Venice
August 1621, 1-14

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1911

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96-110

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'Venice: August 1621, 1-14', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 96-110. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88817 Date accessed: 24 October 2014.


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August 1621

Aug. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
114. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The French continue their declarations that they will protect the Genevese, at which his Highness complains bitterly; but he is trying fresh ways of advancing his interests with the Genevese. He promised the English agent here that he would restore the trade in provisions with them, which had been forbidden on the pretext of last year's scarcity. The duke added that France wished to destroy the heretics and the Genevese must look after their own interests. He told the Englishmen that the pope had sent a Capuchin friar urging that undertaking on the French. If the Genevese wished he would guarantee their liberty and religious freedom if they would recognise his suzerainty. He desired nothing but the power of pardon and that the Genevese money should have the device of Geneva on one side and that of Savoy on the other. (fn. 1)
The agent would not inform the Genevese on his own responsibility, but sent word to his king, asking for instructions.
His Highness has expressed his determination to the English agent to make good his claims upon Monferrat, as he has waited too long. He hoped that other monarchs would not object or else that if one opposed the others would help him.
Turin, the 2nd August, 1621.
[Italian.]
Aug. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
115. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The States have to consider sending an explanation to England, as the complaints of the king there against the proceedings of this nation against his subjects never cease. They have experienced great difficulty in inducing the members of the East India Company to agree to the sending of commissioners to London, but they have at length succeeded. The Ambassador Carleton informed me of this with great satisfaction. They now have to nominate the persons to go, who will be paid by the Company. They will try to mollify his Majesty, especially now they are menaced by such large Spanish forces.
Count Solms, the steward of the King Palatine, does not seem greatly pleased with the progress of Gabor or of the Margrave of Jegherdorf. He told me that the king was greatly perplexed, not knowing what to do. If he abandoned himself to Digby's negotiations he would offend Gabor, his ally, who might occupy Bohemia; and if he stood by Gabor he would offend the King of England.
The Hague, the 2nd August, 1621.
[Italian.]
Aug. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
116. That the Viscount de Lormes be summoned to the Cabinet and the following be read to him:
We have proceeded in the negotiations about the pirates in the hope of arranging it with mutual satisfaction; so we regret that difficulties have arisen. We do not see that we can do anything without further information. You can return to your fleet and tell them of our good will and the particulars we have told you. In recognition of your efforts we shall give orders so that you may recognise the public munificence, with due regard to the expenses you have incurred in travelling.
That 600 ducats be given to the Viscount de Lormes and 200 ducats to Falgher.
Ayes, 44.Noes, 0.Neutral, 12.
[Italian.]
Aug. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
117. That the Viscount de Lormes be summoned to the Cabinet and the following be read to him:
When the matter of the pirates was first proposed to us, we inclined to embrace it. Pasini was therefore sent to England with orders to find the fleet and obtain the necessary particulars. This did not take place and we suggested that two or three leaders should come to this city. Finally we gave you facilities to come here, thinking you would smooth away the difficulties. We asked you to put your proposals in writing, and when we received them we remained as disposed as ever to adopt them with such moderation as seemed proper. But as we have nothing to go upon beyond your word, although we believe your assertions to be true, yet they depend upon the will of others which may easily change, and something more is necessary, though we are more ready than ever to carry out what we believe will benefit all. We wish to send some one to sound the disposition of the captains and men and so have something sure upon which to base our decision.
That some person be sent by our Cabinet to sound the disposition of the pirates, to discussing ways and means with them and smooth away difficulties, without engaging the public word in any way, so that on his return the Council may be able to come to some satisfactory decision.
Ayes, 72.
[Italian.]
Aug. 4.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
118. The Viscount de Lormes was summoned to the Cabinet and the deliberation of the Senate was read to him, he said:
I understand the deliberation of the Senate, but I should desire that one or two persons will go to the fleet taking a safe conduct and a general amnesty. I went to Ireland to get some one from the fleet to go and speak with the Ambassador Lando. Two leading captains, Elis and Plech (fn. 2) came, were taken and hanged. I have since come to Venice. If I do not bring them a general amnesty or anything else, I do not know what they will do and they may turn against me. I am ready to lay down my life for your Serenity, but without a safe conduct and amnesty all will not be well.
The doge said they would consider what he had said, and with that the Viscount took leave.
[Italian.]
Aug. 6.
