Venice
November 1621

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1911

Pages

156-173

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Venice: November 1621', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 156-173. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88821 Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

November 1621

Nov. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
209. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Two thousand Lorraine infantry and 200 horse have at last reached Savoy. This has made the agents of France and England protest at seeing the duke persist in his designs against Geneva, against his promises. The duke, however, gave them false answers. He told England that these troops were to serve in the greatly reduced garrisons of Piedmont and on the frontiers of Monferrat; and he informed France that he had ordered this levy because he hoped his master would approve of the design, but if ordered he would use the men to help repress the disturbances in Dauphiné. (fn. 1)
Turin, the 1st November, 1621.
[Italian.]
Nov. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
210. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The States have heard from Cologne that on Saturday week the Spaniards assaulted Franchendal from the ninth to the twelfth hour of the day and captured a ravelin, but the garrison under Serjeant-Major Borù (fn. 2) the governor, soon drove them out with the loss of many of their officers and men. The garrison is small, but good and resolute, and the governor a brave and experienced soldier, of whom the Ambassador Carleton thinks highly. The inhabitants are also much encouraged; they joined in the fighting, gave the soldiers food and drink and a month's pay.
Lord Digby must have reached Brussels, and may possibly have left there already. He stayed some days at Wesel with the Marquis. As he did not tell Prince Maurice of his route, he was all but made prisoner by the Dutch troops scouring the country; his convoy was routed in part, and some taken prisoners, including a Spanish captain.
It is said that Digby brought a letter for the infanta from the emperor in very general terms, laying the blame for the non-restitution of the Palatinate upon Jegherendorf, Gabor, Mansfelt and Vere; if they laid down their arms he would show what ought to be done. The States are advised that the letter is ambiguous, irresolute and unworthy of confidence.
The Hague, the 1st November, 1621.
[Italian.]
Nov. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
211. To the Ambassadors in France.
Fresh news of the events in the Valtelline. The Spaniards are aiming at the total subjection of the Grisons. To communicate this grave news to the king and council, which shows such a contempt on the part of the Spaniards of their promises to carry out the treaty, and that they are taking advantage of the internal troubles of France.
That the above record of events be read to the English ambassador, to be communicated to his king.
That the said news be also sent to England to be communicated to his Majesty.
The like news to Florence, Germany, the Hague, Spain, Zurich and Rome.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Nov. 6
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
212. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English resident is not at all pleased with the reply received from the emperor, recognising the arts whereby they have buoyed up his king's hopes and prevented him from taking any steps in favour of the Palatine. However, he has sent an express courier to England to advise the king of the way they act here. Before this, however, the emperor again assured him of his good-will in the Palatine's affairs and his desire for a friendly accommodation. His Majesty told the resident that the Duke of Bavaria had not invaded the Palatinate by virtue of the imperial ban, but merely in order to prevent it being occupied by the Duke of Brunswick, who was known to be collecting troops for the purpose.
The emperor wrote substantially the same to the Ambassador Digby in reply to a letter complaining of the Duke of Bavaria's action.
Vienna, the 6th November, 1621. Copy.
[Italian.]
Nov. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
213. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have previously written to your Serenity about the instances made by the Spaniards here to obtain a dispensation to marry their king's sister in England. I am now in possession of all the particulars by reason of an assembly held last Sunday upon the subject. The Ambassador Gondomar some while ago sent a Dominican friar, his confessor, from England to Spain with all the particulars of the affair; (fn. 3) the late king sent him on here with instructions to procure that dispensation. He came, and the king dying during the negotiations, the present one sent him fresh instructions and commissions to his ambassador also to get the affair despatched quickly. Accordingly the pope appointed a commission of four cardinals, Bandino, Mellini, Sancta Susanna and Sacrati, who met from time to time, with the friar, to remove and smooth away difficulties. They were afterwards reduced to three, after having overcome the difficulty caused by the prohibition of the marriage of a Catholic to a heretic. One point was that the bride might become a heretic through the blandishment of her husband; another, that one day, through a break in the line, a heretic might inherit the crown of Spain; a third, the reluctance the King of England might show to keep his promises in favour of the Catholics, which was the King of Spain's chief object in this resolution.
On all these points the friar answered to the satisfaction of the commission. He said the king's daughter had been so well brought up in the Catholic religion that there was not the slightest doubt of her. The house of Spain was so well established, with three sons and an elder daughter married in France, that they need fear no failure in the line of Catholic princes. In any case, even in the event supposed, Spain would be either Catholic or heretic; if Catholic, she would not suffer a heretic prince, and if heretic, it would matter little what prince ruled her. Again the promises of princes are not usually broken, and if they were in this case Spain would have reason to object and to force their observance by arms, as his Majesty would not fail to do. The friar further said that the King of England was no less anxious for the dispensation than Spain, as they could not negotiate before it was granted, and the King of England would not declare what relief he would give the Catholic religion before it was obtained, as if he declared himself and it was not granted he would earn the hatred of his subjects. Accordingly he pressed for a decision, for which the Spanish ambassador made fresh offices last week. The pope has therefore added his nephew, Cardinal Lodivisio, to the commission, and this excites the belief that he will soon grant the licence, and he wishes his nephew to have a share in the glory. I have all this on good authority. The commission is to meet in a few days, and it is believed that they will put the final touches to this business.
