring with the Duke of Deuxponts and the councillors of Heidelberg, proceeded to Ulm proposing to descend the Danube to Vienna, but they say he would not have found the emperor there. Here they feel sure he would obtain nothing but words, which means delay and uncertainty. Some laugh at the idea of the protest about the delay in restoring the Palatinate, seeing that the King of England is too late to recover it by arms, since the forces of the emperor and the Spaniards are on foot. It is conjectured that the Spaniards are waiting to make a settlement with the States in case the King of England is compelled to act for his honour's sake, but this clearly has no foundation in fact.
The Hague, the 12th July, 1621.
[Italian.]
July 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Napoli.
Venetian
Archives.
94. GASPARO SPINELLI, Venetian Secretary at Naples, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ships of the pirate Sanson are doing a great deal of damage round this kingdom, and if the four royal galleons which recently arrived at Messina do not do something to repress his daring, they will have to undergo a great deal.
Naples, the 13th July, 1621.
[Italian.]
July 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
95. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Fresh irritation gathers round the very grave complaints that the merchants of the East India Company return to make for additional damage inflicted by the Dutch. It will behove the commissioners from those parts to delay their visit no longer, so that his Majesty's mind may be rendered more easy. It was also prudent in them to send orders to some of their ships on that route to avoid touching ports in this kingdom from fear of being arrested. The Ambassador Caron suspects that if the affair is not speedily adjusted the king will allow his subjects to make reprisals upon them, which would be playing the Spaniards' game, who do not fail to foment the idea with all their might, especially as all their energies at present seem directed against that quarter and to isolate the Dutch, not only from all the Catholic powers but from this crown also, and among other devices they do not neglect the press. The prejudice which their ascendency causes to these realms appears in many ways, and they aim by the same means to inspire the king and the Prince of Wales with jealousy of the Queen of Bohemia and her children. It seems now that chiefly on account of such suspicions the blow has fallen upon Southampton. However, they have not proceeded further against him than by examination and most secret inquisition, imprisoning three or four others of no great consideration; besides those reported; the storm cloud that threatened other gentlemen of quality has since passed over with some outspoken language and has apparently disappeared, though in the end it cannot fail, upon every consideration, to produce important consequences. (fn. 2)
The agent of the Archduke of Brabant has obtained the levy of two regiments from these realms for his Highness and the Spaniards. In his request he alleged no necessity for this but said it would serve to cement his Majesty's friendliness towards them, as they hope he will not entirely pass them over in the similar favours which he grants to their enemies, and that by such a grant, which does not merely counterpoise what has been conceded to them, he may show the world that he stands where he always did in such cases.
The royal letter in reply to the Prince of Orange about reinforcing Vere and Mansfelt indulges in the usual considerations, that they must first see the issue of the negotiations. For the rest it refers to what his Majesty said verbally to M. Caron, carefully avoiding putting into writing any of the things that I reported. Thus we may feel sure that Mansfeld will obtain nothing in reply to his request by letter for 4,000 men or the money to maintain them, while Councillor Pauli has obtained no satisfaction upon the proposals which I reported. As regards the action to be taken by Mansfeld and Vere the king replied that they must only defend in case the Palatinate is openly attacked. He said much the same, that they must only move if some fortress or district is attacked, not otherwise or for any slight cause, so as to afford the enemy no grounds for saying that they gave provocation. As regards Gabor and the Bohemians, Moravians and Silesians, he asked his son-in-law not to listen to them, and not to continue his league with Gabor, otherwise he protests he will abandon him entirely. The councillor said clearly that the Palatine will never do this, as he cannot consistently with his safety, honour and oath, or yield the fortresses which he holds in that kingdom before the treaty is arranged, as your Excellencies will perceive from the enclosed commission, which I succeeded in obtaining, and which has been sent by Pauli. He has already left for the Ambassador Digby in Germany. It will suffice to show clearly the ideas which prevail here without my adding any of the numerous particulars which I have discovered, which only serve to make a disgusting satiety. All persons of understanding conclude that no authority, inducement or accident soever will suffice to move the king from his fixed idea, not only not to operate but not to advise, consent or permit any alteration on his side or by others before he knows the final reply given to Digby. The slightest deviation from this would serve him as a pretext for taking no further care for his son on the plea that he does not follow his advice, while importunity of which he complains bitterly, instead of producing good results, only evokes ever worse replies and gives rise to a thousand complications.
The Spaniards show the copy of a letter written by their king to the emperor strongly urging upon him the restitution of the Palatinate, with many reasons, and containing a special preface upon the merits of his Majesty here, saying that he never approved the action of the Count Palatine, so he calls him, provided he humbles himself, and saving the honour due to his imperial Majesty. They show another written by the same to the Archduke Albert asking him to interpose and give his assistance. This has greatly delighted and contented his Majesty. So has the news that Digby on his way through the Palatinate extinguished the sparks kindled between Spinola's lieutenant and Vere, arranging in some sort for the extension of the truce, about which Spinola himself for a long while, not without some mystery, seemed obstinate.