Inquisitori di
Stato.
Busta 442.
Venetian
Archives.
119. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the INQUISITORS of STATE.
Amerigo Salvieti of Lucca, (fn. 3) of whom your Excellencies wrote to me on the 7th ult., once offered to betray his country to the Grand Duke. He has lived over here for more than twenty years under an assumed name and is thought to be maintained by his Highness. He is an able and practised man of affairs who speaks many languages and associates with the leading ladies and with men of consideration, ambassadors and all manner of men. He is generally considered to be a spy of the duke in close relations with the Spaniards and the pope, He used to come to this house in the time of Donato, and after the sentence against that ambassador he became extraordinarily intimate with him. On my arrival here he was very intimate with Marioni and very skilfully cast reflections on all my actions. At the time I believed this was solely on account of his friend Donato, and I thought no worse of him. On the evening of my arrival I gave the usual banquet and invited all and several without distinction, including this man. Among others there were present two gentlemen of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and I gave various toasts according to the practice of the country in honour of the prince, the favourite, the Earl of Arundel, the Lord Chamberlain and Lord Chancellor. I also toasted the archbishop, who is the chief minister of the Council, which then managed most of the affairs of state, and whom I always found an ardent supporter of the republic. Amerigo at once wrote about this and I was immediately told and advised to dismiss him from the house as he had said that I was ill disposed to our most holy religion. If my action were a sign of such feeling I should be unable to speak or negotiate with any one, including the king, as all are Protestants here or profess to be so. I was much in doubt at this sign of malignity at so early a period, as I am always unwilling to dismiss servants. I observed this disposition to sharpen all swords against me but I thought it best not to send away all Donato's servants and make a complete change, but I decided to proceed warily and afford no reasonable grounds of offence. In this, by the grace of God, I succeeded.
At that time Salvieti came to mass and remained to dine. I received him in a friendly way dissimulating my feelings. I had much information about his proceedings, but as I thought it concerned Donato's interests, I hoped his treachery would end with the conclusion of that affair. At the same time I kept myself informed about him by the interpreter who has served our ambassadors up to the present. This man may have become suspicious at my curiosity and have given Salvieti warning, as he has never been to the house since and that is about eighteen months ago, except twice to visit the tombs on Good Friday, accompanied by the Ambassador of Savoy, and quite recently to inform me of the approaching arrival of the Florentine ambassador (fn. 4) and tell me that although he was not agent for his Highness here he hoped the ambassadors would treat him courteously. I agreed, but I think this was one of the reasons why we did not afterwards visit.
As Salvieti had not come to the house I could not keep my eye on him so much although he may have obtained information about this house. I could not find out this without violence and in this island it is not nearly so easy to use force as at home and elsewhere (ma in questa isola non è di grandissima lunga cosi facile come in coteste parti et altrove), and possibly it would be better to intercept letters. However I will spare no expense or labour as the matter weighs heavily upon me. This house has been under a shadow for too long and it needs to be maintained for an extended period by worthy persons free from blame who do not fear the bites of these mad dogs and who will overcome their baseness by uprightness.
London, the 6th August, 1621.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Aug. 6.
Inquisitori
di Stato.
Busta 442.
Venetian
Archives.
120. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the INQUISITORS of STATE.
This Salvieti associated chiefly with Gabaleoni, the Ambassador of Savoy, who left here the other day, as much a Spaniard as I am a Venetian, and wonderfully crafty and malicious. He deals with the Agent of Flanders, a consummate rogue whose one preoccupation is to desseminate falsehoods, with the Spanish ambassador, a much more acute man even than the Spanish ambassadors who have been at Venice, and with Bedmar, who from Brussels gives his advice in all things and scatters his usual seeds against the republic. Of the same mind as these is the French ambassador, Trilliers, a worthy man, but like all his household a pupil of the Jesuits, who hate the republic. They all are joined together in the most confidential and brotherly relations, informing each other of and consulting upon all the most secret and important affairs, so I feel sure that I have never spoken to Savoy or to France but all the most essential particulars are reported to the Spanish ministers. However in the interests of the republic I have thought it best to keep up an appearance of confidence with them, so far as possible, and have tried to blunt the arrows showered upon me with the armour of patience and dissimulation, and have succeeded so far that we have frequently dined at each other's houses, notably with France. He also visits the Earl of Arundel who, although he professes to be practically a Venetian, and whom I frequently visit, is one of those most devoted to the Spaniards and never really does anything for your Serenity against their interests, though he would, I think, against the Turk or others. He is known by everyone to be a Catholic, though he attends the Protestant church by papal dispensation. For the public service I have tried to have his wife and his sons honoured at Venice, and I have done the same here, and I have shown no one greater attention, but with little or no result. He has in his house one Sig. Francesco Vercellini, a Venetian, who associates with many of our gentlemen and others. He is a prudent man who seems well disposed to the republic, but he certainly knows a great deal about our affairs and those of other ambassadors, and doubtless tells his patron. He also has a Florentine, who served Donato until he left the kingdom and one Venchanello, a Roman, his gardener. They all come to mass here, and I think it impossible to stop this. The sons usually send me their letters from Padua to forward to their father. I once tried to see them but they were written in English and I could not trust the interpreter in a matter of this kind. The earl sends to them, I believe, in the packet of the merchant Burlamachi.
