Venice
October 1621

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1911

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139-156

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'Venice: October 1621', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 139-156. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88820 Date accessed: 27 November 2014.


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October 1621

Oct. 1.
Consiglio de'X.
Parti Secrete.
Venetian
Archives.
178. In the Council of Ten.
That the letter of the ambassador in England of the 10th ult. upon the proposal made by the Cavalier Lazari to the king there to stamp money of silver mixed with copper for use at Constantinople and elsewhere be sent to this Collegio to be used for the public service.
Ayes, 16.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Senato,
Secreta.
Communicationi
dal Cons.
de'X.
Venetian
Archives.
179. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the chiefs of the Council of Ten.
I find that the Cavalier Dionisio Lazari, besides his proposal about the Ticino flints (cuogoli del Tesino) has also approached the king and his ministers in the matter this enclosure will explain. I consider the thing impracticable and unworthy of the proposer and of him who took it up, as it would flood the world with false money, and the king's gain would be inconsiderable, although he might need it very much in present circumstances. I think it impossible that he should accept or even listen to the proposal, after the first intelligence. But the man has received 100l. sterling, that is 500 ducats as a gift as the agent of Prince Joinville, but certainly rather for suggesting this subject and for his journeys and expenses in following the Court which is still in progress. I hope to obtain full particulars of the event. He says that he is leaving soon, but these are matters in which my informant proceeds timorously. I do not know if there is any idea of taking any quantity of money from our parts and of stamping Venetian money also, some day I think it might inflict a severe blow on the interests of the subjects who trade in Turkish lands and those of your Serenity.
London, the 10th September, 1621.
The proposal, already accepted by the commissioners is, to introduce into the country through the merchants a million of fine silver. This shall be fused with a copper alloy and stamped with lions to send to Constantinople, Poland and other countries, and another money for Germany and the Netherlands. His Majesty would gain one fourth on the outlay; namely 2s. on each lion or 2,000s. on 1,000 lions, making a gain of 500s. on the outlay.
The gain on the money for Germany would be more than 70 per cent.
The money would be similar to the money current in those countries, and owing to the fineness of the alloy should have a better appearance.
The merchants ask for liberty to bring in and take away the silver and other materials without any charge or duties whatsoever, and that his Majesty shall not claim more than his share.
The money must be duly stamped in the king's mint.
Once it is stamped his Majesty shall immediately have his quarter in good current money of the country.
The money must never be spent in his Majesty's dominions.
[Italian.]
Oct. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
180. To Ferro at Florence.
His stay in that city useless, as no knowing when Lormes may be released. To tell Lormes that he has instructions from the Senate to go to Barbary to get wheat; when there he shall buy as much as possible, telling the merchants that they shall be paid at Venice. If he can see any of the pirate captains, who are reported to be in Barbary with new ships, he shall try and verify the statements made by Lormes and send word at once.
Ayes, 122.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Oct. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
181. GIOVANNI FRANCESCO TRIVISANO, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
While the agent of the Viscount de Lormes was agitating here for his release, with little hope of success, news reached Sig. Ferro that he had escaped from Leghorn by connivance of a lieutenant of the fortress. He has sent word to Ferro that he has proceeded to Modena, where he will await him, so Ferro has started for that city to-day.
Florence, the 2nd October, 1621.
[Italian.]
Oct. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
182. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They chose Aerssens as ambassador for Venice; he excused himself, asking at least to be let off the journey to England. They said he could easily do both as the English affairs would not last much more than two months.
The States thought they had nothing to trouble about except the disputes between the East India Companies, but at audience on Friday morning the Ambassador Carleton told them that they would have to deal with other undecided questions. He told me afterwards that he had found Aerssens very anxious to escape the task after this, thinking it a difficult and troublesome business beneath his dignity; he wanted to go round the world talking of wars and settlements, which he considers more worthy of him than herring or whale fisheries, the cloth trade or the value of money. Carleton promised him success, especially about the Indies, feeling sure he will refuse the charge if he does not expect to win renown. Carleton is not pleased with the deputy burgomaster of Amsterdam, because he is a director of the Company and too deeply interested. (fn. 1) He did not say so much in the Assembly, but enough to make his meaning clear.
The Hague, the 4th October, 1621.
[Italian.]
Oct. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
183. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Villiers, (fn. 2) brother of the Marquis of Buckingham, arrived here on Wednesday evening. On the following day he saw the Queen of Bohemia and left post on Friday morning for Emmerich to meet the King Palatine. The same day I visited the queen. She told me she had advised against the journey, as the king was coming to stay here awhile, there being nothing to do in the camp, but in the course of the conversation I discovered that she had been advised of this mission beforehand and of the reasons for bringing the king back to the Hague and had sent word to Emmerich. The king left Emmerich on Friday at mid-day and arrived here at mid-day on Saturday, preferring to come of his own accord. Villiers, travelling by land did not meet him, but they expect him back to-morrow. It is announced that besides the letter from the King of England to his Majesty he had orders to tell him to withdraw from the camp of the States, and to dismiss his troops because that will facilitate an accomodation. The king is in greater perplexity than ever.