The four commissioners of la Rochelle, besides justifying their action have asked for 4,000 men paid; for the fleet now in the Mediterranean to protect their port; for 30 pieces of ordnance, powder and munitions. These requests seem very high and it is not at all likely they will be heard. The greatest effort is devoted to a treaty of accommodation, upon which the king is engaged with the French ambassador who complained bitterly because the commissioners were received. In this matter he acts absolutely in concert with the Spanish ambassador not taking a step without consulting him. They think, for the same object, of sending an extraordinary embassy to the Most Christian, which would afterwards be changed into an ordinary in place of Sir [Edward] Herbert, who has offended the king and the Constable Luynes, they say, by too harsh action, exceeding the instructions sent to him, upon which the French ambassador has made strong representations here. Herbert denies that he exceeded his instructions and has sent a copy of them here. His Majesty denies that he ordered them to be sent and the Secretary Calvert is in a dilemma knowing that he did not write them of his own caprice. Thus, as I have remarked before, the king often forgets or feigns to have forgotten what he would, rather he had not ordained.
Some weeks ago news reached here that the pope was negotiating with your Serenity for the readmission of the Jesuits to your dominions; this is now rooted in the minds of the well disposed and has reached the ears of the king himself. This makes it inadvisable for me to keep silent upon the subject, whatever the truth may be.
Because the ambassador Medici, who came with news of the late duke's death and the respects of the new one, after dealing with me very courteously, claimed to treat as an equal, a thing he does not do with the other ambassadors of crowned heads, I have abstained from calling upon him, following the example of other Courts and your Serenity's orders.
London, the 16th July, 1621.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
96. Copy of letter written by his Majesty to the Ambassador Digby.
You will remember that before you left here our son expressed a desire, approved by us, that one of his servants or ministers should accompany you on your present embassy. To this end he has sent this gentleman, Andrea Pauli, one of his councillors and president of his court of justice at Heidelberg. He came first to us expecting to find you here and brought from his master a memorial upon many points, which we have answered at his request.
One of these is to have my opinion and advice about retaining the towns he now holds in Bohemia, to give them up with all that pertains to them at the time of the conclusion of the treaty. I send you a copy of the articles whereby you may see these proposals more in detail. We answered that we could not state our opinion, but we thought it right to show all possible respect for the emperor at this time, compatible with the prince's own honour and the safety of the inhabitants, whereby he would render Caesar much beholden and might obtain more easily the conditions he desires than by retaining those places which may not be able to hold out long. We finally directed him to follow the advice you give him in the matter and therefore we direct you to impress upon him that the emperor has become so well disposed that he may feel sure of complete satisfaction if only because he is my son, and that he may rest assured of the safety of those peoples in their persons, possessions and religion. In this case you will send immediately to our son, advising him to render those places into Caesar's hands without any conditions, as we have written to him to do at once what you advise him.
We doubt not that the first thing done by us will be to procure from the emperor a general truce and armistice in both Palatinates. We also desire you, if possible, to induce the emperor to remove from the Palatinate during the truce all troops save those necessary to garrison the places he holds, because so many soldiers ruin the country and render the people desperate. If you can obtain this it will be very good for the country and we shall interpret it as an earnest of his good disposition in the future.
For the rest, we have no further commands, except that as the bearer is a person of condition with our son, we direct you to take him into companionship and tell him everything pertaining to our affairs. His skill and experience in those parts and his interest for his master, may prove helpful to you.
Given under our seal at our court of Vuanstinch, the 27th June, 1621, old style.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni
Venetian
Archives.
97. To the Ambassador in Germany.
In reply to the representations of our Ambassador Cornaro to to the Catholic king about the passage of troops which the Duke of Feria demands, his Majesty replied that he desired nothing that was not reasonable and would give the necessary orders, while the ministers seemed impressed with the justice of the republic's claims. They also assert that his Majesty's promise will be fulfilled about the restoration of the Valtelline. Nevertheless the governor has told the Florentine resident and others that he will not have any more negotiations and he refuses the most reasonable proposals of our secretary, amassing troops on our frontiers. The affair of the Valtelline is also far from settled. The Grisons seem disinclined to sign the settlement. Feria keeps up a close intelligence with Leopold, and in spite of the declarations of the Catholic court the governor continues to arrange for war. The nuncio and M. de Montlon are much perplexed. The difficulty seems greater as we hear from Flanders that the truce may be prolonged.
The like to:
Rome, France, Spain, Savoy, Milan, Naples, Florence, Zurich, the General in Terra Firma, the Proveditore Contarini, Constantinople, England, the Hague.
