Venice
January 1622, 1-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1911

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195-213

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'Venice: January 1622, 1-15', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 195-213. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88824 Date accessed: 27 August 2014.


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January 1622

Jan. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives
265. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have seen Cardinal Ludovisio and gathered various particulars from him. He suggested a league for the common defence, a matter which is already progressing favourably, and we reckon on Florence, Savoy and the emperor also entering. I thought he meant a league for the defence of Italy, but when I heard him mention the emperor, I said: What sort of a league is this to defend this province against the machinations of the Spaniards! He said it was a league against heretics for their destruction, and for the defence of Catholics, to save and preserve us all. I said: This must be a proposal made by the Spaniards, and I think they would enter such a league willingly themselves. Ludovisio answered that they certainly had not proposed it, but he also thought they would enter it. I then took leave, telling him that it was all a concoction of the Spaniards, though they did not wish their name to appear. It was an old idea tried under Pope Paul to prevent a real union. We need no league against heretics, as there is no appearance of their invading our states or suppressing our liberties, in fact the heretics have not been in such a bad state as they are now for a long time. It is the Spaniards who want to invade states and suppress liberties and against whom defence is required. It is best to keep one's enemies disunited and not to unite them by noisy appearances worth nothing.
I made some impression upon the cardinal, but I do not think it will suffice, because the matter has other roots. The evil intentions of the Spaniards are at their height, and if such a league were made, to enter it would involve the consequences everyone foresees, while to remain outside would create a bad impression. Ludovisio told me that the emperor would enter, Florence has previously declared his intention, and already helped the house of Austria, and Savoy would enter readily in the hope of acquiring Geneva and the Pays du Vaud. When I told Ludovisio that France had refused he answered that the king was too involved in his own affairs, but now since Luynes's death they might think differently, and he hoped they would enter the league also.
Rome, the 1st January, 1621 [M. V.].
[Italian.]
Jan. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
266. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
If the electorship is taken from the Palatine and given to Bavaria there will undoubtedly be war in Germany. But I do not believe that the Spaniards will ever permit it, and Ludovisio thinks they would make every effort to prevent it. Thus I have heard that they recently gave orders to treat seriously for the reestablishment of the Palatine in his dominions, upon conditions favourable to themselves, and the same for a truce or peace with the Dutch, all with the idea of delivering themselves from any attack from England and this other side, with orders for Spinola to bring all his troops to Italy, especially if the French had their hands free. I spoke to Ludovisio to this effect and he said it was all true.
Rome, the 1st January, 1621 [M. V.].
[Italian.]
Jan. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
267. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassador extraordinary of the emperor to the King of Great Britain about the Palatinate has started on his mission.
Vienna, the 2nd January, 1622. Copy.
[Italian.]
Jan. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
268. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The States here are very doubtful about what the King of Great Britain will do for the king here. As the Ambassador Carleton has stated that the Count of Gondomar is returning to Spain and Don Carlos Colonna is to take his place for a while as ambassador extraordinary, they feel sure that this is in order to lull the English king to sleep and keep him from taking any decisive steps. Others fear that he is so involved with the Spaniards that he will not be able to disembarrass himself. They also comment upon the permission granted to General Vere to return to England.
The Hague, the 3rd January, 1622.
[Italian.]
Jan. 4.
Senato,
Terra.
Venetian
Archives.
269. Whereas Alvise Valaresso, ambassador elect for England, must put himself in trim, that he receive his salary for four months in advance, as well as the donation of 1,000 gold ducats, and the other sums provided for horses, draperies and chests and the expenses of his chaplain and interpreter. The secretary shall receive 100 ducats to put himself in trim and 20 ducats each for two couriers, and he may take silver to the amount of 400 ducats, to be estimated by the officials of the Rason Nuove.
Ayes, 132.Noes, 3.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Jan. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
270. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The whole Court is scattered about the provinces, including the ambassadors, except the papal nuncio and the ambassador of Great Britain, the latter labouring for peace and the former urging on war.
Poitiers, the 4th January, 1621 [M. V.].
[Italian.]
Jan. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
271. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
As soon as the king returned to this city the ambassadors of the States had public audience, receiving greater honour than the last ones. They only spoke in general terms with great prudence without touching upon the Spanish monarchy, its aspirations, as the common enemies, and so forth, things which have an unpleasing sound in his Majesty's ears and from which all other ministers will do well to abstain from this time forward. They merely excused the delay in their coming, touched upon the advantages derived from their past union with this crown and expressed their readiness to afford every reasonable satisfaction to his Majesty and his subjects about the matter of the Indies. They received a brief but very gracious reply, an apology for not having received them before; a declaration that the king desired no more than what is just, and if his subjects do not accept this of their own accord he will prevail upon them to do so, and his friendly feeling towards those Provinces. They have not yet done any more or entered upon the other matters for which they have instructions, in the interests of the King Palatine, for which they will seek every opening, and that they may not be abandoned by this crown in the time of their great need. Upon this they have power to make various proposals, I understand, but they will be guided by the access and disposition which they find. On this subject they had a long discussion with me, pointing out that for this year they have borne alone the brunt of three armies without any loss so far; but Spinola has his troops already in the field and has decided on a fresh levy of 10,000 men. France, divided against herself and in her present state of mind, will hurt rather than help them. The king here is doing nothing for them and is even in difficulties about helping his own children, having so many disputes with his own people and desiring a marriage poisonous alike to his own realms and many other states. Although they have an alliance with your Serenity they have not as yet derived a farthing from it, hinting that they will find it difficult to resist such force alone, and if they lend an ear to negotiations for peace or a truce, which are certainly not on foot, despite rumours to the contrary, and which they do not desire, the whole force of the Spaniards would not remain idle but would descend upon Italy and upon your Serenity in particular, and you are already so cut off that their ambassador can only reach you by sea.