General Vere has withdrawn to Manan and Heidelberg with all his forces. As they are ill paid it is feared the total loss of the Lower Palatinate may ensue. The Spaniards have crossed the Rhine in force. Digby should now be in the Upper Palatinate to negotiate an armistice between Bavaria and Mansfelt, which the king and queen here believe will result in the total ruin of that part also. The king does not know what to decide, as he must either abandon the protection of the King of England and trust to fortune, or yield to that monarch's persuasion, prepare for submission, and so prejudice his birth and fortune. I never saw the queen look more disturbed than when I visited her on Friday, after speaking to the Margrave of Anspach, the emperor's emissary, to arrange a truce. The king will see his father-in-law's letters and will then have to consider his affairs. He is truly deserving of compassion as his ministers are better fitted for domestic affairs and literary pursuits than for matters of state.
The Hague, the 4th October, 1621.
[Italian.]
Oct. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
184. To the Ambassador in Germany.
At the time of our dispute with the late pope we decided to keep the Jesuits out of our state, and after those differences were settled, the instances of his Holiness and of the late Most Christian king did not avail to induce us to alter our decision, which those princes ultimately recognised to be reasonable. The Jesuits have continued to sow their evil seeds and thus afford us every reason to remain steadfast in our purpose. The present pope and Most Christian king have now joined to ask us to readmit this order to our state, the one by the nuncio and the other by the Marquis of Coure, his ambassador at Rome. Although we gave them a very complete reply with the reasons why we could not consent, we think it best to state that this is the result of our mature deliberation. We send this for information to guide you if any one speaks to you on the subject.
The like mutatis mutandis to:
Spain, England, Savoy, Milan, Florence, Naples, The Hague, the Swiss.
Ayes, 80.Noes, 11.Neutral, 19.
Expulsis Papalistis and those excluded who had any relations in the Company of Jesus. Secrecy about the voting was enjoined upon the Senate.
[Italian.]
Oct. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
185. To the Ambassador in England.
To send the pieces recovered from the wreck of the Santa Giustina at the first opportunity by any ship going to the islands of Zante and Cephalonia.
The Council of Ten have reported what he wrote about Lazari's project for coining money. He must keep on the alert in this matter.
Ayes, 84.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian
Oct. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
186. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Spaniards recently sought to procure that the ships cruising in the Mediterranean under Mansfelt which they had previously tried to have recalled, by secret offices, should remain at sea against the pirates. The orders were issued, but the general has unexpectedly appeared in the Downs off these shores, with all the ships which failed to come, either because he did not receive the orders, or, as some think, by the king's connivance. He has sent them orders to remain where they are until fresh instructions arrive, and it is reported that they are to return to sea, as the Ambassador Gondomar strongly urges. There are some who persuade themselves that the king will give his word, but that he will not really satisfy him in deed; the merchants are angry, feeling that so far they have thrown a great deal of money away to no purpose; and his Majesty feels the same, the captain and crews reporting that they have fallen in with and captured no more than two pirate ships. Accordingly rumour is again shown to be a false and lying jade. The sailors also complain that they were very ill treated on the coasts of Spain when in need. They clamour for 10,000l. due to them, and accordingly orders have been issued for their speedy satisfaction. But the scarcity of money is so great that his Majesty has deliberated with the Council to send Burlamachi, the merchant, to Amsterdam to sell or pawn jewels for 60,000l., and they propose to pay other creditors by similar means, but with the obligation to redeem them for ready money, on the conditions imposed by the creditors. It is fortunate that they are beginning to collect the second subsidy granted by the parliament, which will serve to water and refresh this parched condition a little.
They continue the preparation of the ships in this channel, which I reported, and the king has been to see the launch of two, which will carry sixty pieces of ordnance each. (fn. 3) The commissioners of la Rochelle base considerable designs upon these. They have recently received better words than ever from his Majesty, owing to the displeasure with which he has heard what befell the Huguenots in Paris. The French ambassador excuses this by relating the punishment meted out to those who contrived it. (fn. 4)
A large English ship has arrived in the River Thames from the East, laden with pepper and other spices to the value of some 800,000 crowns for the benefit of the Company of merchants here; though it lacked a third of its cargo, which the Dutch prevented them from taking. (fn. 5)
The Ambassador Caron has notified the king that the commissioners already chosen for that affair are to be here within eight days. He also told him of the peril which his republic has escaped by pure good fortune, Spinola's design being frustrated by the waters, as he confessed that they could not feel sure that the Prince of Orange would oppose him successfully owing to the disproportion between the two armies.