Ayes, 123.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
July 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
98. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador arrived on Tuesday and had audience of the emperor on Thursday. He laid before his Majesty the commissions he held about the Palatinate, that being Caesar's desire, in spite of some reluctance on the ambassador's part, who did not wish to depart from the usual custom, not to proceed to other matters after the compliments. His office consisted in asking the emperor to suspend the Imperial ban against the Palatine, to restore the electorate to him and that part of his dominions which the Marquis Spinola has occupied. He showed how much this affair weighed upon the King of Great Britain, and with how much reason he expected satisfaction from his Majesty in a matter which he has so much at heart. He referred to the deserts of his king with the emperor owing to the neutrality he claims to have observed in the commotions of Bohemia, although strongly pressed to intervene by his son-in-law and others. Finally, he insisted strongly upon the speedy expedition of his business, so that a powerful motive for the present disturbances may be removed as soon as possible.
Caesar replied very graciously, referring to the reply that his ministers would give subsequently. He immediately appointed two commissioners for the negotiations, the Count of Mechau and Sig. Tramestorf, who yesterday went to the ambassador's house to hear his proposals and report them to the Council.
In my conversations with the ambassador when we visited each other, he seemed sanguine of a favourable issue in the present state of affairs. He fears, however, that a decision may be delayed and that they may refer the question to a diet. After executing his commissions here he proposes to proceed to the Spanish court, whence he says we must expect the conclusion of the affair and the orders for the restitution of the state, which is in the hands of the Catholic king's troops. Meanwhile nothing fresh has happened in the Palatinate as before he left Brussels the ambassador arranged with the Archduke for an extension of the truce between the forces of Spinola and the Palatine for another month.
Vienna, the 17th July, 1621. Copy.
[Italian.]
July 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Communicationi
dal
Cons
de'X.
Venetian
Archives.
99. In the Council of Ten.
That the news from England of the 28th June last and from Brussels of the 3rd inst. written by a prominent individual to the minister of a great prince, which has been obtained by good and secure means, be read by a Secretary of the Council, after enjoining due secrecy, and a copy left with the Savii of the Collegio and with the Senate, for the benefit of the public service.
From England the 20th June, 1621.
Parliament has been at length postponed until the 4th November, This in conjunction with Lord Digby's negotiations about the Palatinate, shows that the king will do nothing this year by war or arms in favour of his son-in-law. As regards negotiations, that is considered very uncertain since it is well known that lengthiness entirely ruins the whole business, although the king protests and swears that he will stake his possessions and life and those of his subjects, if the peaceful way does not prove successful. Meanwhile he will have to engage his forces if he wishes to give ear to those of la Rochelle, who have sent deputies here to ask for help; but I hope that their rhetoric will not prove successful.
[Italian.]
July 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
100. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English agent has called upon me and presented a memorial asking for the release of Giulio Maggi, a Brescian gentleman. He asked this as a favour in his king's name. I told him that there were often impediments in such matters but I felt sure that your Serenity would overcome them to satisfy him.
Turin, the 19th July, 1621.
[Italian.]
July 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
101. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have been told that the King of Great Britain, confiding in the promise recently made by the Marquis of Gondomar has written to the king here, with greater hope than ever of the restitution of the Palatinate, saying he may perceive how his Majesty has accomplished more by negotiation than others by arms. Here they feel sure that the Spaniards merely desire to keep the King of England in his original pacific mood, while they do what they please.
Their High Mightinesses are very dissatisfied with M. Caron, their ambassador in England, because of the one per cent, which is added to the twelve which the merchants of this country paid for goods entering and leaving England. They have written him a very strong letter ordering him to ask his Majesty to withdraw an imposition so prejudicial to this state and to other powers. If the imposition is not removed I feel sure that they will do something which the ambassador will not like.
The Hague, the 19th July, 1621.
[Italian.]
July 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
102. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The very morning that audience was appointed me by his Majesty, to wish him a pleasant progress, (fn. 3) which will last forty days, leaving the gate for business closed or barely open, and to thank him for a very handsome stag of his hunting which he gave me, I heard that the Spanish ambassador was going about saying that at this very moment war will have broken out between your Serenity and the governor of Milan. As I felt sure that he would not have failed to tell his Majesty also, I thought it best, in order not to allow a bad impression to get rooted, to add to my complimentary offices some information about the way in dispute, as if on my own responsibility, according to the information in your letters of the 29th ult., which reached me at the moment, referring to the disputes and delays introduced by Dole and other Spanish ministers in order to procrastinate and to ruin the affair of the Valtelline.