The Ambassador Triliers has declared that he has orders from his king not to visit Aerssens, just as in France they would not admit his son to kiss his Majesty's hands when he went with the ambassadors extraordinary last year, owing to his ill behaviour, they say, to that crown. He has paid his respects to Aerssen's colleagues, and expressed his willingness to meet them without him, to which they seem ready to consent; if this takes place it will be very remarkable and, I believe, unprecedented.
The same Ambassador Triliers told me that the Governor of Milan had arranged to give the Duke of Savoy 8,000 foot and 1,500 horse for his undertaking against Geneva. The Ambassador Golmar recently remarked to my informant: Now France, the Venetians and Italians are all going to recover the Valtelline whenever they wish it, according to the news received here; that the chief preoccupation of the Duke of Feria is to get the ministers of France and your Serenity removed from Switzerland and induce the emperor, perhaps, to proceed to Innsbruck and ultimately to the River Oglio to complete the chain. The ambassador does not make these remarks publicly, and instils fresh hopes that before Easter they will see the issue of the restitution of the Palatinate and of the marriage. To hasten this on the priests of this kingdom have jointly sent a person to him to petition for it, and it appears that the king allows his infatuation to lead him so far that he even fears the thread may be broken, more especially as he probably does not believe it to be very strong. So your Excellencies may imagine whether the Spaniards will not be able to drag things out, with such a disposition, especially when the leading ministers serve them better than they could wish themselves.
The leave which has come for Gondomar has indeed caused his Majesty some misgiving, but it has passed off in the hope that he will be more useful in Spain when Lord Digby arrives there.
The king submitted to the Council the proposal already reported to collect a force of 14,000 foot and 4,000 horse, so that it might decide how to lay the matter before parliament to obtain the money to support it. But the councillors, thinking it impossible to induce them to incur such an expense, which would certainly arouse much ill feeling in the kingdom, being so remote from its intention to make a diversion, decided upon a smaller force of 8,000 foot and 1,500 horse. This has occasioned a wide-spread announcement of such a levy. But the assembly being dispersed, as I reported, everything remains immature and nothing is being done. And there is no way of doing anything without money, the king having none and can have none unless he has recourse to his friends. Even if it were done it would prove very inadequate to the necessities. It would rather produce the effect desired and worked for by some that if his Majesty at length moves, he shall do so in such a way as to consume the oil of his strength uselessly, drop by drop. There is some fear that he may decide to impose taxes on his own responsibility to obtain money, as every day it is suggested to him that he should make his subjects absolutely obedient to him, as the King of Spain does; which would be a great and perilous innovation.
Rumours circulate that the Spaniards will supply the king's need of money by the dowry, though it is perfectly evident that they would not wish to supply any to enable him to make war in the Palatinate. Among the English Catholics here it is asserted that the dowry for the prince will consist of about 100,000l. for some years with the object of keeping a hold upon both his Highness and his father, so that they may not evade keeping their promises for the faith, well knowing that in order to effect the marriage and have the resolution the latter would go very far in his promises, possibly with the idea of not carrying them out afterwards or observing them in any respect (passano voci che Spagnoli suppliranno colla dotte et bisogno che tiene di denaro, ma ben e chiaro che non vorranno dargliene, perche faccia la guerra al Palatinato et fra questi Inglesi Cattolici e divulgato che la dotte al Sig. Prencipe sara di cento mille lire incirca per alcuni anni, con mira di tener inchiodato et S. Altezza et il Padre che non possino non attendere alle promesse per la religione et per altro conoscendo che per fare il matrimonio et havere la risolutione questo arrivera molto alto in promettere con mira poi forse di non essequirlo et attenderlo in punto).
I enclose the remaining letters of his Majesty and the parliament, with a protest made by the latter before its dispersion, which alone merits attention, while it is very short. When his Majesty received it, he tore it up, they say, remarking: God give me patience, especially as he learned that those members of the assembly who were not present when they rose did not wish to break up before the public acts of the body were all registered. On his arrival in this city I understand that he spoke very strongly against them, with the intention of having no more parliaments, although he promised the contrary, as I reported. He also intended to publish an antiprotest, though this would have given very great offence, and so would his idea, which was suggested to him, to punish the authors, who are the flower of the assembly. With this intention he appointed some of his councillors with instructions to see whether they had not passed the limits of the authority given them by the parliament, and to punish them if they had. He therefore summoned before him one of the clerks of the house and made him bring a book, containing a record of all that takes place day by day with the names of those who made the proposals, a thing they say no other sovereign had ever done before, and although after the Council had met for some while, and considering the delicacy and importance of the matter begged him to let it drop, yet news reaches me at this moment that Sir [Edward] Cuchs, who may be called the darling of the parliament, has been put under arrest, with the risk of going to the Tower. (fn. 1) It may be that all the wrath will fulminate against him alone, but the reason is clear as crystal.