Rome, the 6th November, 1621.
[Italian.]
Nov. 8
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
214. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On Monday in last week Aerssens was summoned before the Assembly of the States and told of his choice as ambassador at Venice after his embassy extraordinary to England. He offered excuses, which were not accepted. He and his colleagues left four days ago to communicate their instructions to his Excellency, take leave of him, and then sail for England with the first favourable wind.
I surmise that the deputies of Denmark here have thrown out some idea of a league between the King of England and the States and their king, the most serene republic being mentioned also. I will try and discover more. Meanwhile I have learned that two of the king's ambassadors left the States with instructions from his Majesty to make representations to all the princes of Lower Saxony, urging them to preserve the liberty of Germany.
The Hague, the 8th November, 1621.
[Italian.]
Nov. 8
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
215. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king learned with great joy of the raising of the siege of Franchendal. The Spaniards made a vigorous assault, but, learning that Mansfelt and Vere were approaching with 15,000 foot, they withdrew in disorder, leaving ten pieces of artillery behind, having lost 3,000 men in the assault. On the 22nd ult. the forces of Vere and Mansfelt made a junction between Mannheim and Franchendal, and the siege was raised on the 25th before they arrived.
Their Majesties have learned from England that the king has approved of the levies made at Hamburg, and of the money paid out by Digby, ordering that as much again should be sent immediately to the Palatinate. They now hope that the king will proceed to take more vigorous steps, especially when he perceives how much he has been deceived. They also hope that Digby's account of affairs will help greatly, feeling sure that he will tell the truth, it being more than notorious how much he has been deceived. He himself has written promising the queen to make proper representations, and the Ambassador Carleton told me he had written to him to the same effect, adding, I feel sure that by now he will have become fully aware of the tricks of the house of Austria and the Imperialists, and (smiling) he will also fully realise what the Spaniards are (m'assicuro che si sara gia ben aveduto delli artificii di Casa d'Austria, Imperialisti et (con sorriso) si accorgera ben anco quello che siano Spagnuoli). Your Serenity will understand the allusion. He should have come to his Majesty here, and chiefly to see the queen, by his king's order, but as he went to Brussels, he feared to lose time, and made his excuses to the queen, saying that he had to meet the king and council in London some day before All Saints to make his report, and it would serve her Majesty better to do that than to come here.
Trumbull, the English agent at Brussels, has told the queen that the infanta spoke very affectionately of her, and lamented her misfortunes, saying she would willingly do something for her, but her hands were tied by the emperor. The queen told me this yesterday, saying she had replied to this courteous office through Trumbull, when the infanta had repeated her wish to do something. The queen praised the goodness of that princess, telling me she felt sure of her sincerity, even though she was a Spaniard. The queen also told me that she heard the Count of Gondomar was to leave England, and the Marquis of Bellamar was to take his place, adding, The one is acute (fino), and the other will know how to build upon Gondomar's foundations.
The Hague, the 8th November, 1621.
[Italian.]
Nov. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
216. To the Ambassador in England.
Something that has come to the knowledge of our Ambassador Corner at Madrid has caused us much concern. It is that the English king offers help to the Catholic for a war against the States, and in return asks for help in case of a revolt in his own dominions, showing thereby signs of the most confidential relations, very remote from the usual maxims and the most vital interests of Great Britain. You must be on the alert about this matter and gather what you can from the ministers and intimates of the States, telling us of what you obtain on good authority. We send you a copy of what we hear from our Ambassador Zen is being done at Rome about the marriage of the Catholic's sister to the English prince.
Ayes, 98.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Nov. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
217. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king, in the midst of his almost incessant wandering, returned to the centre of this city the day before yesterday and gave his first audience to the Muscovite ambassador, who presented various curious and valuable things. (fn. 4)
The troops levied here for the Polish war and turned back, as I reported, will make no further attempts to go, and many have already proceeded to Flanders, as Denmark has again declared that he will not let them pass on any account.
Some Rochellese, having taken a French trading ship, brought it to Plymouth for the purpose of selling the cargo of iron, wool and other things, to the value of some 10,000l.; but this was not permitted, and indeed they feared they might be arrested and not allowed to leave, for which they are now making request.