The republic has no more bitter enemies here than some of her own subjects. I do not speak of Michael Possidario, who came with the Polish ambassador, because he will leave soon. I mention as the foremost Leonardo Michielini domiciled in this city, a man of very low birth, whom I snubbed because he meddled with the mercenary captains when I began to negotiate for levies. I had some trouble to effect this because he was protected by the Spanish faction being their notorious spy. Then there is Francesco of Verona, servant of Viscount Doncaster (Doncasten), practically the only one who complained at Pontieba, the Hague here and elsewhere when the ministers of the Board of Health would not let the Viscount proceed towards Venice. This man does little harm because he serves a master who is not a Hispanomaniac but friendly to the republic in spite of the above mentioned occurrence. I mention next Angelo Notari, of Padua, who traffics with the Spanish ambassador; then Francesco Mazzola, of Murano, a man without religion and with all the vices, who goes about everywhere slandering the republic. He has brought hither almost all the glass workers of Murano, who almost all frequent the houses of the Austrian ministers, and so they are corrupted chiefly because they consider themselves in disgrace with the republic. I have always encouraged the exiles with hopes of return and helped them, and I have kept alive the faith in others, but they are more ill disposed than favourable. Lastly I may mention one Baldissera, of Mestre, a vile creature, who lives simply by spying. I do not know what to say about Cavalier Dionisio Lazari. He tries to get information about my affairs. I pay little attention to him. He frequents the embassies of France, Poland, Savoy, Florence and Flanders, but not Spain. He seems full of vanity which has spoiled the credit he enjoyed for his other good parts. I know of nothing definite, though appearances are not good. He writes every week and receives letters from Brussels from Sig. Ottavio Tressino, of Vicenza, who came here recently for three or four days only. He seemed to come chiefly to speak to Lazari according to the latter's account, as he did not see the king or the prince. Lazari likes to give the impression of being very busy. The chief ministers of princes here praised Tressino highly, but they did not think much of Sig. Alfonso Antonini. Lazari said to me one day, perhaps to give me a fright, that he heard the Spanish ambassador had written ill about me to Rome and Spain. I said I did not believe it as I gave no occasion for such a report. He associates much with Salvieti whom he met at Donato's house. The chain is clear, these fellows report what they see here and all my ostensible actions. I feel sure, however, that they do not know what I write, as understanding that the registers of another ambassador at this court were stolen and copied, I keep mine in my study under three distinct keys and no one sees them but the secretary and myself. I am also very guarded except in light matters. It does not matter if the visits which I pay and receive are known, as they cannot be concealed, when one has thirty persons and more in the house.
London, the 6th August, 1621.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Aug. 6.
Inquisitori
di Stato.
Busta 442.
Venetian
Archives.
121. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the INQUISITORS of STATE.