His Majesty listened with extraordinary attention, frequently expressing his appreciation of the justice of the cause and expressing his surprise that the Duke of Feria, who always seemed quite discreet, should behave in this fashion. He said that the Spanish ambassador, the day before, had sent to the Marquis of Buckingham the very letter, written to him by the Duke of Feria, to be shown to him, merely stating that the republic cannot claim to stop him from following a certain route with his troops, and he is resolved that the Spanish crown shall not suffer such a prejudice under his governorship, without specifying any other reasons for the affair. I replied that he did not specify any because he had none, but I mentioned that the pope would find some way out, although one now hears that he is beginning to apply his thoughts to the purchase of principalities. As regards the Valtelline he shrugged his shoulders and seemed to begin to fear that all these disturbances are introduced merely to obscure their original promises and as pretexts to change the aspect of the matter.
The prince displayed even greater feeling. He said, This Duke of Feria, it seems to me, is beginning to resemble Ossuna. He remarked that he did not know why the Spaniards wished to kindle a fire in every quarter. I repeat this in all my conversations with the ministers and said the same to the marquis. He remarked that unjust wars were in fashion, such as that of Bohemia and now in France, and he feared the Spaniards wished to do the same in Italy. I said I could not believe that the governor would take such a decided step without waiting to know the intentions of the Catholic, and the arguments and rumours now disseminated may be put abroad with the usual artifice. So far everyone seems to feel sympathy for your Serenity, especially as they see I do not make any troublesome requests, but merely make confidential communications, which they like. Many consider that the Spaniards being involved in so many parts is of good augury for the Palatinate.
Spinola has prolonged the truce in the Lower Palatinate for the whole of the present month upon the letter, according to the latest advices, written by the Catholic king to the emperor and the archduke. It is thought that the death of his Highness (fn. 4) will prejudice the negotiations for restitution in which he had begun to take a strong interest, and the king fears that the fresh attack made by Mansfeld upon Bohemia and the action of Jegheldorf and Gabor may impede the treaty. To the complaints from Brussels against the King of Bohemia for this, he answered that it had happened without Bohemia's consent and even against his orders. He has heard from the Hague in several letters and from his Ambassador Carleton that as regards the actions of Jegheldorf and Gabor, he is not responsible as they have nothing to do with his son or his interests. Those who support this move of Mansfeld say that the necessity of maintaining his men compelled him, and if his Majesty had supplied him with money it would not have happened. Others believe that 150,000 florins supplied by the States acted as an incentive, as well as the rigorous sentences against so many Bohemians.
The King of France has written to his Majesty promising in very gracious terms to give instructions to his ambassador in Germany to unite with Digby in his negotiations for the restitution of the Palatinate.
To satisfy the commissioners from la Rochelle they have so far taken no steps beyond sending Viscount Doncaster as ambassador extraordinary to the Most Christian. He will travel post and go ostensibly to thank the king for this letter and his readiness to intervene, and as a reply to Cadenet's mission. As regards the Huguenots he will aim at treating with such mildness as not to irritate the king and so that his Majesty may not seem to constitute himself a judge between a sovereign and his subjects, but actually the matter distresses him greatly especially as he hears that they are dismantling the fortifications and treating maidens and children with great brutality, aiming at uprooting that body. The reply subsequently given to the other requests of these commissioners will depend upon the answers given to this ambassador; meanwhile they will remain here. Sir [Edward] Sackville is selected as ordinary ambassador in place of Mr. Herbert. He seemed to me more ready than any other to come and serve your Serenity upon reasonable terms.
They attach no importance here to a report that the fleet of twenty ships in the Mediterranean has come off badly in an encounter with the pirates. Orders have been sent to them to return home. (fn. 5) The ambassadors of France and Spain desire this, in order to relieve themselves of all anxiety from this quarter, and the ministers of the opposite party, who never agreed to the starting of this fleet against the pirates have worked for the same, not to disarm it, but that it may be put in a state of repair for some service according to the trend of events.
With the licence granted to the Spaniards to levy two infantry regiments orders have been issued to all the ports of the realm to allow any one with a passport of the Ambassador Gondomar to pass without requiring an oath. However, after negotiating with many gentlemen of divers conditions to make the levy he has not yet found anyone to undertake the task, so it is thought that he will derive no greater advantage than they have obtained before in such circumstances.
Owing to the numerous complaints constantly made by the Levant Company against the ambassador at Constantinople, the king has decided to remove him and Sir Thomas Roe will be sent with all speed in his place, who was formerly ambassador with the King of Great Magor and is one of the leading men of the Company. (fn. 6)
There are rumours, though not well authenticated, of fresh designs of the Duke of Savoy against Geneva. The king touched on the subject repeatedly in speaking to the Ambassador Gabaleoni. The latter has taken leave to return to Turin and we do not hear whether the duke is sending another minister.