Notwithstanding what I wrote in my last, a universal rumour was abroad that they were absolutely tying the marriage knot. But I learn on good authority that the report arose from the Spanish ambassador having assured the king that there had never been any negotiations with the emperor's son, as everyone was saying. He went on to say: If your Majesty wishes us to conclude now now it shall be, and thus you will be undeceived as well as everyone else. As for my king, he is ready. But subsequently the rock of the dispensation appeared, which indeed caused great irritation. Nevertheless as the ambassador always has ready a vessel with lenitives and medicines to sweeten bitter things, he did not allow the king's wrath to divert him from his customary courses. Accordingly it seems that he either has or feigns to have the entire confidence he enjoyed before, the king being satisfied with replies in general terms, and the ambassador saying that he never believed they would abandon without cause the negotiations which they had carried so far with him, for the sake of opening negotiations with others. (Era corsa voce universale, non ostante ciò che scrissi per l'ultime mie, che del matrimonio se ne stringesse il nodo totalmente. Ma per le vie fondate rincontro che la divulgatione derrivi dall' haver l'Ambr. di Spagna affermato al Re non esservi mai stato alcun negocio con il figluolo del Impe. come passa già per bocca d'ogni uno, soggiongendo, se Vra. Mtà. vuole che lo concludiamo, hora sia, e cosi restera ella con tutto il Mondo desingannata. Quanto al mio Re è pronto. Ma poi iscuopri lo scoglio della dispensa, che in efetto le fece fastidio grande. Egli tuttavia havendo sempre a mano un vaso di lenitivi e di medicine per temperarle le amarezze non ha lasciato che la collera la devii dagli ordinarii passi. Onde apparse che fosse o fingesse d'essere nell' intiera confidenza di prima, passandosela sopra termini generali nella risposta, in fine dicendo di non haver mai creduto che si alienasse senza causa la trattione prosequita tant' oltre seco, per introdurla con altri.)
Your Excellencies will have heard from Vienna about the negotiations there for the restitution of the Palatinate, and I need say no more about them. The king never says a word and the Council is never told anything and yet there is not a single private individual who does not know. Digby's wife began to make preparations to go and meet him in France and join him in his journey to Spain, but she stayed her preparations on hearing the opinion renewed that he will return here first.
The Count of Mansfelt has sent an English captain to his Majesty, explaining that he cannot lay down his arms chiefly because he has no money to pay off his men, relating his strength, his resolution and his hopes, and again asking for assistance.
I find some indication that the king has suggested to the Spaniard making some representation in favour of a truce or peace in Flanders, although my informant does not think he will do so since that war cauterizes many evils, and for other reasons. I really do not know what to think, as I have seen so many things turn out altogether contrary to the general opinion, and it is certain that he desires nothing so vehemently as universal peace, that being the only thing that touches his heart and excites his enthusiasm.
Sir George Chiavorth, quite a new man, is selected to go to Brussels to offer condolences upon the death of the archduke. Sir [Richard] Weston, who is equally new, being raised by favour, has been made a member of the Council, with hopes of further advancement. The patents of Earl Marshal have at last been sealed for the Earl of Arundel, though not without some limitations.
London, the 8th October, 1621.
[Italian.]
Oct. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
187. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
From the Upper Palatinate we hear that the Duke of Bavaria has taken Cam and Amberga; the Count of Mansfelt persists in his intention to carry out the agreement made with the duke; Lord Digby, the English ambassador, who has reached Ratisbon, is working hard, though without success, to dissuade him from this, even offering Mansfelt a large sum of money, which he had previously received from merchants. However, some of the colonels of Mansfeld's army seemed resolved to observe their fealty to the Prince Palatine.
Vienna, the 9th October, 1621. Copy.
[Italian.]
Oct. 9.
Senato,
Secreta,
Dispacci.
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
188. GIOVANNI FRANCESCO TRIVISANO, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Since the escape of de Lormes they have published here at the instance of France that he was arrested at Leghorn for that king, as a heretic and pirate captain, and because he announced that he meant to succour la Rochelle with those ships, at all costs. I hear that he went to Lucca, and despairing of his safety in any part of Italy he immediately left for Viareggio, where he embarked hastily and proceeded towards Barbary.
Florence, the 9th October, 1621.
[Italian.]
Oct. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
189. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Villiers got back hereon the very day that I wrote my last despatch. He had audience of the king on Tuesday morning, when he presented his master's letter and delivered his commissions. The king would not give any reply about disarming his forces and still remains irresolute. Your Excellencies will understand his perplexity; especially as Prince Bethlehem Gabor and the Marquis of Jegherdorf have both sent to him urging him on. The best excuse he can find in the midst of these difficulties is that he wishes to hear what Digby is doing with Bavaria, since he has heard that the ambassador has reached Ratisbon and has sent to the duke about an armistice. Digby has written very openly that he finds he has been trifled with and abused in many ways. There is every reason why he should have written as much to his master.
