Venice
January 1622, 16-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1911

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213-223

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'Venice: January 1622, 16-31', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 213-223. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88825 Date accessed: 31 October 2014.


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January 1622

Jan. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives
292. ALVISE CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Capuchin friar (fn. 1) is certainly negotiating for assistance for the emperor and in the interests of Bavaria about the Palatine's vote and state, acting throughout with the nuncio. I learn that they have granted 80,000 crowns for the first, but will not agree to the second, because the King of England is growing angry. Since the return of Digby from the emperor the English ambassador has recently made very strong representations declaring that just as his king abstained from fomenting or assisting the Palatine in his enterprises, so he is determined to assist him with all his forces to recover his own state. He had deferred doing so up to the present owing to the hopes held out to him by this crown, and he certainly would see that all that the emperor had taken from him was restored. Now seeing the attitude taken by the Catholic he would delay no longer, as he would not allow his son-in-law's total ruin, and had begun to prepare his forces.
They replied that they knew what his Majesty of England had done and certainly would not fail to fulfil the promises made to him. They would instantly induce the emperor to make full restitution, and they have sent to tell the Grand Chancellor of Burgundy to go to Caesar to negotiate upon these particulars. They assured him they would use every effort to induce the emperor to make terms with the Palatine, drawing his attention to the King of England's intention to help him, and the rising and uniting of all the heretics if they saw his electoral vote taken away, and reverting to the prejudice that the house of Austria might suffer if the Duke of Bavaria became an elector, whereby it would not prove difficult for those princes to attain to the empire.
Since these representations of the English ambassador they have sent word to the Count of Gondomar to stay on, although they had previously given him leave to return home.
Madrid, the 16th January, 1621 [M.V.].
[Italian.]
Jan. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
293. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Sir Thomas Roe, the new English ambassador, has arrived with three English ships laden with much merchandise. He has not yet visited the Grand Vizier or kissed his Majesty's hands. He did not receive the refreshments customary on the arrival of ambassadors, things being in great disorder here owing to the inexperience of the ministers.
The Vigne of Pera, the 20th January, 1621 [M.V.].
[Italian; deciphered.]
Jan. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
294. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
We hear from Spain that the Catholic king has ordered the release of the English ships taken by pirates and re-taken by his fleet, with some compensation to those interested in the capture, he himself resigning his share. (fn. 2) A reply has also come to the office which the king directed after Digby's return there, accompanied by a most specious letter of that monarch, showing that he does not approve, nay even blames the emperor's conduct, and finally orders a truce for his own forces in the Palatinate and for the emperor to do the same, thus making a beginning towards complete restitution, in order to give satisfaction here. With this purpose they have decided to send the Chancellor Pecchius of Brabant to Germany, or some one else if he cannot go, to protest if the truce is not carried out, provided the Palatine render obedience to the emperor in order to induce him to do this, threatening not to co-operate any more with his forces in the occupation and to withdraw his help from that country, professing that he would do this immediately did he not feel sure that the emperor was about to accede.
They seem quite satisfied with this reply here and hope for a prosperous issue, even those who are considered incredulous attaching some credence thereto, confessing with the others that they ought not really to complain of the Spaniards. The only drawback is that it cannot help the Palatinate, unless it is immediately followed by the other things aforesaid, and it might lead Mansfelt to disband, as he is only living from day to day, and to other unfortunate events whereby the other small places outstanding must of necessity fall into the hands of the emperor or Bavaria, as they would be hemmed in on every side, with provisions for March at most.
I find that they have recently renewed very secretly the defensive alliance between this crown and Denmark, a matter initiated by Denmark's last ambassador here, as I reported.
After long consultation and hesitation they have issued the proclamation for the total dissolution of the parliament. At the end the king expresses the hope that he may soon have occasion to summon another. The word hope excites much comment, as to whether it is intended to soothe and encourage the people, who are much perturbed, or because of the marriage or something else desired by the king. (fn. 3)
As regards the marriage an important minister has declared that the dispensation has been granted at Rome, and he had seen it in his Majesty's hands. But I do not hear this from anywhere else, and when I asked the Spanish ambassador whom I met at the prince's masque, he said no, as they hoped and required that something should be done on this side, which means more mildness and promises for our holy Catholic religion.
It is reported that Giovanni (sic) de Dominis, still known as the Archbishop of Spalato, has received a safe conduct from his Holiness, by means of the Spaniards, to go and treat for the conversion of his Majesty and the union of the church here with ours, being sent by the king. As early as last September I wrote to the proper quarter that the Spaniards were scheming for him to leave here, but I would not venture to say with such an object, though God grant that all his objects are good, just as they were bad when he came here.
The Ambassador Gondomar, I hear on good authority from more than one quarter, has told his intimates that his king will certainly have war with your Serenity next summer, as they had decided in Spain to attack the republic vigorously and the Dutch simultaneously so that neither should help the other. I have also heard that the Spaniards mean to attack your Serenity because of the offences they claim to have received, chiefly from the league with the Dutch, and that the emperor shall attack Friuli, for which purpose he may have arranged the marriage with Mantua, after matters are settled in Bohemia and Hungary, in order to avenge himself for the wrong done to his house by giving the title of king to the Palatine, and with the approval, if not the active assistance, of the pope; France will not move owing to her internal troubles and her disgust at the refusal to admit the Jesuits, while it is certain that the king here will do nothing beyond making representations and granting levies which can easily be stopped in the Strait, for which purpose they would gather a powerful Spanish fleet there. I find that this has come to my ears through the French as well as the Spaniards, so it may only be intended to frighten us and prevent some action.