The deputies of la Rochelle petitioned to send upon two ships which they have here, which came laden with salt, some munitions bought by them. They obtained permission with great difficulty, not by licence but by connivance, it being so expressed in the patents, with a refusal to permit the exportation of ordnance upon the excuse of the clamour made in parliament over the grant given to the Spanish ambassador; in fine, it seems that even over this French business they proceed in the end with the same reserve as they show to others.
But now it would appear as if the aspect of everything was going to change again, owing to some fresh quarrel with the Most Christian and because of the Palatinate, since the news that Bavaria has taken the whole of the Upper Palatinate, with some indication of virile action corresponding to the professions and declarations previously made. Because some messengers sent by Digby have openly divulged what Digby himself has written to his Majesty, who asks pardon for his too great credulity, adding that now he perceives quite clearly that neither Caesar nor Spain has any disposition to yield up what he has occupied unless by force. And while they speak fairly their acts do not correspond: Spinola and the infanta do not incline to give any satisfaction, not even a truce or an armistice for a few days. Everything is referred to Spain with the excuse that they have not sufficient authority, and insist upon exactness with pretexts that are clearly light and deceitful. It seems that before he went to Brussels he already said the same to Chiavort, the ambassador extraordinary, and to Trumbull, the agent. For this respect Digby has procured orders from his Majesty, with powers to take a higher tone, even to protesting and making a declaration (di potersi alzare nel registro a protesti fino, et a dechiarationi).
Digby himself arrived here yesterday evening. So far as can be gathered at present, he simply repeats and confirms the same. This not only relieves him of the imputation of not having obtained any success in his negotiations, but brings him great fame and glory, with a great change from the old general opinion, added to the praise attributed to him for having diverted the agreement between Mansfelt and Bavaria, when he found from conversation that the agreement had not been completed as he had at first believed, and sending him with 12,000 men to the assistance of Vere, which produced momentous results, especially if the last advices be true that the siege of Franchendal has been raised with great loss to the Spaniards in officers and artillery, although their partisans entirely deny this, announcing that the said duke will also enter that part to render assistance, and that possibly Spinola may send some reinforcements to storm that fortress, Manen and Heidelberg, which alone remain in the whole country out of the clutches of the eagle's claw.
It is therefore generally believed that Digby, foreseeing the future, has dexterously changed his style in his own interests, and this revives hope, although it is mingled in some with suspicions of a deeper scheme for the speedy realisation of what he has so long desired, while the Spanish ambassador shows himself more active than ever in a most remarkable manner, saying that if there is any blame it does not lie with his king, who has done what he could, but with the emperor. Some of the ministers who follow him are much cast down. They have sent a messenger with all speed to Simon Digby, who remained as agent in Germany, with instructions hitherto most secret. The preparations for receiving the imperial ambassador have slackened, and they do not yet know what will happen, although the emperor himself said that he wished to send him. Amid many similar things I will report the most significant. The favourite remarked to an intimate that the king will be compelled at length to make up his mind to war. For the moment they are discussing the maintenance of the forces of Mansfelt united with those of Vere and the others which are marching from Denmark and Brunswick. However, in view of the changes in the orders and in procedure—which now are very speedy and which vary from day to day, one may say with the change of wind, and like the air, one frequently observes lightning at this Court without thunder, not to speak of rain, storm or thunderbolts—so I will not venture to say what will be, but merely what is, especially as Digby had previously received orders to leave the greater part of his people on the other side of the sea and to come here with all speed in order to start immediately for Spain. Accordingly it is hard to believe, on many accounts, that he is going to retract, although many say so, and it is quite likely that they will be able to drag the matter out there, involving him in fresh knots, and that the resentment which they now display here will have no other object than to give them warmth.
The orders given me by your Excellencies about the guns shall be executed immediately.
The proposal of Cavalier Lazzari about the new mixture of silver, although carried so far that it only required the king's signature, has dropped owing to the refusal thereof. However, he stays on here, possibly in order to renew it, but rather, I fancy, for the other matter which I notified.
London, the 12th November, 1621.
[Italian.]
Nov. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
218. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Your Serenity's orders for the provision of corn have come at precisely the same time as the enclosed proclamation of his Majesty, issued after some exportation from these realms to Spain and elsewhere, begun two months ago. The present year has been one long winter, cold and rainy to a remarkable extent; no one seems to remember anything like it. Accordingly the harvest has in large measure been lost, though much corn remains in the country, chiefly towards Scotland and in Scotland itself. In some counties they have had floods for more than 300 miles. However, I have not ceased to labour with merchants and others within the limits of the price given me, upon condition of obtaining some licence through his Majesty's favour, which I should have asked, although your Serenity did not say anything about it, and with the idea of exporting some quantity in any case, although it would not be practicable without offering a rich bait. But owing to the lowness of the price I cannot find anyone to listen to me, especially as the merchants of the exchange here are advised and the Gazette itself writes that your Excellencies have made a bargain with the Flemings to a high amount for 26l. for corn of Stonenza (?), and wheat is current here for 18 Venetian lire 12 the bushel (stara) at least, whereas it usually sells for 10 or 15 at most. A calculation of the expense for the hire of ships for insurance, which at present is two per cent, higher owing to the pirates, for going to buy in the kingdom and other expenses of various kinds clearly shows that even for 26 lire and more the contractor would lose capital. The same would be the case with Irish grain, which, moreover, is of poor quality. We have also heard recently of a rise in prices in Holland, Zeeland, France, Denmark and Danzig, the granary of the world.