Villiers only speaks English, and the king's ministers here think this has been done on purpose by advice of the Spaniards, so that he cannot communicate with any of them. He is lodged in the house of the Ambassador Carleton, who behaves with great prudence and dexterity, not visiting the king much just now, owing to the necessity of conforming to the intentions of his sovereign. Villiers is the one who saw the king at Custrin before he came here, and told him in his master's name that his king was determined, if they did not restore the places taken in the Palatinate, he would raise 20,000 foot to recover it by force. When the king reminded him of this he only said: We are in different times. The king shows his distress clearly, while the queen has been observed weeping bitterly in a dark room, but abroad she seems vivacious and not to have lost heart.
Ruppa, the Chamberlain of Bohemia, returned with his Majesty. He told me that the king had decided to go to the Palatinate last Tuesday, but the advices from England made him change his mind.
The Hague, the 11th October, 1621.
[Italian.]
Oct. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
190. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The States are much grieved by the news sent in the above letter, thinking that the King of England risks making his son-in-law lose everything that he has, including his honour and reputation, leaving his subjects to the mercy of the emperor, and they augur very badly for the future.
They are drawing up the instructions for the ambassadors to go to the King of Great Britain, and those appointed are making their preparations, and I think they will leave next week. They are encouraged by the good news from England of the confidential relations existing between the two nations, so the English sailors themselves report. Aerssens has been ill three or four days and possibly this has prevented the deputies of Holland from being presented to the States General, or, as I believe, owing to the Province of Guelders, which thinks of proposing one of its own members for that embassy.
The Hague, the 11th October, 1621.
[Italian.]
Oct. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
191. GIERONIMO PRIULI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassador extraordinary of England is still at Mosach without having seen the king. He was at the point of death, and now, as the sickness has attacked him again in the midst of his convalescence, he has to keep his bed, without being able to make headway against the bad air prevalent in those parts.
Paris, the 12th October, 1621.
[Italian.]
Oct. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
192. To the Rectors of Brescia.
Send for de Lormes, and after suggesting that the land route is too dangerous, say that the best and quickest way will be to return to Venice and take ship to Zante, whence they can easily obtain a passage to Tunis and other parts of Africa; especially dissuade him from the Flanders route.
Ayes, 107.Noes, 3.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
Oct. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
193. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
His Majesty's first desire is satisfied by the return of the King of Bohemia to the Hague, which has thus anticipated the urgency of Sir [Edward] Villiers, sent from here. It is thought that his second wish, for the paying off of the troops in Germany will be only too well accomplished if Mansfelt makes the arrangement with the emperor, reported by advices from Cologne, news that he was treating having previously arrived from elsewhere. Accordingly the urgency from this quarter is interpreted as a jest, although it was really mingled with some protest and suspicion, and they inveighed strongly against him. Moreover, as Vere has withdrawn to Heidelberg and the Spaniards have crossed the Rhine and made great progress, the most prudent consider that they will avail themselves of every pretext in order to make themselves masters of the whole Palatinate. The poor Palatine, harassed on every side, stays on in a wretched state without any support, like a shadow without power.
Digby professes that his negotiations were in good train when the action of Vere's troops, like stormy winds, brought down the fruit while still sour and unripe. Although Vere denies this, and even his Majesty does not believe it, yet they try to lay the blame upon anyone rather than the emperor. Digby will certainly return to this Court before he leaves for Spain, and he is expected very soon, but indeed if matters do not prosper better in his hands the business will go to utter rack and ruin.
Suspicion of the French is increasing; secret advices have arrived from several quarters that at Havre de Grace they are arming ships powerfully with preparations in every direction for landing and giving surprise by land. Although report says this is for la Rochelle, it is really with the object of attacking the king here should he think of helping the Huguenots. In Ireland they have arrested two Frenchmen because they were taking soundings in some of the ports. They are fearful of some design against the two small islands of Granze and Cashel, which are highly important to this kingdom, owing to their situation. They are contemplating sending garrisons thither from Hampshire, providing them with arms and with some fortifications, and they have also discussed a larger naval armament. (fn. 6) I cannot feel altogether certain whether these suspicious are real and grounded or merely a pretence, and if the latter, if it is on the part of the French ambassador himself, in the belief that the real way to divert the king here from all idea of helping others is to give him some slight cause for alarm himself; or whether it is the work of the ministers here who wish to see his Majesty take some definite step in the direction of arming. Those who ordinarily preach peace seem to have the same object to urge him on in this case. The Austrians by keeping these two sovereigns on bad terms with each other, can prevent either from taking any action or conceiving any plan to upset their ascendency.
His Majesty recently spoke very strongly to the French ambassador, telling him that if the Most Christian took him for a prince incapable of forming any resolution, and who could not obtain money, he deceived himself, as he would find enough and that by God he would chastise him (parlo ultimamente molto alto 'Sua Maesta' all' Ambasciatore sudetto a segno di dirgli che se il Christianissimo la stimava Prencipe che non sapesse rissolversi et che non potesse ritrovar danari, si ingannava, perche ne trovarebbe tanti; che per Dio lo castigarebbe). More than one of the ministers assured me that this was true, and that he uttered practically those very words.