All these things constitute a strain of no small moment upon the loyalty of the people who are deeply infected. If his Majesty does not summon another parliament they will have no body with sufficient authority to stand up to him; and so, being scattered they will either have to yield and humble themselves to his will or give themselves over to rage and despair; although if his Majesty, with his horror of disturbance, feared this he would mitigate and soften his touch (et tutte queste sono tentationi di non poco rilevo alla fede dei popoli molto contaminati, quali se S. Mta. non riunisce più in parlamento non haveranno neanco più corpo con auttorità, che possa far testa, onde separate o conveneranno piegarsi, et humiliarsi alla volontà di lei, o darsi al furore et alla disperatione, sebene se questa fosse temuta dalla Maestà Sua, quale tanto abhorisce li travagli, andarebbe con la mano più mite et soave).
London, the 6th January, 1621 [M. V.].
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the proceding
despatch.
272. Letter of KING JAMES to THOMAS RICHARDSON, Speaker of the House of Commons. (fn. 2)
Will preserve all the legitimate privileges of the House, but sorry they have wasted their time. Before the end of the session the three things most necessary to do are the passing of the subsidies, of bills and of a general pardon. If they have not these ready for the royal assent next Saturday, he will consider that they do not desire any further session, and will postpone everything to another time, allowing the members to return home.
Dated at Theobalds, the 17–27th December, 1621.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
273. The Commons to the King.
Thanks for the royal letter and favour. Are ready to make good laws, but owing to the shortness of the time humbly ask a more convenient time for their reassembling to finish what they have begun.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
274. Declaration of Parliament. (fn. 3)
Protest that their privileges are the undoubted birthright of English subjects. The urgent matters concerning the king, the late, defence of the realm and church, the making and maintenance of laws, redressing grievances are proper subjects of debate in Parliament and every member has the right to discuss them. Every member is immune from all imputations, imprisonment etc., except the censure of the House. If any member be accused for anything done or said in the House, the king shall be informed by consent of all the Commons without his giving credence to any private information.
[Italian.]
Jan. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Svizzeri.
Venetian
Archives.
275. MODERANTE SCARAMELLI, Venetian Secretary with the Swiss, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Mansfeld is said to be penetrating Alsace and has demanded a large contribution from Strasburg. They say a Duke of Brunswick has joined him with a large force. (fn. 4) He seems to have an understanding with the Duke of Savoy. Reports state that he suffers from no lack of money, having received a large sum from the King of England and secret assistance from your Serenity and other princes.
Zurich, the 6th January, 1622.
[Italian.]
Jan. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
276. To the Ambassador in England.
After directing you on the 31st to have audience of his Majesty upon current affairs, we thought fit to summon the Ambassador Wotton, as he has not been to us for a long while, and give him the particulars of which we enclose a copy. This may reach you before you go to the king and will certainly help you to continue your offices. We leave it to your prudence whether you will inform his Majesty of the help we have decided to give to the States, whereby he may see that we are not failing to do our part in the midst of perils both far and near.
You will see from the enclosed copy from our ambassador at Rome the difficulties they raise about the Spanish marriage, and how the Catholic ministers aim in this way at keeping his Majesty from taking any decisive step. You will use this not for a special office with the king, but as an opportunity may occur.
You will maintain friendly relations with the ambassadors of the States, telling them of the contribution we have decided to make to their masters, and saying that we hope for the best results from their offices, as we have heard of the protests made by the king at the Imperial Court, and how the emperor, being warned by the Catholic ambassador, immediately decided to send an embassy extraordinary to England, clearly in the hope of damping his Majesty's ardour.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 4.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
Jan. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
277. That the English Ambassador be summoned to the Collegio and the following read to him:
We decided to send for you some weeks ago to inform you of events in the Grisons, but you were away and the opportunity passed. But fresh events increase the need for the confidence which we have always shown with his Majesty's ministers. You will have heard of the occupation and devastation of Rhetia, which has all taken place since the treaty to restore the Valtelline. Now they have firmly planted their feet there and induced the three Leagues to implore their protection. They are also securing all the passes by forts. They are taking advantage of this to send forces from Milan to crush Mansfelt, who has moved against Alsace, and so surround Helvetia, especially the four towns, cutting them off from other powers.
We beg your Excellency to represent all this to his Majesty in order to render the urgency of the case more conspicuous, so that all princes and especially the greatest may have a care for the predominance of others.
We desire this office to be a token of our confidence in your prudent offices, as a testimony of our affection for the general welfare and an expression of our esteem for his Majesty.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 4.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
Jan. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
278. To the Ambassador at the Imperial Court and the like to the other Courts.
When the truce in Flanders expired and hostilities began between the Spaniards and Dutch by land and sea, the latter asked us to supply the contributions to which we are bound by treaty. Owing to the continuation of hostilities with the attack on Sluys and the capture of armed ships in the Strait, we have informed the States that when they have an ambassador or other minister here to whom we can make payment, we will at once pay the first monthly instalment and continue to fulfil our obligations under the treaty.
We send you word of this so that you may state the real nature of these provisions in case the matter is mentioned or if you are questioned.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 4.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
Jan. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
279. To the Ambassador at the Imperial Court and the like to the other Courts.
After our opposition to the Governor of Milan's intention to send armed forces without leave by our Crema and Bergamo road, the matter was referred to negotiation. We kept troops handy required for our safety, but removed the bulk of them on the approach of the bad season. The governor has sent troops to Alsace through the Valtelline, avoiding the said road, though it would have been shorter, and four soldiers of the royal cavalry have asked our leave to take that road. We consented, but their action confirms the justice of our contentions.