However, I will keep on the alert, and if after the sowing, which is now taking place, some fall occurs in the price, I will not miss the opportunity. Thus when I heard of a ship of Zeeland here, called the Hercules, of 300 tons burthen, laden with wheat and rye to the amount of some 6,000 bushels for Leghorn, I tried to make a bargain with the owners here, on learning that they might accept my price or less, because they bought it six months ago, when a last, that is 33 Venetian bushels, did not cost more than 12½l. sterling or 62½ ducats of current money in Zeeland. I tried to get them to promise to change their destination and proceed to Goro in the Gulf instead of Leghorn, but they would not make any bargain, least of all for wheat only, for which alone I have orders, or promise to send it to Venice before they heard from their other owners at Middelburg, to whom they have written. If they obtain permission I will try to arrange with them; and in any case they tell me that if they go to Goro and your Excellencies see fit, you can enter into negotiations with Signori Martin Hureau and Alvise di Boys at Venice, who will have instructions.
London, the 12th November, 1621.
[Italian].
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
219. Proclamation for restraint of the exportation of corn and grain, until the king is assured that there is sufficient for the needs of the realm with an overplus for export to foreign parts, as there is great scarcity owing to the cold and unseasonable weather, whereby the price has been raised in many parts of the realm.
Given at Theobalds, the 16th day of September in the 19th year of the reign. (fn. 5)
[English; printed.]
Nov. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
220. To the Ambassador in Germany.
The ministers of Milan have complained of a chain put across the river Oglio by our town of Brescia. This was done to prevent contraband of corn during the present scarcity. Such matters are the subject of friendly negotiations between princes, but the Governor of Milan had recourse to arms. Shots were exchanged with some casualties, but the Spaniards undoubtedly were the first to begin. You will use this information as our service requires, insisting that the city of Brescia was only using its undoubted rights, while the Governor of Milan used force when there was no need.
The like to:
France, England, Savoy, Florence, Naples, Zurich, Milan, the Hague.
Ayes, 94.Noes, 5.Neutral, 32.
[Italian.]
Nov. 13
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
221. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Letters from Augsburg relate that the Count of Mansfelt has reached the Lower Palatinate and entered Heidelberg. He immediately sent 2,000 horse to General Vere in Franchendal, who with this assistance forced the Spaniards to withdraw from the siege of that fortress, suffering much loss in their retirement from Vere's soldiers.
Vienna, the 13th November, 1621. Copy.
[Italian.]
Nov. 15
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
222. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador here declares absolutely that his king will send a good sum of money to the Palatinate and speaks of 30,000 florins. The king and queen had heard something, and if it be true they will expect even larger sums to follow, which, with the money supplied by the States, will enable them to maintain their forces in the Lower Palatinate without trouble, hoping that the King of Denmark will also do his share. From the conversation of the English ambassador I have discovered that the king here, feeling sure that his forces can maintain themselves, and that the Spaniards will not make further progress, will proceed to those parts with a good force.
The ambassadors for England have returned here from the camp, and it is thought they will start on their embassy in ten or twelve days. They hope to fulfil their commissions in little more than a month. I think they are going with the intention of satisfying his Majesty, hoping that his demands will be reasonable.
The ships of the States have brought to Rotterdam an English ship, which was going straight to Dunkirk from Spain. I have not yet heard of any complaint about it by the Ambassador Carleton. However, he is certain to make one, and probably is waiting for instructions from the Court or reclamations from the interested parties. This might cause additional ill-feeling.
A rumour from Amsterdam and elsewhere states that over thirty English ships laden with fish, and four other large ones, also English, have been taken by pirates. This has terrified this mart.
It is true that the deputies of Denmark suggested the league I reported, though it was proposed in the course of conversation; but the States have taken it up.
These last days some three hundred soldiers levied in England for Poland have arrived here, after being turned back from the Zont, the King of Denmark refusing them a passage under the pretext that they were going against the King of Sweden. The officers agreed to serve in the companies to fill up vacancies, as the States would not accept the charge of made-up companies, and they have returned to their country.
The Hague, the 15th November, 1621.
[Italian.]