With the same object of not betraying so much need, they may have suspended the order to Burlamacchi to go to Amsterdam to pawn the jewels, although they say this has been postponed owing to their differences with the States, which become more and more embittered, the long delay in the coming of the commissioners being interpreted as an indication of slight respect. Accordingly they do not wish to obtain money from that quarter or trust them with their jewels. However, for the expedition of Sir Aston with the remainder of the 2,000 foot by Boulogne, his Majesty borrowed 3,000l. of a goldsmith upon some of his jewels as the balance of the 10,000l. promised to the Polish ambassador.
The Dutch ship, Concordia, when sailing from Zante for Holland received the charge last week from one of the guard ships here, which required her to lower her topsail as a sign of submission and recognition. They afterwards let her go, telling the captain that she was not one of the fine East India ships they were waiting for.
As the King of Denmark would not allow the first companies of English soldiers for Poland to pass through, saying that he ought not to grant a passage of succour to one who has so troubled his nephew, they have come back and are stationed at Tilbury. They think of sending them again accompanied by royal letters, hoping that they will ultimately be allowed to pass upon taking oath that they will not serve against any but the Turks. But this first incident has not pleased them at all, and they do not feel sure of what will happen at the second attempt. They also strongly blame the progress of the King of Sweden against Poland, owing to the great encouragement it will give the Turks. For the moment his Majesty has abundant cause for dissatisfaction, bitterness, anxiety and constant alarm.
Four days ago the king told the Council that the Ambassador Gondomar, who had been with him earlier, had told him he had learned by a fresh courier come post from Madrid that the pope was becoming inclined to grant the dispensation, and that he should be satisfied. He added wrathfully: If God does not come down from Heaven to forbid me I mean to make that marriage, but it is thought he made this remark designedly (soggiongendo con isdegno, se Dio non scende dal Cielo a prohibermelo, voglio far quel matrimonio, il che si crede artificiosamente profferito) because it is a long time since he spoke about such matters with his councillors, except those most in favour to remove the opinion I have reported to render everyone dumb, and to show that at any rate he has some reason for not breaking with the Spaniards since the more violent of the Protestants here have a suspicion that the ambassador is encouraging his hopes in return for fresh hopes that he receives from the king about our most holy faith (per levare il concetto che gia scrissi, per far ammutire ogn'uno et mostrare di havere tuttavia alcuna causa di non rompersi con Spagnoli non restando di esservi anco qualche ombra in questi protestanti piùappassionati che l'Ambr. in efetto la nutricsa di speranze, sopra nuove speranze che anch'egli all'incontro da lei raccolga intorno alla santma. religione nostra).
Now when the time and necessity for reassembling the parliament would seem to have come, they speak of postponing it longer than the time prescribed. This week they have made great changes and alterations among the ministers, to strengthen the party already in the ascendant, which no longer has any counterpoise. They have made some new ones, and other old ones have been retired. The chief change is the Lord Treasurer Cranfield, who reached that high position from being a simple merchant, only a few years ago, and who has been made a lord. They have given the old one the title of President of the Council, which serves rather to feed his ambition than to stimulate his appetite for food. The prince's secretary More has been dismissed by his Majesty's order from his secretaryship upon the mere suspicion of complicity in or knowledge of the book written against the marriage of which I wrote, although he was always beloved by the king and exceedingly so by his Highness, after a service of more than twenty-two years, and after having brought up both the princes. (fn. 7)
Amid so many alterations they talk of taking away from the Ambassador Wotton the expectation of becoming Master of the Rolls, an honourable office to which the honour of being a Councillor pertains, but they propose to console him with another equally decorous, which might involve his return here very soon. (fn. 8)
London, the 15th October, 1621.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
194. To the Ambassador at the Imperial Court and the like to the other Courts, etc.
The forces of Leopold and the Duke of Feria have been operating against the Grisons. Spanish forces are also massing on our frontiers. The intention of Feria to establish the house of Austria in the Grisons is also confirmed from other quarters. The Spaniards evidently mean to have an absolute predominance in this province; they now announce the marriage between Mantua's sister and niece and the emperor and the Catholic's brother. The events in the Lower Palatinate coincide with these, and the Spanish incitements to England, where they have so much influence, to foment the Huguenots in France, are all directed to the same end.
Ayes, 159.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Oct. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
195. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Last Sunday a courier arrived from the Duke of Bavaria bringing word that the agreement with the Count of Mansfeld had failed. This failure is attributed to the industry of the English ambassador, who being at Ratisbon, laboured hard to persuade the count not to break his oath to the Prince Palatine.
Vienna, the 16th October, 1621. Copy.
[Italian.]
Oct. 18.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
196. The secretary of France, Mazi, came into the Cabinet and asked that a certain Viscount de Lormes, son of a builder (muraro), a fraudulent person, now at Martinengo in charge of Colonel Rocalai might be arrested, and word sent to France for instructions. The Viscount had escaped from Leghorn, where he had been detained at the ambassador's request. According to his wont the fellow was trying to deceive the most serene republic.