The interpreter, Edward Watson, an Englishman, (fn. 5) has been accused to me more than once as a spy upon all the ambassadors of the Archbishop of Canterbury, who doubtless desires to be informed of the life and habits of the ambassadors and their chaplains and who deal with them. He seems to like the fellow though at bottom I believe he knows him to be a rogue. For my part I believe him to be a double spy, having some intelligence with the Earl of Arundel and with the Spaniards by means of Sir [Lewis] Lewkenor (Lucnor), master of the Ceremonies, with whom he is very intimate, the most ardent Hispanomaniac in the country and the most outspoken of his rank (il più appassionato Spagnolizante et il più scoperto per la sua conditione che sia in questo paese). I have had him followed and observed, but he does not write and what he says is not easy to discover. He is very poor, overcharged with debt, an old wolf who partly from natural want of ability partly from malice does little or nothing. He studiously pretends ignorance of almost everything. On my arrival at this Court I expected fidelity and experience from one who had served the republic so many years, but I found nothing but a profession of patience, an intention to rob me and hide from me everything that might prove helpful, and which I could not hear from my predecessor, who tried to make things hard for me and gave money to this man. Your Excellencies may imagine the difficulty of my situation, but I came forth victorious. I should have got rid of the man long since, except that he has been so long in the house. He constantly complains that he has never received any recognition except his 100 ducats a year, which are nothing here. I heard of his complaint, and on my arrival, hoping to gain him, I gave him a livery at my expense. This profited me nothing, as in a few days he appeared in his old clothes, having sold the others. I have never been able to do anything with him. I offered him an additional 50 ducats if he would go frequently to the court and bring back news of things not too secret or profound, but he would not. To dismiss him without a recognition with all his debts, which would land him in prison, would be considered very discreditable. It would be better to give him something to pay his debts and so much a month for life, and to send a young man in his place of good birth to learn the language, who could serve as interpreter with the prince and ministers. I am at present obliged with some of these to use this dishonest fellow or one of his servants, from whom the Spaniards can easily gather the whole audience. I need not say that the youth must be intelligent so that he does not fall into mistakes on the subject of religion. He must also possess a private fortune or be well paid so that he may not go about badly dressed or be overcome by temptations which are certain to offer themselves. This is a country where everyone dresses beyond his means and the price of everything is exceedingly high, so that I have been unable to think of any English subject or other fitted for the post (questo e un paese og'uno veste in termine eccedente il suo stato, et tutte le cose non si hanno che ad altissimi prezzi dove per quello habbia pensato non ho mai saputo imaginar. in alcun soggetto Inglese o altrimente che potesse essere adequato al bisogno).
The affairs of this embassy go well when the ambassadors have a good interpreter, a prudent secretary, such as I fortunately possess, and a chaplain noted rather for pure living than for learning, who gives no occasion for scandal as some have done, so much so that when I arrived here hardly any one would come to mass in the house, owing to the report of certain scandalous practices and the villainous rumours put about by Jesuits, Spaniards and their adherents, who dominate all the Catholics here, so much so that if one is not a Jesuit and a Spaniard one is hardly considered a good Catholic here. They even went so far as to say that the mass was not celebrated here in the Catholic fashion. Thank God I have overcome this and my chapel is frequented like that of any other ambassador. My chaplain is a worthy man, too old to cause scandals, but I beg your Excellencies to consider the matter of the interpreter and to send instructions about the persons mentioned in my other letters. I must remind you that if they are not compelled by public decree which will bind all our ministers here, evil will result, as my successor might re-admit a man whom I had dismissed, and this would give rise to remark and bring the embassy into contempt.
London, the 6th August, 1621.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Aug. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni
Venetian
Archives.
122. To the Ambassador in Germany and the like to the other Courts.
We hear that the Grisons accepted the treaty of Madrid, but the majority of the Cantons refused. This provides an excuse for delay in restoring the Valtelline, as does the death of the Archduke Albert, who, before his death sent orders to Dole, his ambassador, to abandon his claims to be treated as ambassador of Spain. M. Scappi has not yet arrived at Milan and Feria says he does not know what he is coming for since he shut out negotiations on the subject of the passage. The Senate of Milan, after much doubt has declared in favour of the governor. Filiberto continues to ask for troops from the Valtelline for the fleet. The words of the Spanish Court about peace do not correspond with their deeds. The Turks seem inclined to profit by the dissentions of Christendom, and their army is marching towards Poland. The death of the Archduke Albert and the successes of the Hungarians will render every well intentioned person anxious to secure the peace of this province.
Ayes, 105.Noes, 5.Neutral, 50.
[Italian.]
Aug. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
123. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The nuncio here, backing Father Giacinto, has urged the emperor to give up all idea of restoring the title of Elector to the Palatine. He told him this was an opportunity to confer it upon a Catholic prince and thus establish the empire for ever with the house of Austria. He remarked that the King of England, to satisfy whom they assert here that they are making this restitution, has his dominions and interests very remote from those of his Majesty. He has no money to uphold the interests of the Palatine, and though his naval power is considerable yet he cannot use it to inflict any harm upon his Majesty.