Nov. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
223. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I spoke to the duke about the action of the Spaniards in the Grisons and the Valtelline. I told him that I was instructed to obtain his opinion on the subject. He hesitated and said that France was busily occupied. He would try to gain the pope, which would deprive the Spaniards of the pretext of religion. Something might be hoped from Florence, and England would help the cause more than anyone else. I replied that we could hope for nothing from England, who was too fond of the Spaniards, so that he abandoned his own flesh and blood in order not to injure his marriage, and it would be a sorry thing for us to rely upon his assistance.
Turin, the 16th November, 1621.
[Italian.]
Nov. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Milano.
Venetian
Archives.
224. GIACOMO VENDRAMIN, Venetian Resident at Milan, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The nuncio Scappi has written a letter to his Excellency since his return from the Valtelline. I do not know its substance, but it may offer congratulations upon the enterprise. I hear that they won him over by giving him to understand that they proposed to send two persons to put the finishing touches to the Romanising of the King of England (dar compimenti al Catholichismo del Re d'lnghilterra), a cleric and a layman, and he should be the cleric because he knows French, a necessary particular in such a business. Accordingly he hoped for a Cardinalship and other good things, and this has made him side strongly with the Spaniards. He confided all his hopes and plans to a friend of mine, making him promise not to tell me. I learnt this after his departure and since his Excellency's return to Milan.
Milan, the 17th November, 1621.
[Italian.]
Nov. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
225. GIERONIMO PRIULI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassador extraordinary of England has been to see me. He told me that the king will never arrange peace in this kingdom because he claims to negotiate with the Huguenots in detail and not as a whole.
He also told me that he knew full well that the demand made of the most serene republic by the Marquis of Coure for the introduction of the Jesuits into her dominions came entirely from the pope, and the King of France used it as an instrument to gratify his desires. He had discovered that they did not attach much importance to the matter, and so a refusal by the republic given reasonably and with prudence would in no wise offend either the king or his ministers.
Toulouse, the 18th November, 1621.
[Italian.]
Nov. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
226. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Digby gave a very substantial and frank statement to his Majesty and the council about the variations and fluctuations of his negotiations, which had finally been broken off without any reason, making a jest of this crown and clearly disclosing their want of sincerity and duplicity, as the orders in the hands of Bavaria and the infanta were very different from those in his, when he left the emperor with letters to both signed by his imperial Majesty, with instructions to the one to restore the few places then held in the Upper Palatinate and to the other to give up those taken in the Lower after the execution of certain articles in an agreement, which presented no difficulties. Prayers, petitions and protestations all proved alike unavailing. He concluded by saying that the pope, the said duke and the Jesuits had upset everything, and all the hopes given proved delusory and a snare, and there was no remedy but to draw the sword.
It seems that they have decided to print the entire course of the negotiations to make them plain to everyone. The king immediately took some noteworthy steps. First he gave instructions to his agent Simon Digby to show the emperor his fixed resolution to reinstate his son-in-law in the position he held when he married his daughter, while expressing his Majesty's disposition to remain a good friend if they would agree to do this without the shedding of blood, which was otherwise inevitable. Digby had told him of the slight results he had received and the difficulties and denials he had encountered since leaving the emperor, so different from their professions, which excited resentment at seeing so slight a response to his own sincere operations. At the same time his Majesty has ordered his Ambassador Aston in Spain to make complaint and insist upon the promise made by the Catholic to deprive the emperor of his assistance if he would not agree to a reasonable accommodation. This representation will also be backed by the Ambassador Digby, who has already sent a number of his people to France to await him, whom he left behind. It is proposed that he shall leave for Spain in about twenty days, and then he will give a full account of his proceedings.
His Majesty has since sent to the King of Bohemia, so I understand, advising him to proceed in person to the Palatinate in the way he thinks best. He has also sent 6,000l. to his daughter for her household and other provisions more openly than heretofore, as well as 30,000l., for the most part lent by two cavaliers and a merchant, (fn. 6) who were taken unawares by the request, being called before the council itself, to be employed for the maintenance of his army in the Palatinate. Reckoning the forces of Vere and Mansfelt (to whom the king has written, assuring him of help and protection), the levies of Hamburg and its neighbourhood, the troops paid by Denmark and the Prince of Brunswick, they estimate this army at some 23,000 men, and, after maintaining this for the winter, they propose to reinforce it with 15,000 or more men from this kingdom, with the help of parliament, which they have decided to reassemble immediately to provide the necessary money and supply all the things needed, not on the 8th February but on the 20th inst. This was decided on Saturday, the 13th, and it was followed on Sunday, contrary to custom, by the publication of other proclamations sent out through the whole kingdom with extraordinary rapidity by eighteen special couriers. This has caused universal hope and rejoicing. To satisfy the members of the assembly his Majesty, as a sign of confidence, has ordered Digby to give them a full account of all that has taken place. He hopes thereby to escape the disputes, the rancour, the passions and pretensions which, however, seem all but inevitable, especially upon the point of the treatment dealt out to so many magnates, with the idea of abasing those who are most in favour and in the suspicions disseminated by the Spaniards that by so much haste the king desires to obtain money and then do little.