In the absence of the doge, Benedetto da ca da Pesaro, the senior councillor, promised that the matter should have their attention.
[Italian.]
Oct. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci.
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
197. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Sir [Edward] Villiers left for home last Thursday in a Dutch man-of-war, taking back the king's reply. They say he leaves content. The matter passed between his Majesty, the English ambassador and Villiers. The ambassador saw me on Friday and said that Villiers was satisfied and should satisfy his master, and they now understand that Lord Digby had arranged a truce. Time would show what was to be done. He assured me it was not true that his king had advised the Palatine to return to Germany. I learn from others that the Palatine told his father-in-law that he would observe his wishes if he could do so with honour and be reinstated.
The English ambassador is at Nurenberg, negotiating for a truce.
Baron Ruppa came to see me the day after Villiers had left, and seemed most eager to know with what decision he had gone. He lamented the condition of himself and the others.
The Hague, the 18th October, 1621.
[Italian.]
Oct. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
198. ALVISE CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A courier has come from England sent by the Ambassador Gondomar. There are various opinions, some say that the king there offers his assistance to this crown against the Dutch, that he asks assistance owing to some fear he has of a rebellion, and that he makes advantageous offers for the speedy conclusion of the marriage. I simply notify your Excellencies of the universal rumour that the king there has now become an adherent of the Spaniards and most confidential with them. (fn. 9)
Madrid, the 21st October, 1621.
[Italian.]
Oct. 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
199. To the Rectors of Brescia.
Order to pay 400 ducats to Lormes for his journey and in consideration of his misfortune, advising him to be wary on his journey so that he may experience no more such accidents, as we are assailed here with several applications against him.
Ayes, 99.Noes, 4.Neutral, 6.
On the 21st October in the Collegio.
Ayes, 17Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Oct. 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
200. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
There is a rumour that the towns of Nürenberg and Ulm at the instance of the English ambassador, have contributed no small sum of money to maintain Mansfelt's army. The Duke of Bavaria has complained of this and sent to demand contributions for himself. The Ambassador Digby writes from Nürenberg to the English resident here that he has little hope but that Mansfield will dismiss his army in the manner arranged with Bavaria. He also reports that he took Mansfelt severely to task for breaking his oath, and the count merely replied by asking for money to pay his soldiers. Digby said he was an ambassador not a commissioner, but if the count would have a little patience he should receive the necessary provisions. The count said he was obliged to pawn the Palatine's lands to pay his men. After this interview the ambassador's hopes of benefiting the Palatine by his negotiations sensibly diminished, especially as he saw that the count had already dismissed a part of his troops.
The ambassador has since left Nürenberg and gone to the Lower Palatinate to see if he can arrange a truce there.
Vienna, the 23rd October, 1621. Copy.
[Italian.]
Oct. 23
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
201. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Last Tuesday the English resident had audience of the emperor, and told him what he was instructed by the Ambassador Digby. He spoke of Digby's hopes of a truce in the Upper and Lower Palatinate. He said the emperor's letter to the Duke of Bavaria had produced no effect, and complained of the duke's action, asking Caesar to supply a remedy in conformity with the desire he had expressed to gratify his king, who had always shown such friendly feeling towards his Majesty. The emperor said he would consult his councillors and let him know the result.
Vienna, the 23rd October, 1621. Copy.
[Italian.]
Oct. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
202. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have received confirmation that the negotiations with Mr. Villiers took place secretly, and that the king wrote with his own hand to the Majesty of England. But I have discovered that he does not mean to yield his claims. I gathered this from the queen on Friday, when she discussed the situation and seemed sanguine that her father would at length discover the malice of the Spaniards and their deceitful method of negotiating and afterwards it appeared that the king thought the same. She confirmed what I had heard before, that Lord Digby, having lost hope of inducing Bavaria to accept peace or a truce, had left and in passing through the Lower Palatinate had supplied the needy garrisons there with 100,000 florins, partly his own money, partly assured by his promise and partly from his own plate; in which the queen said he had acted like an honourable man. I praised him also, but for the rest we have not had much cause to do so. Digby was at Cologne on Saturday week and at Wesel on the 21st. He was to proceed thence to Brussels on his way to England.
The Hague, the 25th October, 1621.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
203. To the Rectors of Brescia.
Order not to pay the 400 ducats to Lormes, who had left before the previous order arrived.
That 400 ducats be sent to the Viscount de Lormes in such manner as the Collegio shall decide.
Ayes, 79.Noes, 1.Neutral, 12.
[Italian.]
Oct. 28.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
204. The secretary of the French ambassador came into the Cabinet and asked that an individual styling himself Louis, Count of Lormes, might be punished for an outrage on a French subject.