We send you this for information to use as the public service may require.
Ayes, 147.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Jan. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
280. GIOVANNI FRANCESCO TREVISANO, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They are assured here that the King of England, who has hitherto been deluded by the numerous promises given to his ambassadors by the emperor, has now decided to employ all possible force to reinstate his son-in-law and daughter. The decision is considered worthy and if taken earlier would have won greater consideration for that crown and caused the Palatine to suffer less harm.
Florence, the 8th January, 1621 [M.V.].
[Italian.]
Jan. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
281. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
We hear from France that the Rochellese are constantly, becoming stronger at sea. They have taken Roian near the mouth of the estuary of Bordeaux and so deprive that town of its trade, which is especially great now when they usually send wine to England, Flanders and elsewhere.
The English ambassador has sent his secretary to M. de Rohan. He will try to dispose him towards a general accommodation. There is not much to build upon, although they say that after the taking of Monur the king proposes to grant a general pardon, even if it is not accepted by the assembly of la Rochelle.
Turin, the 9th January, 1621 [M.V.].
[Italian.]
Jan. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
282. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
This morning I met Prince Maurice. He said things were turning out badly and they had the worst news from every quarter. If the King of England would join us at sea we could do some harm to the King of Spain, but there is no hope of that. He asked me if I had heard the reply made by that king to his parliament. I said no, and then he laughed, adding: He said that he would not believe that the King of Spain wished to make himself absolute(si vogli far monarca),asking if they knew his intentions, as he himself did not say so, if he did then they might believe it. The prince asked what I thought of this precious statement(bella risposta). I shrugged my shoulders expressing amazement. His Excellency continued: He means to make the alliance at all costs, and I think he wishes to let it be understood that he has gone so far that he can no longer recede.
He asked me afterwards whether it was true that the Archbishop of Spalato had received a safe conduct to go to Rome. He remarked that in addition to treating about the marriage he was also to treat for the reconciliation of the King of England to the church of Rome, with some reservations. The English ambassador and some members of the States asked me the same thing two days ago. I told his Excellency that I knew nothing of the matter, except what I had heard here. The prince remarked: If it is true the king is going to make himself a Spaniard altogether. This news is kept secret among the leading men in order not to offend the King of England, but they feel it very deeply owing to the important consequences involved. They are very anxious and have learned with great sorrow the King of England's remark that he did not want any attack on the King of Spain, he had no quarrel with him about the Palatinate, but only with the emperor.
The king and queen here are much distressed at the news of the strained relations between the king and the parliament in England, knowing that it will affect their interests. I have observed that the English ambassador regrets the news, fearing some disturbance. He remarked to me that there were two points in question, the royal prerogative and the privileges of English subjects. The first could not be changed by the will of the people, whose privileges ought to stand firm. Under discreet and sincere ministers equilibrium was maintained between the two. When disputes arose the king could only obtain supplies with great difficulty and the people could not make up their minds to satisfy their king. He said: I hope God will remedy all.
Some here speak very ill of that sovereign and that marriage is declared more pernicious, more dangerous and of more evil consequence than the one that took place in France.
Their Majesties here are daily expecting the queen's secretary Nedersol from London to learn the true state of affairs and what they may hope for, though every one fears that the whole of the Palatinate will fall into the hands of the Spaniards and the house of Austria.
The English ambassador told me that Don Carlos Colonna will not go to London after all, and consequently Gondomar will not move thence.
The Hague, the 10th January, 1622.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
283. To the Ambassadors in France and the like to the other Courts.
We hear from Rome of a projected league against heretics, strongly backed by the Spaniards and the house of Austria, as it will advance their interests and tend to separate some from their ancient friends. Those who do not enter the league will become objects of suspicion. It will also enable the Spaniards to secure their hold upon the Grisons and the Palatinate, obliterating the memory of their promises to make restitution. It will also exasperate the heretics and drive the Hungarians and Germans to seek help from the Turks, who are now free from other distractions, it will hinder the French Huguenots from submitting to their sovereign, and will bring about an opposition of alliances most prejudicial to the union of States, the public peace and the Catholic religion itself. The operations of the Spaniards are not to regulate the consciences of people but to deprive them of their states and help them to secure the subjection of Catholic powers also.
The like for information to:
Germany, Spain, Naples, Milan, Florence, Zurich.
To England and the Hague add:
If this rumour has reached those parts and you perceive any slackening in their resolutions, you will point out that the suggestion was made in order to lull some to sleep and to alarm others, for their own special purposes, and that our republic recognises quite well that so far as we are concerned the object is merely to separate us from our good and sincere friends.
Ayes, 142.Noes, 3.Neutral, 16.
[Italian.]
Jan. 13.
Collegio.
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
284. The English ambassador came into the College. When sent for on Saturday he excused himself owing to his indisposition. Before the deliberation of the Council was read to him he said:
During the many years that I have served my king in this republic I have never allowed so long an interval to elapse before coming to audience. I regret it, but am consoled by the reflection that a lack of negotiations by the ambassadors argues perfect relations between the powers. I do not care to meddle with affairs more than my position obliges me, and my indisposition has kept me away. The autumn has proved an unfortunate one. I took fever here and went to Padua to get well. In three weeks all my household fell sick, and during my convalescence I suffered from vertigo. I had an attack last Saturday when your Serenity sent for me. (fn. 5)
Here the ambassador stopped and the deliberation of the 7th inst. was read to him. After it had been read a second time he resumed:
I thank your Serenity for the news and take it as a fresh testimony of your confidence in my king. I heard something about it from a friend in those parts and his Majesty will have received word because the ambassadors sent to the States were to proceed to London. Nevertheless I will write to his Majesty to-morrow, and I am sure he will be pleased.