His Majesty has created various new barons and viscounts, to the disgust of the older nobility, as I have noted before. A certain dean of Westminster, (fn. 7) chaplain of the favourite's mother, although a man of low birth and of no experience in affairs of state, has received the high office of Keeper of the Privy Seal for a year and a half and no more, which is something very new. The favourite wished also to make him Bishop of London, when the prince had another candidate; his Highness expressed, himself very bitterly and angrily against the favourite and opened out on the subject very sharply to the king his father, quite contrary to his habit. The king finally succeeded in satisfying him, and they try to cover up the quarrel which has apparently been extinguished though it was of no slight importance. (Et per farlo riuscire anco Vescovo di Londra, mentre il Sr. Principe altro sogetto portasse, esso favorito ha incontrato in parole di risentimento et di disgusto molte acerbe di Sua Altezza, quale se n'e anco acremente scoperta fuori del suo ordinario col Re padre stesso, che in fine l'ha resa contenta, procurandosi di occultare il disgusto, che in apparenza resta estinto, ma non è stato di poco rilevo.)
London, the 23rd July, 1621.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
103. To the Ambassador in Germany and the like to the other Courts.
When our negotiations about the passage of the Spanish troops seemed in good train, Feria let it be understood that he would listen to no more negotiations, and he evidently means to keep us constantly in a state of alarm. He is amassing his forces, while in the Grisons the condition is such that the oldest French ministers confess the need for more powerful and resolute remedies, and it is hoped that the pacification of France may allow them to direct their attention abroad. The new disputes between Savoy and Mantua are unfortunate, while the large fleet collected by Filiberto excites reflection. The Sultan has assembled his large army at Adrianople; the King of Persia may easily take advantage of this move to create a diversion, but the Turks may easily take advantage of the divisions existing among the Christian powers under their young and vigorous ruler.
Ayes, 130.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
July 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
104. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador has had several conferences with the Count of Mechau and Tramestorf, obtaining general replies little to his taste. Since then he has had another audience of the emperor, who promised to reply to his instances in a satisfactory manner in three or four days.
The Spanish ambassador declares he has instructions not to oppose but to assist the negotiations of this minister, and his Catholic Majesty and the members of the Council have made a similar declaration to the ministers of the King of England in Spain.
Meanwhile they say that his Majesty will shortly proceed to Ratisbon, possibly in order to encourage hope in the English Ambassador and divert his king from those resolutions to which he is urged by his son-in-law, his subjects and his own honour.
Vienna, the 24th July, 1621. Copy.
[Italian.]
July 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
105. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
As I was closing this despatch the nuncio sent to tell me that his Majesty had decided to restore the Palatinate. I think he has this on good authority, although the English ambassador has not yet received the news, since only two hours ago he sent his secretary to tell me what I reported above.
Vienna, the 24th July, 1621. Copy.
[Italian.]
July 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
106. GIROLAMO PRIULI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have been to see the English ambassador and found him very downcast and anxious. He told me that they had paid little attention to him at the Court, and then broke out as follows: Mr. Ambassador, these French are proud. They do not want any one to meddle in their affairs. They are angry because I offered the offices of my king to arrange the troubles of this kingdom. They will not hear of his Majesty interposing. I spoke as was proper, showing them that if they mean to prejudice those of the religion in their edicts upon matters of conscience, my king, as behoves him, will and can prevent it. I said that while they spoke of fortresses, garrisons and obedience, nothing could be said against it, but if they went further, my king had twenty fine ships at sea, he could have as many more ready in a moment, while his estates would give him twenty millions of gold to be employed to maintain the true Catholic religion, of which my king claims to be the legitimate head. They say I am too violent and do not recognise that they are too cunning and that one cannot trust them. But whatever may happen in France there are 300,000 men of our religion; if they are not masters of the places of safety they will be of the country.
I told him that these disorders had arisen through the disobedience of some chiefs. Report stated that this was a matter of state, not of religion. We must judge by acts; now-the king stands armed, yet in this city those of the religion were treated very well and not the slightest attempt was made upon their privileges. From this one might argue that everything will be satisfactorily settled soon, and an arrangement made with universal satisfaction.
The ambassador told me that he believed the same himself. He knew for certain that the king had such an idea some days ago, and soon it would come to light. He proceeded to tell me about his indisposition, which compelled him to return to England. He had already asked leave of his king and will soon cross the Channel to try the effect of his native air. He would take the waters for some months, which suited his infirmity. He added: If God grants me recovery I shall certainly give up this sorry business of being ambassador and become a soldier to serve my king, sword in hand, as I can serve him much better so than with my tongue.
Paris, the 26th July, 1621.
[Italian.]
July 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati
Venetian
Archives.
107. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador has received letters from Ratisbon from the Ambassador Digby, saying he had found his secretary there, who reported that the emperor would be at Prague, leaving Styria for that place on the 5th inst. He adds that he will proceed thither unless anything happens to prevent him. From Heidelberg they also report that Digby is going to Prague. Carleton and those most in the king's confidence believe that the restitution of the Palatinate will prove a long and difficult business, unless the Turkish forces bring some advantage to the Palatine's cause.