On the following day he renewed the request, and when difficulties were pointed out, asked that the man should be made to leave the city. The viscount, who lodged in the house of Paolo del Vedello at S. Geronimo was advised to leave the city by sea. He consented, but afterwards came to say that the French ambassador had hired over thirty men to murder him, and to ask for protection.
Memorial of M. de Villiers, French ambassador at Venice, dated at Vicenza on the 26th, narrating the circumstances of a murderous attack upon the Cavalier Docipoli, committed on the preceding Saturday by the pretended Viscount de Lormes on the road to Verona, with a request for the viscount's punishment.
[Italian.]
Oct. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
205. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The poor Catholics here, after having experienced a less rigorous treatment for some months than heretofore, have now for some days been cherishing hopes of liberty of conscience with the conclusion of the marriage so long debated with the Spanish infanta, as there is a strong and universal belief that it will take place with the restitution of the Palatinate. Those who abhor it really seem not a little alarmed, and some lament copiously in secret.
As regards the restitution, he who holds the reins of government here seems to feel sure that it will successfully happen, thanks to Digby's negotiations. He professes at the same time that Villiers who recently returned from the Hague has induced the King of Bohemia to renounce the kingdom and its members for himself and his son also, so far as he may, upon condition that at the same time they shall leave him the whole Palatinate with the Electorship, and that for the rest he will place himself in his Majesty's hands so far as he can do so with honour, asking him to agree to keep on foot the soldiers of Vere and Gray and those recently obtained by Baron Dohna from Denmark, until all is effected. The king has agreed to this, having sent for the purpose one Trembol, a German, who will also go to Digby with this consent and with the said news. His Majesty has got Digby to write to the Palatine saying that he has done more for him than anyone else in the world could, having recently, by an act of generosity which even his enemies must praise, satisfied the soldiers of Gray in particular when they were on the point of mutiny, by spending a large sum of money among them, coined out of his own plate, which is said to have amounted to 10,000l., while he has amassed and disbursed an equal amount by letters of credit, with orders that they shall be paid here immediately. But the Lord Treasurer replied asking where it was and how he could obtain it.
They intend to show the greatest honours ever known in this Court to the Ambassador of his Imperial Majesty, who is announced to be coming here as a response to the numerous embassies sent by the king and to express a desire to satisfy him. The hopes based upon this lull them to sleep more than ever and a proclamation has been issued postponing the reassembling of Parliament from the 14th November to the 8th February, not so much because of the season, as announced, as for other very profound considerations of his Majesty.
Commissioners have been appointed to consider the case of the Archbishop of Canterbury, of which I have written. (fn. 10) The place of the Secretary Naunton, at the very moment when his restoration was most expected, has been promised to another person at the instance of the favourite's mother, and the announcement will appear in a few days. (fn. 11)
They are trying to remove some more of the prince's servants and to clear his Court of all those herbs which are considered noxious in these days, and his Highness, who is self restrained to the last degree, conforms more and more to the will of his father, without showing any feeling or sentiment of his own. Many people do not like this, and it occasions no little comment. (E sua Altezza in supremo grado temperata sempre più si conforma al volere del Padre, senza mostrare alcuna propria passione o senso il che a molti non piace et apporta non poco materia di discorso.)
Owing to various disorders in Ireland and the suspicions referred to in my last, they have decided to send commissioners thither. The persons chosen are all unfavourable to the Spaniards, and of high spirit. (fn. 12) They are sent chiefly in order to get them away from the court and kingdom, under the guise of honouring them. In short, more than four-fifths of the ministers, including the best and ablest have either fallen or are falling, have either gone away of their own accord or mean to go or are about to be removed.
Certain Englishmen have complained that some of their vessels have been molested by the ships of the King of France, while there has been wide lamentation at the news of the severe losses inflicted by the Barbary pirates upon the Scots in the capture of fifty trading and fishing ships and of some 2,000 men. (fn. 13) Such, exclaim the people, are the fruits of the fleet which has been kept at sea at such great expense to guard the coasts of Spain.
Two ambassadors were coming from Muscovy with Sir [John] Merrick (il Cavalier Emerich), who previously went to those parts for his Majesty. One died by the way; the other has entered this city, although he has not yet had audience. Though men believe otherwise, it seems he has come for nothing except to repay the 18,000l. lent to his sovereign by the merchants here in his Majesty's name, and for mutual commercial interests. (fn. 14) In this it concerns your Serenity to know that they have arranged the articles of the route in those parts, which were in negotiation some years ago, to be confirmed here, about trading with caravans through that country and afterwards by the Caspian Sea with Persia and elsewhere, the silk trade between the king there and this English company being already arranged, and in this way they may cause no small prejudice to the Turks and all those who trade in the Levant.
London, the 29th October, 1621.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
206. M. Villiers, the French ambassador, having made a fresh request for the detention of Louis, Count de Lormes, that he be told that, since this man received assurances from the republic some months before he came to Venice, they cannot break their word to him, but that we are always ready to give him satisfaction, and to show our esteem for his Most Christian Majesty.