I may now pass to other questions. First, I present my good wishes for the new year. Secondly, I thank the Senate for choosing Sig. Alvise Valaresso as ambassador to my master.
I pass on to another matter. Without the merciful consideration of your Excellencies Colonel Peyton will be ruined. He came to Venice for two reasons. Hearing that the republic proposed to raise new levies he thought proper to offer his services. Certainly no one can more easily obtain leave to enlist troops in his Majesty's dominions. Secondly, he finds he has spent more than he receives in your service, and has got into serious debt owing to his expectation of being paid at the rate of five English shillings to the Venetian ducat, whereas he is paid quarterly at the current rate of exchange. He does not come to make a complaint because he feels sure that the agreement made by Sig. Piero Contarini will be carried out with the best intentions without any idea of harming him, and the loss was slight at the time owing to the small differences in the exchange, but the present difference makes his loss excessive. He deserves the favour of your Excellencies in the matter because through his modesty and reserve all the others have kept quiet.
There remains a last point, a delicate matter. News has reached me of a certain captain come to this city to treat for a command for the Count of Mansfeld in the service of your Excellencies. (fn. 6) This captain is in the Palatinate where they have great need of his services, and to take him away would affect them seriously there. If the news is true I beg your Excellencies to revise your decision as the count can serve you better where he is than by coming here. I will read a letter of the emperor which was intercepted with many other documents, and of which a copy was sent to me. It was addressed to a friar Giacinto, well known here, as having been banished for a scurrilous sermon some years ago. (fn. 7) He then began to read the letter which was dated the 9th November. It ran substantially as follows:
Very reverend father in Christ.
It is highly important for our service that our decision in favour of Bavaria be not known. Here the ambassador remarked that this clearly meant Caesar had given the Palatinate to Bavaria. He then continued to read: The knowledge might deprive Christendom of this boon, as without the Spaniards we cannot sustain such an investiture of Bavaria, and to do it without informing them beforehand might give offence. The Catholic ambassador here has made some allusion to it. We therefore caution you.
The ambassador added: You see they need the forces and person of the Count of Mansfeld. I may add that it is a bad practice to employ friars in worldly affairs. The emperor, hearing that these matters have been discovered, intends, I understand, to send an ambassador extraordinary to my king. I hope not.
Sig. Lorenzo Capello, the senior councillor replied: Your Excellency is very welcome and we wish you all prosperity. The Savii will consider the questions which you have raised. The Senate will be highly gratified at the satisfaction afforded by our ambassadors, as they are ever anxious to show their esteem for his Majesty.
The ambassador then took leave and departed.
[Italian.]
Jan. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
285. To the Ambassador at Rome and the like to the other Courts.
We have received no letters this week from our ambassador at the Imperial Court, and do not know the reason. When our Ambassador Gritti went to pay his respects at Christmas, the emperor seemed surprised to see him because he had not been to audience for so long. Gritti explained that the nuncio had advised him to keep away from public functions to avoid any trouble with the Spanish ambassador. The emperor said he knew nothing about it and desired him to take his place. Accordingly Gritti went to vespers on the day of the Circumcision when an altercation about titles occurred with the Spanish ambassador to the general scandal. The emperor afterwards summoned a secret council to discuss something, but we do not know the result, though we fear that the Catholic's authority will have great influence with him. As various accounts of these events may get about we have sent you these particulars for information only. We have sent to our ambassador for full particulars.
The like to:
France, Spain, Turin, England, the Hague, Milan, Naples, Florence.
Ayes, 166.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
The letters were altered on the 15th because of the arrival of Gritti's despatch, but those to England and the Hague were sent because the ordinary of Augsburg left on the 14th inst.
[Italian.]
Jan.14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
286. To the Ambassador in France and the like to the other Courts.
We approached the Count of Mansfelt about engaging him for our service. A report got about and the English ambassador here has said something about it. If any one speaks about it you will profess to know nothing, adding that if the republic engages him it will not do so with the object of moving men and disturbing the peace, as our only desire is defence.
To England and the Hague after the advices as follows:
If anything is said about this at the Court or you hear any remarks disparaging to our upright intentions, you will first say that you have no information but that the republic will certainly not remove him from his present useful employment, but has only considered his safety in what may afterwards occur.
To England add further:
We enclose a copy of the exposition of the Ambassador Wotton, which has led us to write this. As his exposition called for no reply on our part we thought it best to pass it over.
To Rome, France and Savoy add:
The English ambassador has read in the Collegio a letter written to Father Hyacinth by the emperor charging him not to make known in Spain the investiture already given to Bavaria of the Palatinate and the title of Elector in order not to give offence at that Court and cause it to delay the assistance without which he could not complete the affair. The ambassador considered the point a very serious one. This will serve you to be used cautiously for the public service.