The emperor replied that if the pope was here he would take no other resolution. The King of Spain desired restitution and had written strongly in its favour. This decisive reply prevented the nuncio from giving any answer, but he perseveres through Father Giacinto, representing the case of the Duke of Bavaria, who deserves favour from his Majesty and whose forces encounter no opposition in Bohemia. The emperor has sent again to the duke, who seems much perturbed and insists upon the promises made to him.
Nevertheless they continue their negotiations with the English ambassador. I enclose the reply given him by the two ministers. He does not seem satisfied and refused to state the conditions the Palatine would accept to satisfy his Majesty, saying that they had published here at Rome and in other Courts, that Caesar had deposed of the Palatine's title and dominions, and that it was not possible to suspend the ban. This doubt must be removed; the emperor must declare his disposition to gratify his king, which was not expressed in the reply given to him, as although they stated that his Majesty was deposed to gratify the King of Great Britain and to re-admit the Palatine to favour, that might be done without restoring his title or dominions, or a part only.
The ministers reported this reply to his Majesty, who desired that the ambassador should receive satisfaction and sent another written answer, which I also enclose. This satisfied the ambassador especially as the ministers told him verbally that the emperor had certainly not disposed of the Palatine's title and dominions, but was disposed to restore them.
They are now expecting the ambassador to submit the conditions which the Palatine agrees to accept, and they think that the only difficulty will consist in the money the emperor claims as a war indemnity. They propose to obtain the opinion of the electors without assembling the college, and they have already asked them to send ambassadors or to give their opinions by letter.
Vienna, the 7th August, 1621. Copy.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
124. Proposals made by Lord Digby to his Imperial Majesty.
That his Majesty shall receive back the Palatine into favour, restoring his dominions and titles, the King of Great Britain undertaking that the Palatine shall render due reverence and obedience and everything reasonable to satisfy his Majesty.
That his Majesty shall suspend the ban and order the prolongation of the truce in the Lower Palatinate until these matters are settled. Copy.
[Latin.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
125. Reply of the Emperor to the Ambassador's proposals.
In recognition of the moderation shown by the King of Great Britain in the affairs of Bohemia, and at the intercession of many Christian princes, the emperor is disposed to satisfy the said king if he will undertake to induce the Palatine to show obedience and give satisfaction; but in an affair of so much moment, he does not think it right to decide without the Imperial Council. He has therefore ordained a diet of the electors to settle the affair of the Palatine.
Although his Majesty ordered a truce in the Palatinate during the term of the King of Great Britain's proposals, the Palatine, through Mansfelt, attacks Bohemia, and John George, of Brandenburg, has begun to stir up fresh sedition in Silesia and Moravia. The emperor therefore asks the ambassador to get his master to put a stop to these hostilities. If the Palatine will hearken to the wise counsels of his father in law, his Majesty will hearken graciously to the intercession of the King of Great Britain, and will be ready to do anything to assist the negotiations for peace. Copy.
[Latin.]
Aug. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
126. GIROLAMO PRIULI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Viscount Doncaster, ambassador extraordinary of the King of England has arrived here. I went to visit him immediately and he received me with great demonstrations of esteem for the most serene republic. He told me that he had come to bring about peace in France. He would ask it as a favour in his king's name and feels sure that he will leave content, as he desires nothing beyond the welfare and glory of this kingdom. Once it has settled its own domestic affairs it will be the better able to secure a true balance in the very important affairs of the world, in which the Spaniards are making such progress. However, he betrayed by his expression of countenance that he expects to obtain but little satisfaction from his embassy. From what they say, the king will not welcome it, as he calls the war a punishment and those against whom he wages it rebels not enemies. Thus if they speak to him about making peace he will grow angry and will not listen, and he seems to take it in ill part that any prince should intervene to stay his hand from punishing his disobedient vassals for their rebellion, as he calls it.
This ambassador will leave for the Court in four or six days. He is staying in Paris, awaiting a large following of gentlemen who accompany him, and is putting in order a most sumptuous equipage with which to present himself to the king. He has honoured me by asking for the use of two of my coaches. I at once obliged and offered any other help.
Paris, the 7th August, 1621.
[Italian.]