Ayes, 89.Noes, 1.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Oct. 30
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
207. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The emperor's answer to the English resident affirms his friendship and his desire to gratify the King of Great Britain. He excuses the action of Bavaria on the grounds of peace and quiet, and to prevent others setting foot in the Palatinate.
News comes from Brussels that when the English resident, presented to the infanta the emperor's letter advising a truce, she said she could not arrange it because the Marquis Spinola did not consent.
The Ambassador Digby on hearing this news immediately left Cologne, whither he had gone to confer with Spinola, though he had little or no hope of success. He intends to go straight to the Court of Spain to persuade the Catholic to embrace the cause of the Prince Palatine in gratification of his king, but his offices will have been anticipated by Father Giacinto, who has been sent thither by the pope and the Duke of Bavaria to urge the Catholic not to interfere in this affair of the Palatine. The nuncio recently sent a courier to Father Giacinto urging him to make haste in order to arrive before the English ambassador.
Vienna, the 30th October, 1621. Copy.
[Italian.]
Oct. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Svizzeri.
Venetian
Archives.
208. MODERANTE SCARAMELLI, Venetian Secretary with the Swiss, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Franchendal has repulsed three general assaults by Spinola. The Count of Mansfeld is reported to be at Rothemburg in Franconia. The English general Feer has sent all the cavalry towards Manehin and 3,000 foot of Count Mansfeld towards Heidelberg. The Duke Christian of Brunswick is near Frankfort with a large force to help the king Palatine, for whom the English ambassador Digby has given 100,000 florins to the city of Heidelberg, and is on the way to Brussels to arrange a truce for some months.
Zurich, the 30th October, 1621.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Dirck Bas, the commissioner designate to England with Aerssens. Cal. S. P. Colonial, East Indies, 1617–21, page 456.
2 Sir Edward Villiers.
3 The Domestic Calendar gives their names as the Swiftsure and Inheritance (S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 287). Mr. Oppenheim's list gives them as the Swiftsure and Bonaventure. Administration of the Royal Navy, page 202.
4 The news of the death of the Duke of Mayenne at the siege of Montauban on the 17th September, roused a strong feeling against the Huguenots in Paris. "Le dimanche qui suivit cette nouvelle, la populace se porta sur le chemin de Charenton, se jeta sur ceux qui revenaient du prêche, et courut mettre le feu à leur temple. Quelques maisons furent pillées, quelques huguenots mis à mort. Le parlement et le gouverneur de Paris réussirent enfin à rètablir l'ordre et firent pendre deux des sèditieux." Bazin: Hist, de France, sous Louis XIII, Vol. II, pages 81, 82. The riot took place on Sunday, the 26th September. See Mercure Français, Vol. VII, pages 851–7.
5 The James Royal, Captain Martin Pring, which left Jacatra on the 26th February and arrived in the Downs on the 18th September, o.s. It brought letters from the East India Company's factors full of complaints of the insolent and injurious dealings of the Dutch, but Pring says nothing in his account about any abstraction of his cargo. Cal. S.P. Colonial, East Indics, 1617–21, page 456. Purchas: His Pilgrimes, ed. Maclehose V, pages 31, 33.
6 For these suspicions of France see a letter of Naunton to Buckingham of the 28th Sept. o.s. State Papers Dom. CXXII, 148. The islands referred to in the text must be Jersey and Guernsey as the letter speaks of a despatch sent to Sir John Peyton in Jersey.
7 Cranfield was made a peer by patent dated the 19 July, 1621, old style. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 277. The displaced treasurer was Viscount Montagu, who had only recently bought the office. The office of President of the Council was revived for his benefit, ibid, page 298. Sir Thomas Murray was succeeded by Cottington. Ibid, page 296.
8 Chamberlain in writing to Carleton on the 13th October, old style, says that Sir Julius Caesar was likely to be removed from the Mastership of the Rolls in favour of Sir Robert Heath, but told the king he would as soon lose life or lands as office. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 298. There is no mention of Wotton in the matter.
9 The Courier seems to have brought word of the return of the Algiers fleet, together with a report of the favourable answer given by James to Philip's request. Despatch of Aston of the 14th October, old style. State Papers, Foreign: Spain.
10 The commissioners were the Bishops of London, Winchester and Rochester, the Bishops of St. Davids and Exeter elect, Sir Henry Hobart, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, Mr. Justice Dodderidge, Sir Henry Martin and Dr. Steward. S.P. Dom. CXXIII, 5.
11 This would seem to refer to Sir John Suckling, who actually became secretary in the following March. S.P. Dom. CXXIII. 84.
12 The commissioners in question were Sir Edward Coke and Sir Edwin Sandys. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 293.
13 Chamberlain mentions 57 ships taken, in writing to Carleton on the 20th October, old style. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 301.
14 Finett gives the name of the ambassador as Thomas Simonwitz. Philoxenis, page 93. The loan is referred to in the preceding vol. of this Calendar, page 297.