Ayes, 133.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Jan. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
287. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Sir [Edward] Cuch was sent to the Tower immediately after his arrival, and they have issued orders for some others to be stayed in the country, though there are now whispers of drawing back somewhat. The deep grief upon public considerations felt by men of all ranks and conditions cannot be expressed; if their tongues do not speak, their eyes and hearts are not still, especially as the king has formally declared to his Council that he will have no more to do with parliament, as I reported some suspected, letting it be understood that any one who should venture to persuade him otherwise, would excite his displeasure, as he did not want so many little kings in his realm, who aspired to be above him. However this has not yet been announced by proclamation and his Majesty seems very uneasy. I hear on good authority that he has become exceedingly afraid since this declaration of some disturbance or revolt in the country, and has some idea of postponing the time for it, and has even subsequently submitted the matter to discussion. Thus the aspect of affairs changes from morning to evening more than ever, to the amazement of every one, including the most important. (II Cavalliero Cuch fu fatto passare alla Torre subito dopo il suo arrivo, et si espedi anco ordine perche alcun altro in Paese fusse fermato. ma hora si susura di qualche retrattatione; non è esplicable l'interno dolore per publico rispetto, che prova l'universale in tutti li gradi et conditioni, che se non parla con la lingua, non tace con gli occhi, et con il cuore, mentre e seguita anche formale dichiaratione del Re al suo Consiglio di finire del tutto il parlamento come scrissi, che da alcuno era suspettato, lasciandosi intendere, che chi ardisse di persuaderlo altrimente farebbe contra il suo gusto, non volendo tanti regoli nel suo Regno, che mirano ad essere sopra di lui; non è però cià ancora seguito per proclami, et la Maestà Sua, apparendo piena di inquietudine da buona parte intendo che sia entrata in grandissimo timore doppo tale sua dechiaratione di qualche travaglio o rivolta in questo paese, et sia in qualche pensiero di protraherne il tempo; anzi che habbia ciò posto doppo in consultatione cosi cangiandosi la faccia, più che mai dalla mattina alla sera con stupore di ogni uno anco del più importante.)
It may be contended that he has taken such a momentous step in order to induce the Spaniards to satisfy him more readily and to advance the business at Rome with the idea that in any case he can always summon another parliament, though only if he finds himself being deceived beyond all reason since he is determined not to come to a breach except at what he will interpret as the last necessity and if he summons another he will arrange by his operations that the counties and towns will choose members more to his taste who are likely to be less bold after the fall and disgrace of the others, ruling his conduct by the way in which the Spaniards and the emperor treat him. The worse matters grow in Germany the Grisons and everywhere the greater becomes his doubt of being able to accomplish anything by force, and the stronger his desire that negotiation alone must suffice. In any case he feels persuaded that whenever he really wishes to act he will always find his subjects ready for war, just as at times he has readily allowed himself to be led to treat the States ill as well as some other powers of those of whom he has reason to believe that the moment he chooses to change his attitude they will open their hearts to him and let him do what he likes. Thus I have always thought that those whom he fears and from whom he wants something which he is not sure of getting have a great advantage over those of whom he is perfectly sure (si può discorrere che habbia fatto cosi gran passo per allettare più facilmente Spagnoli a sodisfarla et per avantaggiare il negotiato a Roma con concetto, che ad ogni modo ella possa chiamare sempre un altro parlamento, quando si veda dirò tuttavia solamente più che da dovero defraudata risoluta di non capitare a rottura, se non per l'estremo di quella che sara interpretata da lei necessità, et che chimandone un altro le Provincie et le città, quali doveranno eleggere novi soggetti, per li ufficii et pratiche sue si elegessero di maggior gusto di lei, et che fussero per apparire meno arditi dopo cadute et mortificate le dette piante, et altre, et cosi regolarsi secondo che Spagnoli et l'Imperatore la tratteranno; quanto più precipitano le cose in Alemagna, in Grisoni et dapertutto, tanto più accrescendosi in diffidenza dipoter valere con la forza, et in desiderio che il solo negotio le basti; che d'ogni modo si persuada quando voglia da dovero di poter sempre havere la dispositione per la guerra dei suoi sudditi, come anco tal volta facilmente si è lasciata condurre a trattare male li Signori Stati, et alcun altro prencipe di quelli, che ha potuto credere che sempre che voglia mutar stile le siano per apprir il cuore et lasciar che si volga al suo piacere; essendomi sempre parso che quelli quali sono tenuti da lei et da quali desidera alcuna cosa con qualche dubio di ottenerla, habbiano vantaggio maggiore che quelli dei quali si confida in tutto).
On the other hand, supposing he summoned another parliament, owing to the account which the whole country will have heard from the members returned from the last, which will doubtless spread abroad great suspicion and ill feeling, it is unlikely to be composed of other individuals, and if the people vary in their selection they will do so only in order to choose more daring men, and will not admit any of his Majesty's councillors, courtiers or dependants, many of whom have previously taken part, and they will make even greater claims than at present, being more irritated and having greater reason, although in such case there are some who believe that the king would allow them to vent their feelings against those whom they hate most, in order to forward such matters as he desires (ma dall'altro canto, quando si chiamasse un altro parlamento per le relationi, che tutto il paese haverebbe havuto da suoi deputati ritornati da questo, che senza dubio sceminiranno gelosie et disguste grandi, non è gia da credersi che facilmente fusse composto di altri soggetti: ma che il populo se variasse l'elettione, la variasse solo per fare de più arditi et non ammettesse alcuno dei Consiglieri, dei corteggiani, et dei dependenti della Maestà sua, dei quali molti vi sono hora incorporati; anzi pensasse a maggiori pretensioni, che non fa al presente, irritato di vantaggio et vedendosi sopra maggior occasione, benche in tal caso vi è chi crede ch'ella lo lasciarebbe sfogare contra quelli che più odia, per aiutare a gusto suo le cose quali che sono).