Aug. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
127. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador in Spain writes to the Ambassador Carleton here that they are sending 30,000 ducats to Flanders for three months' pay for the troops. He thinks that the Spaniards mean war here. Carleton believes it certain and that it will be very severe. But the manner in which the Spaniards behave shows that they want to make them spend rather than anything else.
The King Palatine remains very perplexed especially as he has received no news of Digby's negotiations. He fears that the conditions proposed will be hard and difficult to accept, as he has not entire confidence in Digby, and if he did not accept the terms he would be entirely abandoned by the King of Great Britain. The French ambassador said he felt sure of the restitution of the king's state and titles, but the Spaniards would obtain the best conditions for themselves.
The States have decided to send three deputies to England, but they have not yet settled upon the persons. They and the merchants of Amsterdam have been alarmed by a report confirmed verbally by a person come from London, that the king had decided to arm fresh ships or send for those in the Mediterranean to avenge himself for the wrongs committed upon his subjects in the Indies, and further that he is determined that entry into and departure from the ports of Flanders shall be free. The Ambassador Carleton told me that he knew nothing about this, but their High Mightinesses would do well to send as soon as possible to his Majesty.
The Hague, the 9th August, 1621.
[Italian.]
Aug. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
128. That the Viscount de Lormes be summoned to the Cabinet and the following be read to him:
We had our last decision read to you because it is the practise of the republic in matters of great moment to act only after ripe reflection and with caution, and we decided to send a person as you are aware. He will receive power to grant a safe conduct to one or two of the chiefs to come to our state with authority from the others to make arrangements with us. But if you learn that such a person will not be well received or welcomed and if other difficulties arise, as your last paper suggests we shall wait for some other expedient.
Ayes, 98.Noes, 26.Neutral, 25.
[Italian.]
Aug. 13.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
129. The Viscount de Lormes was summoned to the Cabinet and their deliberation was read to him, he said:
I see your Serenity has recognised the truth of what I said. Send an amnesty with the safe conduct. The ships can all come together to the dominions of your Serenity. I should like to see this affair take effect. Let the safe conduct be given to all not to one or two.
The doge said he had heard their decision and must not expect anything else.
On the following day the Viscount met me, the secretary, on the stairs of the palace, stopped me and said, I believe that what was read to me was not the decision of the Senate, because it is no use and I do not know what they want. I remarked that I thought the decision was sufficiently explicit. He repeated that it was no use.
When I reported this in the Cabinet the doge sent me to his apartment to assure him that such was the public will and decision.
[Italian.]
Aug. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci.
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
130. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Archbishop of Canterbury while shooting at a stag in hunting, struck a keeper of the park in the arm, who was drunk and got in the way while riding on horseback, killing him. (fn. 6) This remarkable event has greatly affected the archbishop and everyone sympathises with him. Although the laws of the realm require the forfeiture of all goods even in accidental cases his Majesty has pardoned him, writing him a most friendly letter in which he says that the same thing might have happened to any one. However, the archbishop has given 100l. sterling to each of the four sons of the dead man and assigned 50l. a year for life to his wife.
The first minister of the prince (fn. 7) has written a book and presented it to his Highness in which he shows that he is bound to inform him and prove to him by Holy Scripture that he may not marry the Spanish princess without offending God, both on account of the Catholic religion and his own. His Highness took the composition to the king who was very angry and caused the author to be examined as well as More his secretary, a man of ability and worth, who was tutor of the late Prince Henry, as suspect of some complicity. It is thought, however, that the flame will flare up very soon especially as there is no lack of those who blow upon it to kindle it more.
Rumours about the marriage and appearances are now being renewed more than ever, although no authentic news has arrived about the arrangement of articles with the emperor. They whisper also about one in negotiation with the King of France's brother, saying that he is to have the Netherlands as a dowry, just as once they suggested giving them to the prince here; but perhaps this is only artful talk (discorso artificioso).
The Spaniards go about announcing that the dispensation has been obtained from his Holiness, but on the other hand a letter has come from Rome by which one of the ministers here learns that Father Maestro has had three audiences of his Holiness. In the first and second he found him very cold and in the third, which took place on the 16th July, he obtained an absolute refusal, chiefly because he held no instructions but those given him by the late king, having none from the present.