There is no doubt but that parliament will immediately consider a war of diversion in Flanders, and men are already discussing the proposals made by the States of their fortresses as a base. But I do not think his Majesty has this intention as yet. I rather believe that the Spanish ambassador will throw every possible difficulty in the way of action, and try to maintain the credit here which has been worth so much to him (he was called to an audience which lasted more than three hours) by separating the affair from the Catholic and laying the onus on the emperor alone, buoying up the king with hopes that the Catholic will withdraw his help, while his Majesty fears the Spanish power and their adherents in these realms, desires the marriage and is persuaded by those who do not want to lose their pensions and hope for larger ones. Some think this marriage may be more easily settled now, if the Spaniards really desire to make it. Digby himself told me that so far the Spaniards have always spoken in the same way, and the breakdown cannot be attributed to them, since their ambassador at Vienna had protested to the emperor that if he did not yield in a reasonable way, his king would abandon him, and Spinola had assured him that if the emperor gave him leave he would remove his troops from the country without waiting an hour, because he knew well that the Catholic did not want an inch there. However, some say that it is quite clear that the emperor cannot subsist without the Catholic's help, whether open or covert, and the king says the same, and as it is most unlikely, for many reasons, that he will abandon him, they hope that the mask will fall and that his Majesty will ultimately be compelled to do more than he at present contemplates.
London, the 18th November, 1621.
[Italian.]
Nov. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
227. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In order to excite enthusiasm, to stand well as regards the emperor and to create an impression of determination, people now speak freely of the events in the Palatinate, a thing not done for some months. They rejoice greatly at the raising of the siege of Franchendal, especially at the way it happened. They also welcome the events in the Netherlands, though lamenting the outbreak of sickness in the camp of the Prince of Orange, but taking consolation in the fact that Spinola's army is suffering equally. Thus this would be a favourable moment for the ambassadors extraordinary of the States to come, against whom the members of the Spanish party are very fierce, the Ambassador Gondomar dreading nothing so much as a union between these two powers, while his Majesty has declared to the India merchants that he desires them to put themselves in his hands for what is reasonable. Thus he goes about saying that phlegm and patience are great virtues, but an excess of them is a vice, and he will never again listen to negotiations without making warlike preparations; he will open his heart entirely to his people, and he hopes they will open their purses and will live up to the declarations which they made at the dissolution of parliament, so that he may not want for men or money. He also says that he hopes for God's assistance in so just a cause, and trusts it may not be blessed unless he spends upon it his last drop of blood and goes to every length to bring matters to a proper termination. Quite recently he would not allow a dance which was being prepared at the Court, saying that he had to think of a dance of another kind.
As the commissioners about the case of the archbishop of Canterbury disagreed, the king gave judgment in his favour, releasing him and restoring him to his former condition. Some of the other ministers seem to have stayed in their downward course, if they are not yet rising, while others in the ascendant are ready for flight.
After all these events his Majesty has gone to Newmarket, where he will remain, as usual, until Christmas, it being enough for the prince to be here at the meeting of parliament. Although his Highness is exceptionally taciturn, he unbosoms himself much more than he used, expressing the same ideas as his father even more strongly (la qual Altezza solita di tacere sopra ogn'altro, slega puranco la lingua d'avantaggio assai che non faceva, col' espressione di simili e maggiori concetti di quelli che proferissi il Padre).
So far as I can gather, the king is not without hopes that his recent declaration and noisy preparations may serve his peaceful intent better, that once his son-in-law has arrived in the Palatinate many friends who now remain inactive will not fail him, that the emperor cannot hold the country because he has no fortresses of consideration, and that Bavaria will have enough to do to secure his own territory. Thus even Digby says that he hopes that more than one person will now repent of not having given him satisfaction. They also have some plans about your Serenity; one of the leading ministers in speaking to my secretary Zon said he hoped you would not now omit to help the King of Bohemia with money; to which he replied in the manner adopted by your Excellencies on several previous occasions, expressing the best intentions, but mentioning your own very heavy expenses, which also save him from spending more.
London, the 18th November, 1621.
[Italian.]
Nov. 20
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
228. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador, in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Advices from Augsburg confirm the arrival of Mansfelt and the withdrawal of Cordova from Franchental. He made a great effort to take the place but had to retire with the loss of 2,000 of his men.
Vienna, the 20th November, 1621.
[Italian.]