The queen's secretary arrived on Friday evening from England, bringing her as a present from her father his portrait in a case full of diamonds, of great value. (fn. 8) When I saw her yesterday she remarked: I wish there were a thousand soldiers for every diamond or money to keep them, because we could find the soldiers. I could see that she said it with all her heart. The secretary also brought a portrait of the Prince of Wales and nothing else except exhortations from the king to wait and hope for restoration to their possessions. Councillor Pauli has also written to the same effect.
The Hague, the 26th July, 1621.
[Italian.]
July 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
108. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
With respect to the East Indies their High Mightinesses are in great trouble because of the hostility which their sailors and ministers in those parts have shown towards the English, notwithstanding the agreement made. They understand that the King of Great Britain threatens and the Ambassador Caron wrote that he would not give him audience. They are discussing how they may satisfy him, and propose to send ambassadors. This, besides the affairs of the war, keeps them occupied. The Ambassador Carleton has also asked that this embassy be not delayed, but they will not hurry as they always move very slowly, especially in questions of public or private interests.
The Hague, the 26th July, 1621.
[Italian.]
July 28.
Consiglio de'X.
Parti Secrete.
Venetian
Archives.
109. In the Council of Ten.
That the following advices be read by a secretary of this Council to the Savii of the Collegio, leaving a copy with them, so that they may use them as they think best.
Ayes, 16.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Senato,
Secreta.
Comunicazioni
dal Cons. de'X.
Venetian
Archives.
110. We learn on good authority that the King of England has sent back sixty families of Huguenots from Paris, who took refuge in his kingdom, declaring that he will not have them in his kingdom or help them on any account, seeing that they have from their king the free exercise of their religion, liberty of conscience and the observance of his edicts.
[Italian.]
July 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
111. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Before the king left on his progress he declared the Earl of Arundel earl marshal, a most eminent title enjoyed by his ancestors and which he himself exercised on state occasions. He released the Earl of Southampton from custody, nothing having been found against him, as well as the Earl of Oxford, the lord Chamberlain of the realm, who underwent the same fate with some other cavaliers upon an accusation of speaking with too much freedom. He was accused by spies, who just now are at work in the city and country in great numbers. Finally, the king released the Earl of Northumberland, the richest nobleman in this realm and who has the largest following, who has suffered twelve years' imprisonment in the Tower, his blood being suspect to the crown, upon the occasion of the famous gunpowder plot. In fact of late we have seen nothing but arrests and releases, to bridle and content every one. (fn. 9)
The Marquis of Hamilton, who has travelled post, should at this moment be with the parliament in Scotland in his Majesty's stead.
Lord Digby writes that the emperor has proceeded to Gratz and asked him to go and await him at Prague. It would therefore seem that Caesar avoids coming to the point of answering. Digby is to follow wherever he goes. But they whisper that the emperor will listen to nothing unless the Palatine first leaves the Hague and avoids going to Metz, Basel or Denmark, and entirely abandons Mansfeld having nothing to do with his actions or with Jegheldorf.
The ministers of the Spanish faction here are now trying to persuade the king not to mind if the first replies are not good and there is some doubt whether after them Digby will return to England to proceed to Spain, or no. Many lament the loss of Bucquoi (fn. 10) and the blows threatened by Gabor.
Sir [Robert] Anstruther has returned from Denmark. He brings nothing that is not old, and says the king there is ready to move in concert with his Majesty here, both in negotiation and in war.
Sir [Francis] Nedersol, secretary of the Queen of Bohemia, is returning to the Hague empty handed. He only takes as presents his Majesty's portrait and jewels from the prince worth about 3,000l. (fn. 11) In the present scarcity of gold, which is now very great, they say they have discovered in Wales a silver mine of perfect quality, and have presented a fine nugget to his Majesty. This would prove very opportune but perhaps it will do no more good than the other ones which they claim may be found in these realms yet unworked.
After much reflection upon the movements of the Turks, with many discussions, promises and fluctuations, they have at length assigned 10,000l. to the Polish ambassador upon the levies, notwithstanding that there is scarcely enough money to supply the requirements of the king's progress, so that it would seem almost impossible to raise it, especially as all those of the Palatine's party have opposed it, strongly alleging the danger that English merchants in Constantinople will incur on this account, and the great prejudice it will cause to any intention to make representations to the Sultan if he should incline to send help to Germany. But the Spanish ambassador has supported it with great zeal. They desired promises that the Polish king should make efforts for the restitution of the Palatinate, and if this was not obtained that he would join against the emperor. The ambassador replied that he would not bind his master to move against a Catholic prince so nearly related under any circumstances, for 50,000 crowns or any other sum. It seems, however, that he promised his good offices and that the troops should not be employed against Sweden, Denmark or Brandenburg, he having already relieved Prussia from fear of the Turks. He will levy 2,000 or 2,500 men for the moment in Ireland, and has made provision of a quantity of cloth for the troops. He has done all this with his Majesty's money, as he came here without a farthing. The king also had the charge for four months of 20l. a day, or 80 crowns in entertaining him, and he assigned to him 2,000l. in cash as a gift with which he can pay for his journey home, procured for him by the Ambassador Gondomar who studies every way to cause the revenues of this crown to be expended uselessly before they are mature and who very quietly obtains the victory in this matter also. This Pole, as well as the Florentine ambassador, had the honour of dining with his Majesty and the favour of the release of many imprisoned priests.