His Majesty is very eager and anxious to receive some news about the negotiations of the Ambassador Digby since the advices of his public audience and favourable reception. He seems very sad, seeing that a courier from Brussels sent by Spinola to the Agent Vamala, has brought letters for his Majesty also, with complaints that Mansfelt and others acting for the Palatine have broken the truce, and absolutely refusing to renew it, threatening to do his worst. Accordingly his Majesty seems very angry against his son-in-law and speaks very strongly, especially as those of the opposite party declare that Jegheldorf is acting with patents from him, and news has arrived from several quarters that Spinola shows signs of losing his temper.
And therefore the Ambassador of the States told me that after some persuasion the Prince of Orange would take the field. I also hear from Brussels that in the last muster they were 10,000 men short, who seem partly to have deserted, partly to have perished, while the others live on nothing but bread and have not seen any money for several months.
Various missions have recently been sent to Spain to hasten the return of the twenty ships. The Ambassador Gondomar presses this under the pretext of keeping these seas clear and the commerce with Flanders free in order at the same time to try and kindle some conflagration with the Dutch. These latter have finally decided to send deputies here for the affair of the East Indies, and if not, to try and induce them to disarm, as reported. Some think that these same commissioners will again urge the king to make representations to the emperor together with his other offices at this moment when Digby is negotiating, and when his Highness is determined to find out without further delay what is to be the end of the marriage negotiations, one way or the other.
The Polish ambassador, who is about to leave and is to see the King of Denmark on his way home, has obtained permission in the patents for levying troops that they shall not be bound to take the customary oath when leaving the kingdom. He strongly urged that Sir Thomas Roe should not be sent as ambassador to Constantinople, and even spoke about it openly with his Majesty, as being a demonstration contrary to the interests of the king, but really because Roe is well disposed to the party of the King of Bohemia. However, his Majesty is resolved that he shall go, and he has even released from the Tower Sir [Roger] Nort, the one who was imprisoned for going to the West Indies. He has also permitted that Secretary Naunton, who although still under arrest has received and dealt with some of the state letters and papers, to transfer himself to the royal palace of Whitehall to revise the archives, and has also allowed him to go into the country for some days. This action and the release of so many persons of the party opposed to the Spaniards, leads some to conclude that it is to satisfy the people, who were most eager for this. In order to please them his Majesty has also issued a proclamation removing some monopolies and grievances, declaring that he did so because of the good will displayed by the parliament. But these are matters of slight importance and merely for show, and they do not nearly counterbalance the dissatisfaction caused by the renewal of other edicts forbidding any one soever to speak privately of affairs of state or of what takes place between princes in these times, although his rather loosens men's tongues than restrains them. Moreover, his Majesty is not well pleased with this city, which has grown tired of paying out money on loan, being creditor for large amounts and stops at fresh demands and does not seem ready to pay the second subsidy, which they tried to raise in advance.
The Secretary Calvert has sent to the Spanish ambassador to learn what he has to say about the road in dispute with your Serenity, and also, I think, reporting what I said at my last audience. The ambassador replied that the road was called imperial and the troops of the Governor of Milan had always passed it without asking leave, and the republic was doing something fresh in making this demand. But if the wise instructions sent by the infanta of Brabant to the President of Dole, as I am advised, to lay aside all claims and give the final touches to the restitution of the Valtelline, produce the effect they should, even this difficulty may be cleared, up, by God's help, with the disappearance of the clouds elsewhere. However some of the leading ministers here go about saying and even trying to instil the notion into the king, that restitution cannot reasonably take place owing to the numerous interests of the emperor and Catholic which rise afresh, unless the affairs of the Palatinate and Bohemia are first assisted.
Your Serenity's letters of the 10th and 17th ult. have arrived with various advices, especially the reply given to the Ambassadors of Prince Gabor, which reaches me very opportunely since every one was commenting on the subject, and the foam of poison appeared in the mouths of many.
London, the 13th August, 1621.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
131. To the Ambassador in Germany and the like to the other Courts.
The nuncio Scappi reached Milan last week and began negotiations about the passage. Feria declared that his king's dignity had been offended. Our Secretary Vendramino laid the arguments of the republic before the nuncio, but without producing any effect. Although our representatives in Spain have received favourable replies, and the Spanish ambassador in France declared that his king desired nothing out of reason, their ambassador in England says that the rupture between Milan and the republic is about this passage, the various Spanish ministers speaking differently according to the Courts they are in. In the Valtelline Feria proposes to put the forts in the hands of the Catholic Swiss until the treaty is finally settled, and so raises the religious question; he also secures delay upon the status of Dole. Some of the ministers promise the Governor assistance in opposing restitution.