Nov. 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
229. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Your Serenity in your letters of the 8th October directs me to send the pieces recovered from the Santa Giustina to Cephalonia or Zante at the first safe opportunity. I have found a suitable ship, the Fedeltà, master William Driver, who is going thither. He will go on purpose to Ireland, as ships for Zante and Cephalonia rarely go there in the ordinary way, and then proceed straight on his journey. Your Serenity will give orders for the receipt of the pieces named in the enclosed bill of lading, though, as the salvage operations are still going on, I cannot give the exact number, and that the master be paid the amount given there.
London, the 22nd November, 1621.
[Italian.]
Nov. 22
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
230. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
We have heard nothing beyond Digby's arrival in England, owing to the contrary winds. Their Majesties are waiting to hear the result with great anxiety.
When I saw the English ambassador, I was again assured that the king here intended to proceed this winter either to the Palatinate or Denmark. The same ambassador told me in confidence that the king intended to ask his father-in-law to speak to the Ambassador Lando to try and procure some subsidy from your Serenity, especially at the present moment when he is trying to recover his state, and further that the said king intends to speak to me to the same effect.
Yesterday evening they sent the commissions to Aerssens and the others who are going with him to England hurrying on their departure with the favourable wind now blowing.
The Hague, the 22nd November, 1621.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 24
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Milano.
Venetian
Archives.
231. GIACOMO VENDRAMIN, Venetian Resident at Milan, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Nuncio Scappi remains undeceived. My informant tells me that they are more hopeful than ever that the King of England will embrace Catholicism and for this purpose the late Archbishop of Spalato, de Dominis, will come to Italy, with a safe conduct from his Holiness, having already returned to the bosom of Holy Church.
Milan, the 24th November, 1621.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Nov. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
232. To the Ambassador in France and the like to the other Courts.
Archduke Leopold and the Spaniards are dividing up the Grisons, as if they were their hereditary possessions. The Governor of Milan assists them; his desire for ambassadors from the Grisons is merely derisory as they are nothing but Spanish subjects. Meanwhile the governor is increasing his forces and filling his treasury and asks that the royal fleet under Filiberto may enter the Gulf. These things and the continued progress of the Spaniards in the Palatinate make all well-intentioned persons hope that the troubles in France will be of short duration.
The like to:
Rome, the Emperor, France, Spain, Savoy, England, the Hague, Florence, the Proveditori General.
Ayes, 142.Noes, 1.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Nov. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
233. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The reports circulated of late of a general defeat, now of a victory of the Poles, have caused general tension here, especially in his Majesty, though there are some who would not be sorry for a defeat.
The king has received a letter from the King of Poland thanking him warmly for the welcome given to his ambassador. His Majesty rejoices because that king professes to have restored Prussia to Brandenburg at his instance. The ambassador of Muscovy is here, not only for the purposes reported, but to beg the king not to help Poland.
The merchants of the Turkey company, chiefly because of the news that the pirates have taken seven other ships of English subjects, are petitioning either that another fleet may be sent against them, to which end it seems that the Ambassador Gondomar recently offered a fresh junction with his king's ships, or to negotiate a peace with them through an ambassador or other special messenger. They were told that this could not be done without loss of reputation to this crown, but unless one of these two courses be taken they protest that they cannot subsist and will be compelled to abandon the Levant trade.
The members of the East India Company are hastening the departure of their ships, which are all ready, to the number of ten, to recoup themselves for the damages suffered from the Dutch, and they will try to increase their numbers, to forestall the Dutch who are to start on that voyage within a month. The Earl of Oxford has been appointed commander, to sail in a fortnight, and they have selected twenty-five other ships, to be armed very soon, it is said. Although the earl has received this appointment in order to keep him out of the way, or to render him easy in the parliament, which opens next Tuesday, where he is considered one of the freest speakers, it is thought to have been given him with some other object than that of fighting the Dutch, against whom he would serve unwillingly, and it might rather tend to advance the negotiations with them for inflicting some blow upon the pirates, to assist succours for la Rochelle, to stand about (circondure) the Isle of Wight and at one and the same time to assist all the enterprises and undertakings of the crown.
As regards la Rochelle one cannot believe that he will have orders at present to do more than scour the sea and give help with much respect and reserve; which would serve to show their teeth a little to the Most Christian and divert his plans against those parts, and although suspicions and quarrels with that king are constantly being woven, yet the Ambassador Doncaster has had several audiences, and though he has only obtained very general replies, he does not seem to despair of peace, rather, however, because of fresh disturbances in that troubled realm than through his interposition.