News has come that the twenty ships under Mansfilt have fought, defeated and captured some pirate ships and inflicted much damage upon the port of Algiers. The action is announced as a very important one, though perhaps it was not altogether so. The Catholic king praises it, being relieved of so much anxiety, and has thanked his Majesty, who is greatly pleased, especially because owing to the bad news which came first he had no further hopes from them. Some think that he may withdraw the order to recall them. However two (fn. 12) are stayed which should have gone to join them, and remain on these coasts. They are also preparing six royal ships with the intention of using them in conformity with the trend of events at la Rochelle and in the Palatinate. Some declare that they will also employ the East India ships with those of the States. In his displeasure with the latter his Majesty has now announced that he intends access to Dunkirk to be free and to other places in Flanders, and that in spite of the war his subjects shall continue to trade with those parts, and that these seas shall be clear and those shores safe. But the really important point is that of the Indies, and that once settled all other clouds would easily disappear.
The commissioners of la Rochelle are buoyed up with hope by the preparation of these ships and by the promise of every assistance if the Ambassador Doncaster, who may leave at any moment, does not arrange the matter, especially as his Majesty told them that he asks nothing of them, and they may rely on his promises, as theirs is a war of religion while that of Bohemia was not, but the usurpation of a kingdom.
Sir Thomas Roe, chosen as ambassador for Constantinople, greatly deplores and exclaims against the assistance in money and levies granted to Poland. He says they will even be increased by report, and the Turks, hearing further of the loss inflicted at Algiers, will consider that they have no more bitter enemy than his Majesty, and will try and indemnify themselves upon the merchants of this nation, and will not refrain from venting their wrath upon the ambassador also.
As the diver of Enkhuizen, who was sent me by the Secretary Surian to fish for the wrecked guns off the coast of Ireland, has kept procrastinating under various pretexts, some people of the country have fished at my request and recovered two pieces, one of bronze and one of iron; if they prove to be the ones your Serenity will tell me what to do, as Surian tells me he has paid the persons concerned, and so the pieces need not be sent thither, indeed that would be dangerous owing to the chances of the sea and the very great danger from armed ships at the present time. The said secretary thinks it would be best to sell them here, though it would not be possible to get as much for them as in Holland, because I was able to buy here for a third less. However, after deducting expenses we should save some hundred crowns on these two pieces alone.
London, the 30th July, 1621.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
112. To the Ambassador in Germany.
Although the pope and the French continue their efforts for the execution of the treaty about the Valtelline, constant delays occur, the Grisons being urged to throw themselves into the hands of the Spaniards, the Catholic Cantons being unwilling to bind themselves and money being sent from Milan to foment the disorders. Feria seems as little inclined as ever to accept interposition about the passage for his troops. Filiberto's fleet is not yet fully provided with munitions. We send all this for information to use for our service.
Ayes, 126.Noes, 1.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
July 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
113. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The restitution to the Palatine of his dominions and the electoral dignity is thought to have been decided here last week. But they delay the publication of his Majesty's intentions or to inform the English ambassador, not only to await fresh news from Moravia and Hungary, but to see the effect produced upon the Duke of Bavaria by the report of the emperor's proposal. Accordingly they sent Becher, an Aulic councillor, expressly to inform the duke of the reasons which induce Caesar to embrace this proposal, and he returned last Thursday. The duke complains bitterly, so much so as to raise doubts about the decision which was considered settled. Moreover Father Giacinto, a Capuchin, has spoken to the emperor in the pope's name, asking that the electorate may not be given to a prince who does not profess the Catholic religion. The duke has also sent six fine horses and other presents to his Majesty.
The English ambassador, moreover, seems very doubtful of what he can obtain from the replies he has so far received from the Imperial ministers, although from the events in Hungary and elsewhere he is persuaded that he may hope for a favourable issue to the affair. He renewed his representations to the emperor at the second audience, after which Mechau and Tramestorf gave him very general replies differing but little from the first. In substance they stated that the emperor's disposition to satisfy the king could not possibly be better, and results would prove it. However, the matter in negotiation was very serious, and his Majesty's dignity deeply involved through the publication of the imperial ban, so that he could only settle the matter by the consent of the Princes of Germany and summoning a diet.