Ayes, 98.Noes, 1.Neutral, 8.
[Italian.]
Aug. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
132. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I went to see Cardinal Lodovisio to tell him about current affairs. In his reply, among other things, he remarked with astonishment that the Palatinate would certainly be restored. He had received certain news that very day; it was due to the letters and offices of the King of England, who interposed not only to accommodate matters with the States, but in Germany also. The emperor claimed nothing more than a certain sum of money for Bavaria, to compensate him for his expenses in the war. When I asked his Eminence if he really believed we could hope for such a conclusion he said he thought we could, as the English ambassador brought letters from the late and the present Kings of Spain to the emperor telling him that he would do well to give up the Palatinate; and the emperor inclined that way, owing to his dependence upon the wishes of Spain.
I told that cardinal that I feared such an accommodation would delay the restoration of the Valtelline and I wished the King of England had set himself to accommodate all the difficulties. I said I did not know why that king had taken so much pains, and the Spaniards showed themselves such Spaniards as to wish to work in favour of the English.
Rome, the 14th August, 1621.
[Italian.]
Aug. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
133. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany to the DOGE and SENATE.
On Tuesday the English ambassador had audience of the emperor and told him that he had sent a gentleman to advise his king of the reply given. He proceeded to return thanks for the honours shown to him.
Since then nothing more has been done, as the Imperial ministers are waiting to hear from the ambassador the conditions proposed by the Palatine to be received back into favour. These ministers are urging him to try and arrange an armistice in Bohemia, Silesia and Moravia during the progress of the negotiations, so that the emperor may suspend the ban and prolong the truce in the Lower Palatinate. This is a very difficult point, owing to the change in the aspect of affairs, and because the ambassador has no authority to make any promises about them.
Meanwhile news comes that the Duke of Bavaria is making every effort to increase his forces, and protests that he will yield nothing of his just pretensions upon the Upper Palatinate and the electoral dignity. The nuncio and Father Giacinto never rest in their efforts on his behalf. The nuncio told me he felt sure that the Catholic king had not told Caesar his wishes about the electorate, although at the request of the King of England he had written recommending the a 'air and the interests of the Palatine. Many think that the Spaniards view with suspicion the development of Bavaria and think that the acquisition of the Palatinate and the electoral title may easily open the way to him or his descendants to the imperial title.
Vienna, the 14th August, 1621. Copy.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 See Wake's despatch of the 24 July/3 Aug 1621: "This week I did move earnestly the Duke of Savoy in favour of those of Geneva, that he would be pleased to quiet their minds and take away all occasion of jealousy by permitting them to buy such corn and grain as they should have use of for the service of their town; which petition he was pleased graciously to grant unto me." The duke told Wake his idea of France's ambitions.—State Papers, Foreign: Savoy.
2 Ellis and Black. See the preceding volume of this Calendar, page 358.
3 His real name was Alessandro Antelminelli or Interminelli, an old Lucchese family descended from Castruccio Castracani. Alessandro's father, Bernardino, tried to establish a claim to the lordship of Lucca, and the republic, knowing him to be in the pay of their mortal enemy, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, resolved to exterminate the whole family. Alessandro escaped, and, despite all attempts of the Lucca government to capture or assassinate him, successfully eluded them to the end, dying peacefully in 1657 at the age of 85 (Pearsall Smith: Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton, i, page 35). From 1618 Salvetti began to send from London to the Duke of Tuscany the news-letters which are so valuable for the history of the period. It seems evident, however, from this despatch that he was not the accredited agent of Tuscany at the English court as Mr. Pearsall Smith states loc. cit.
4 Giuliano de' Medici. See page 44 above.
5 Despite this letter Watson seems to have remained on as interpreter at least until 1626, as on the 27th Nov. in that year, Alvise Contarini, then Venetian ambassador in England, asks for his removal on the ground of old age and incompetence.—Public Record Office. Venetian Transcripts.
6 This occurred on the 3rd August at Bramshill. The unlucky keeper, Peter Hawkins, got behind a deer, which leaped up, and the arrow struck him instead.—Cal. S. P. Dom., 1619–23, pages 278, 279.
7 Dr. Hackwell or Hacluit, the prince's chaplain. Thomas Murray, the prince's secretary, was confined to his house for not acquainting the king with the chaplain's intention of presenting the book, although he disapproved of the step.—Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, pages 279, 284.