Apparently the members of the Spanish party are at present somewhat divided among themselves; but this is considered a trick in order to enable them to penetrate all affairs more readily, and so they remain more than ever at his Majesty's side in the closest possible union while they make every effort to conceal the proceedings and keep secret the transactions which might increase their universal unpopularity, although that has already reached the last extreme. In conversation men go to every length; they are suspicious of witnessing a change of religion, that the Spaniards will come to his Majesty's assistance; that he is about to undertake to impose taxes and so forth. Even the greatest cherish these fears and suspicions; but actually they are merely shadows based upon appearances and it is possible to surmise anything with the king's taciturnity to all who do not belong to the said party; all the other ministers and councillors, no matter what their rank, have no part whatever in the actions of his Majesty (quelli del partito di Spagna pare che hora si trovino in qualche disunione fra loro, ma è creduta artificio, per saper più facilmente penetrare et abbracciare tutti li affari onde più che mai all'orecchie di Sua Maestà siano anco con strettisimo nodo insieme, et vadino nascondendo ad ogni potere le attioni e tenendo secreti quei trattati, che possono accrescerli l'odio universale, benche già gionto all'ultimo colmo. Si passa con li discorsi ad ogni segno, et con li sospetti di vedere cangiamento di religone, che siano Spagnoli per aiutare Sua Maestà, che sia per darsi ad impositione di gravezze, et cose simili, temendone pure, et essendone ingelositi li più grandi: ma in efetto sono sole ombre, che vanno girando sopra le apparenze et tutti li possibili nella taciturnità del Re con tutti quelli che non sono al detto partito; tutti gli altri Ministri et Consiglieri di ogni grado restando senza participatione imaginable delle attioni della Maestà Sua).
The Ambassador Carleton has sent from the Hague some intercepted letters from the Cardinal Lodovisio to the nuncio at Brussels, in which he speaks of a plan to bring up the Palatine's children as Catholics if any part of his state is restored to him, and shows great application so that arms be not laid down and that the imperial ban may be executed, and that once achieved they may find a way to satisfy the king here. If this were done a leading minister here told me that his Majesty would immediately give the title of Bohemia to his son-in-law, though that would do little good if not followed up. But if he receives such things, which possibly his ministers are more sorry than glad to send him, he only shows them to the favourites and says nothing about them. Thus he negotiates two or three hours absolutely alone with the Spanish ambassador, so that no one can discover much beyond the general proceedings and those of the highest birth, experience and authority, councillors of twenty years standing, know least.
The king has ordered the Ambassador Doncarchen to proceed to Lorraine, to prevent the levies being raised there from attacking the Palatinate. He has also written to assure the king of Bohemia that he shall have the 8,000 foot and 1,500 horse, I reported; this causes amazement because no one knows how he can get the money. He causes some councillors to announce that every town and county must maintain so many soldiers, as is done in other states and under other princes, but resolute replies are heard that they will never do it. They even go so far as to announce that he has accumulated a good sum of money in his private purse, but his slender revenues, his generosity in spending and the daily evidence of need more than prove the contrary. Even the levies would not be adequate, though many desire them, as it would mean something done. His Majesty has made no communication upon the subject to the ambassadors of the States, who interpret the silence as a great discourtesy, since the men could not be sent to the Palatinate without passing through their territory.
London, the 14th January, 1621 [M.V.].
[Italian; deciphered.]
Jan. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
288. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I can understand that the States, not perceiving any firm resolve in his Majesty to join them and separate himself from the Spaniards and create a diversion, are not so anxious to have these troops pass through their country, and will not readily offer facilities until they see the best possible union and confidence reign. Their ambassadors told me that they had come to use their ears more than their tongues; they did not propose to weary his Majesty or move him by their representations, because that was impossible, as shown by the attempts of numerous ministers from all parts, but they would leave him to do what his own nature and interests prompted. If these did not move him certainly words would not, as they are thrown to the winds. In any case they could only advise him to act quickly, as all delay would serve to establish the house of Austria in Germany, and to make diversions and not think of sending troops to the Palatinate, because all the power of their realms is clearly unable to obtain by that way what is required; the Catholic is as feeble by sea as strong on land, and they should strike him there.
It is announced that they have authority to offer four fortresses to his Majesty if he will help them and declare himself openly on their side, putting themselves under his protection, and to offer him as large a dowry as the Spaniards offer, for some Protestant. But although these things are in the mouths of important persons they are not yet well authenticated. If they could they would like to induce his Majesty to attack Flanders, to unite a large fleet against the West Indies and join fleets for an early attack on the Spanish coasts. They may have hoped to induce him to take such steps when they came here full of hope at a moment that seemed most propitious to every one, but now things have changed, they fear they will not be able to strike the blow or perhaps even to speak upon such points. Accordingly they have written home, although they already have power not to go further than they may think advisable.