As regards Ireland, where there are malcontents, various matters of consequence have been discovered. They have found secret instruments for making arms in some houses and some bronze canon buried. Some have suffered imprisonment for this while others, gathering a following in the country, have taken to the woods as outlaws. We hear that the Viceroy has gone against them in person and owing to suspicions of intelligence abroad they have recently sent two royal ships thither. (fn. 7)
Two ships of the Most Christian being driven by a storm into Plymouth, of those which were being armed at Havre di Grace, after a diligent search made by the governor, they found them full of the preparations of which they were already aware, and one of the captains was arrested, an Irishman and subject of his Majesty, who had upon him a paper full of slanders against his Majesty and the Government upon various points. (fn. 8) This and other matters, possibly even greater, which are not mentioned, are well calculated to make an impression upon the king, who has had the real or forged letter of the pope printed, inviting France to uproot this nest, and he has ordered that all the cellars under the Houses of Parliament shall be most carefully inspected before it meets.
His Majesty seems to hope that the parliament will readily afford him every means of making war, with little trouble on his part. Besides the abovementioned honour to the earl he will also try to conciliate Southampton and others in various ways. On the other hand the Ambassador Gondomar behaves very discreetly, acting in complete accord with the French ambassador so that the plan may not succeed, and that the request made of the city may not be listened to, for a loan of 100,000l., upon the security of the jewels which they proposed to send to Amsterdam.
They consider the lower part of the Palatinate as practically recovered by the army there, which will now be well paid. They think that Bavaria will find it very difficult to hold the upper when called upon to defend his own territory from the incursions of Jegheldorf. They also hope that the Electors will not readily confirm the imperial ban, since Digby reports that all the princes of Germany are weary and long for peace; accordingly some expect peace and others a very easy victory.
His Majesty has praised in high terms the reply given by your Serenity about the Jesuits, not merely alone with his ministers in his private apartments, but publicly when dining, laying stress upon many words of the request in their favour, of which he received a copy from the Ambassador Wotton and others, (fn. 9) and now one may say that it is passing through everybody's hands.
The despatch from Venice of the 22nd ult. has not arrived, not even at Antwerp, owing to robbery.
London, the 26th November, 1621.
[Italian.]
Nov. 29
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
234. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Bad news from the Palatinate has prevented the king and queen from fully enjoying the news which arrived from England on Tuesday that after hearing Digby's relation the king decided to convoke parliament. From every quarter they hear that his Majesty has shown great zeal in the matter and has resolved to proceed differently from his previous methods. Both they and the States wish that their commissioners about the East Indies were already in London to assist in the work. They are only waiting for a favourable wind. They took leave of the Ambassador Carleton on Friday and also visited this house. They think that the quickest and easiest way for the King of Great Britain to help these princes is to descend upon the coasts of Flanders with a considerable fleet, and so create a diversion. This is an old idea frequently recommended to England from this quarter; if they have a favourable opportunity I fancy they will try to impress it upon the mind of the king.
The Hague, the 29th November, 1621.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 See Wake's despatch of the 16/26 October, 1621.—State Papers, Foreign: Savoy.
2 Captain John Burgh, of Stowe, Lincoln, governor of Frankenthal, also called Burghower and Burrowes
3 Diego Lafuente, called Father Maestro in England.
4 The ambassador had audience on the 1/11 November, when he presented rich furs, carpets, cloths of gold and silver, a Persian tent. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 308.
5 See Cal. State Papers, Domestic, 1619–23, page 290.
6 Sir Baptist Hicks, Sir William Cockayne and Peter Van Lore.—Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 308.
7 Here is a sourd bruit of some troubles towards in Ireland and that young Tyrone is going thither with forces and great store of arms out of France. It seems that poor country is far out of tune and ready to take any occasion of revolting. ... I hear there is order taken to have men in a readiness and all other things necessary upon the first alarm, but yet I pray God we may have no cause to use them. Chamberlain to Carleton, the 24th November, 1621, o.s.—S.P. Dom., CXXIII, 122.
8 A letter from John Bownd, mayor of Plymouth, to the Council of the 29th October, o.s., mentions the arrival of the two French war ships at the end of the month. They did not come together but after a week's interval, the second arrived on the 28th. A letter from Ferd. Gorges to Calvert of the 11 Nov. from Plymouth mentions the French preparations and the presence of Irish soldiers in the ship. S.P. Dom., CXXIII, 69, 101.
9 Wotton sent the copy in his despatch of the 9th October. The reply was given to the Marquis of Coeuvres on 6th October to the following effect: Che I'antico instituto della Rep. ha sempre teso et mirato alla pace et che havendo essa per esperienza trovato che la religion de Giesuiti si occupa in seminar discordia et zinzanie fra Principi Christiani: Delle quali poi risultano guerre et altri mali; Per cio essa per istar lontana da questo periculo et per poter più facilmente conseguire il fine sudetto Risolve di tenir lontani dal suo stato simile sorte d'huomini. Desiderando nel resto che naschi altra occasione di dimostrar l'affetto suo verso sua Maesta Christma.—State Papers, Foreign: Venice. Siri (Memorie Recondite V, pages 325–7) gives a very different account of this reply.