The ambassador answered that his Majesty's requests were so just and the interests of so many Princes of Germany were involved that his Majesty would very gladly await the decision of a diet, which would also suit the interests of the Palatinate admirably. But he thought the remedy a very slow one and hardly adapted to the pressing need of removing the forces from Bohemia and the neighbouring provinces, and if they did not give him any other reply he would leave at once. They had said much the same to other ambassadors before, without any results appearing as yet.
The Imperial ministers assured him that the emperor desired to find some means of affording his king full satisfaction, and he must not be surprised if it took time, being an affair of such gravity and importance. They asked him to state upon what conditions he would desire the restitution, as it became his Majesty's dignity that proposals should come from the Palatine. The ambassador objected that it was not reasonable to make this declaration since here they maintain the impossibility of removing the imperial ban, and declared the chief point was to decide upon restitution, as it would be easy to arrange the conditions afterwards.
This is all that has passed so far, as communicated to me by the ambassador himself and subsequently confirmed from another quarter. If the treaty is arranged he has only commissions to include besides the Palatine, the Count of Mansfelt and the Margrave of Giagrandorf, and so far as I can discover he will say nothing about Bohemia, Moravia or Silesia. He told me that he had no instructions about Hungary, and as Gabor some months ago approached the emperor for peace separately from the Palatine, they need not consider his interests. I suggested that the Spaniards might simultaneously make peace in Germany, and establish the truce in Flanders. The ambassador replied that he heard from Spain that the king had left the affair of the truce entirely to the archduke, but stated that his father, shortly before his death, intended to make war there, and the ambassador seemed to think that the late king would have done so.
Vienna, the 31st July, 1621. Copy.
[Italian].

Footnotes

1 Southampton was committed to close custody with the Dean of Westminster. The order for his arrest is dated June 15, old style (Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 265). Sir Edwin Sandys and John Solden were put under arrest the same day.
2 Chamberlain, in a letter to Carleton of the 14th July, mentions that the Earl of Oxford, Sir John Leedes, Nevill and others have been committed to custody for idle words (Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 276). There were rumours that many, both Lords and Commons, would be sent for and questioned and also Lord Scroop, Sir Edward Sackville, Sir Edward Villiers, Sir Richard Weston and Sir Francis Fortescue. The arrest of Sir Edward Coke and Sir Edward Giles was fully expected (Birch: Court and Times of James I, ii, pages 260, 261). "The Earl of Oxford sent to custody for his prattling; so is Sir J. Leeds, with Sutcliff, Dean of Exeter, Sir Christopher Nevil and one Brise, a minister (Camden; Annals apud Kennet: Hist. of Eng., ii, page 657).
3 The progress began on the 19/29th July, James proceeding from Theobalds to Royston.—Nichols: Progresses of James I, iv, page 669.
4 The Archduke Albert, brother of the Emperors Rudolph II and Matthias and cousin of Ferdinand II, ruler of the Spanish Netherlands, died on the 13th July, 1621.
5 To maintain the supremacy of the English flag in the narrow seas (Gardiner: Hist, of Eng., iv, page 226). It was reported that the English fleet had lost six ships in an engagement with the pirates (Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 273).
6 Eyre was revoked and discharged by a letter dated the 9th July, old style. John Chapman took the letter, with orders to act as agent until Roe's arrival. Eyre's despatch acknowledging receipt of the discharge is dated the 12th Dec., 1621 (State Papers, Forcign. Turkey). The company resolved to appeal to the king about Eyre at their meeting on the 14th June, 1621 (Ibid.: Levant Co. Court Book).
7 John Williams. The see of London was given to George Montaign, whom Williams soon afterwards succeeded as Bishop of Lincoln, Dic. Nat. Biog. The new peers were Edward Montagu, made Baron Montagu of Boughton; Fulk Grevil, made Baron Brook; Thomas, Lord Darcy of Chich, made Viscount Chichester; Henry, Lord Hunsdon, made Viscount Rochford; Lionel Cranfield, made Baron Cranford of Cranford. Camden: Annals apud Kennet: Hist. of. Eng. ii, page 657.
8 The diamonds, thirty-seven in number, came from Queen Anne's secret jewels, found at Denmark House.—Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 308.
9 Besides Southampton, Oxford and Northumberland, Sandys, Selden, Yelverton, Floyd, Naunton and Roger North were also released. Northumberland was sent to the Tower on Dec. 7, 1605 (Vol. X of this Calendar, page 301), so he had been in confinement over 15½ years.
10 Charles Bonaventure de Longueval, Count of Bucquoi, was killed in a small skirmish while besieging Neuhäusel, in Hungary, on the 10th July.—Winter: Geschichte des Dreissigjahrigen Krieges, page 241.
11 See No. 107 at page 90 above.
12 The Victory and Dreadnought.