The king presses them about the India business, a bad sign, as it is more likely to arouse mistrust than confidence. There is also the matter of the whale fishery and the custom imposed in their country upon foreign cloth, of which I will send particulars at another time. They have had a private audience but obtained no reply except that they would appoint commissioners, probably chosen from the earlier ones, all satisfactory to the Spanish ambassador, and that they would discuss nothing before satisfaction was afforded about the India affair. Just as the Spanish ambassador saw the king privately for two hours after their public audience, so before this private one, he spent the same time with his Majesty, as if his Majesty took his advice as to everything that he should do, accordingly he is called the principal councillor. But the operations of their ambassadors are watched and possibly secretly opposed as much by the French as the Spaniards. To make the king do as he wishes the ambassador undoubtedly makes him take steps against his will, and as the Spaniards are constantly gaining ground both in deeds and in promises, it happens that at first although the king did not think he would do anything he is obliged subsequently to carry it out either from fear or induced by fresh hopes (per terrarsi il Re al suo disegno fa dei passi senza dubbio contra sua voglia, in effetti, et in promessi essi Spagnoli sempre avanzandosi più oltre; aviene, che sebene al principio non stimava di doverne effettuare alcuna, convenga essiguirla poi, o per timore o per nove speranze).
According to my careful observations I find that Gondomar's objects are to keep his Majesty apart from the Dutch to whom he has never been thoroughly well disposed, as I have frequently reported, and if possible to bring about such strained relations as might lead to an outbreak or even open war. But even if he created the desire he could hardly hope for full success, from his knowledge of the king's character and he may aim merely at advancing his interests by reprisals at sea, or better still by a prohibition to English subjects to enter Dutch service. That would be a point of the utmost consequence and perhaps in order to ward off this stroke the king in the past has shown himself ready to grant levies to everyone else including the Spaniards themselves, and it may have finally induced him to keep a fleet on the coast of Spain and in the Mediterranean, as he did last year, under colour of pursuing the pirates, but really in order to defend those coasts and seas from the Dutch, who would either respect his force or would have to face a rupture. In short I perceive clearly that so long as the present negotiations survive and their hopes, whether well grounded or no, he can never, I will not say help them, but not even remain without differences and without playing upon their interests.
What your Serenity advises in your letters of the 10th December about the offices passed with the emperor, confirms the impression here that it took place at the instance of this king, and war in Italy and Flanders would not displease him, as it might relieve the Palatinate, about which and nothing else, he plans and thinks.
London, the 14th January, 1621 [M.V.].
[Italian; deciphered.]
Jan. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
289. To the Ambassador in France and the like to the other Courts.
A dispute nearly occurred between the Ambassador Gritti and the Spanish ambassador about titles. The emperor and his ministers have done nothing to support the justice of our cause. This shows the predominance enjoyed by the Spaniards, thanks to their gold and assistance. However, as the empress is to pass through our territory on Thursday next, we have given orders for the highest honours to be paid to her. This is for information.
As the previous letters to England and the Hague were sent on the 14th, that the following words be prefaced: Since we wrote on the 14th letters have arrived from the Ambassador Gritti; we consider it necessary to suspend the decision which we sent, and therefore we write you as follows:
Ayes, 148.Noes, 2.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
Jan. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
290. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English resident continues to press the ministers here for a reply to his king's last letters to his Majesty in favour of the Palatine. They have held long conferences upon this, at which the Catholic ambassador has always assisted, but they have not yet made up their minds, and the resident is still detaining the courier whom he is instructed to send off at once with the reply. They proposed to write to his Majesty that as the Count of Swartzemburgh, the imperial ambassador, had already started, he would give him satisfaction and a reply, but they fear this might prove too late a remedy and insufficient owing to the determination shown in the king's letter that his son-in-law shall be reinstated in his dominions and titles.
Vienna, the 15th January, 1622. Copy.
[Italian.]
Jan. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
291. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The pope has decided to appoint a commission of twelve cardinals for the propagation of the Catholic faith. Besides Cardinal Sauli, dean of the Sacred College, Cardinal Mellini, his vicar, and Sancta Susanna, his secretary, he has appointed one for almost every prince; thus there is Soler for the emperor, Sourdi for France, Borgia for Spain, Sacrati for Poland, Farnese protector of England, Barberino protector of Scotland, Lodovisio protector of Savoy, Bandini of Florence and Ubaldini.
Rome, the 15th January, 1621 [M.V.].
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Coke was committed to the Tower on Dec. 27th, old style, the date of this despatch.
2 Cal S. P. Dom., 1619–23, page 322, Nos. 45–47.
3 Cal. S. P. Dom., page 322, No. 53.
4 This must refer to Christian of Brunswick Wolffenbüttel, bishop of Halberstadt, but the report was incorrect as Christian was at the time in the jurisdiction of the bishoprie of Paderborn. Winter: Geschichte des Dreissigjährigen Krieges, page 244.
5 Wotton mentions his sickness and that of his household in his letters home of the 12th Oct., 16th Nov. and 7th and 8th Dec., 1621. Of this sickness there died his steward, William Leete and the Secretary Gregorio de' Monti. Pearsall Smith:Life and letters of Sir Henry Wotton, ii, pages 218‐221.
6 Captain Bernardino Rota. For the negotiations of Venice with Mansfelt see Zwiedineck Sudenhorst: Die Politik der Republik Venedigs wàhrend des Dreissigiahrigen Krieges, i., pages 191–3, 206, 207.
7 In a letter to Carleton from Venice of the 2nd September, 1622, Wotton calls him "The vagrant negotiating Capuchin Hyacinth, the outcast of this town." State Papers, Foreign: Venice.