The levies raised in Lorraine are understood to be by Spinola's order of 9,000 foot and 1,500 horse; these will form a notable reinforcement with the 10,000 in Flanders under new officers, and the filling up of the old companies which had greatly dwindled.
There was some idea not to invite me to the masque, which is one of the two annual ceremonies attended by the ambassadors. France was not asked because Spain had been. When I heard that they proposed to leave me out because Spain and I did not visit each other, I tactfully contrived to convey that your Serenity ought not to be deprived of the customary honour on that account, and finally I gained my point, to which I attached importance. The ceremony was most sumptuous. The ambassador and I conversed together most amiably without using any titles, except once he let slip a Most Illustrious, but seeing me ready to respond with the same, he gave over, showed me great honour and even made way for me. (fn. 4)
London, the 21st January, 1621 [M.V.].
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
295. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The emperor left for Innsbruck on Wednesday last, the 19th inst. No ambassadors followed him. Before starting he gave a reply to the King of England's letter, promising in a letter to his Majesty, not only the truce in the Lower Palatinate asked for by the Ambassador Digby, but complete disarmament, the terms to be arranged by four ambassadors acting for the emperor, the King of Great Britain, the Infanta of Flanders and the Duke of Bavaria. He suggests three places for this conference, to be selected from the following, Brussels, Cologne and Frankfort, and says he is sending an ambassador extraordinary to England as a fuller expression of his esteem for the interposition of that king in this affair and his desire to afford his Majesty every satisfaction. Meantime they continue their negotiations with the Duke of Bavaria. But the duke will not listen to any talk of restitution.
Vienna, the 22nd January, 1622. Copy.
[Italian.]
Jan. 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
296. ALVISE CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Capuchin continues to work hard for Bavaria, but here they are strongly opposed. In the interests of religion and to satisfy the King of England, of whom they are much afraid, they would arrange matters thus: that the emperor should take the Palatine's son and educate him in our faith, marrying him afterwards to one of his daughters, and giving him all that can be recovered from Bavaria, and at least the electoral vote. But it is thought that this expedient would not pacify the heretics in Germany or content the King of England.
Madrid, the 24th January, 1621 [M.V.].
[Italian.]
Jan.27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
297. To the Ambassador in England.
The confidence shown you by Lord Digby is of great public service at the moment, and the particulars he has given of the decisions of the king and the parliament are very important. As regards our helping the Palatine, we feel sure that nothing further will be said, but if Digby or anyone else again refers to this matter you will say that our expenses for our own defence and in the common interests are so great that we can do no more, especially as these heavy expenses have continued for many years, but you must not show any lukewarmness. We hear from other quarters what you advise that they go about saying that the intercepted letters of the emperor are forgeries, merely intended to move the king. In France there was some dispute about titles between our ambassador, Pesaro, and the ambassador of the States. The latter finally agreed to address our representative as Excellency and receive no title in reply.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 3.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Jan. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
298. To the Ambassador in England.
We greatly esteem the Marquis of Buckingham, and this leads us to attach the greater importance to this recommendation of Sir [William] Broncardo. We direct you to assure him of this and that at our next levy in England we shall take into special consideration his recommendation and do our utmost to please him.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 3.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Jan. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra
Venetian
Archives.
299. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I went recently to see the king at Theobalds before he left for Newmarket and told him of the choice of Vallaresso for this embassy; the king made a most gracious reply. Although I had already spoken to the Secretary Calvert on the subject he seemed anxious to hear about the chain at the River Oglio. He strongly felt the republic to be in the right and said he hoped the Spaniards would not base any claims on the matter, as the Ambassador Gondomar had made no communication to him about it.
He proceeded to speak of the Grisons, and the general proceedings of the Austrians. He showed more feeling than ever before admitting that these blows were the most serious inflicted on the general interests for many a day. I think it has affected him more since Leopold had a share, owing to his relations with the emperor, and they fear the same thing may happen with the Palatinate, although they lay a large part of the blame on the Grisons for supplying pretexts. The king remarked several times that it was the King of France's fault, because he did not keep his promise. I answered that the loss was general and concerned everyone, and now the house of Austria had a free passage from Milan and the sea, which alone lay between them and this realm. He admitted this, paying me great attention, so that my audience proved most successful, and he readily released for me four priests. This is the only request I have made since I came here or that I intend to make.
The king went on to praise your Excellencies' prudent reply about re-admitting the Jesuits, and then told me with much merriment (giocondita) of the danger he had incurred the day before by the fall of his horse in the midst of water and ice, when he was completely immersed though he escaped with his wetting. He had to go fully two miles in this plight. (fn. 5) He was in perfect health, but yesterday he sent for the doctors, feeling some pain, owing to his way of living, but of little moment so far.
Although he at first seemed quite satisfied with the Spaniards and with other letters since received from Spain, yet the ministers here admit that they amount to nothing but empty words. I hear that they have little hope from the emperor and marvel at the delay of his reply. They profess to continue steadfast in the resolution to maintain the 8,000 foot and 1,600 horse in the Palatinate, but some ministers advise the king not to make the levies here, pointing out the great expense of transport, the difficulties of the passage, the waste in the journey, and some also in order that it may not be necessary to unite with the Dutch, and also that as the parliament has been dissolved to the great disgust of the people, it is not advisable at present to collect troops here amid the ferment of so much dissatisfaction; for the same reasons the Dutch and everyone else will meet with difficulties in obtaining leave, although they say that the Spaniards propose to make the levies granted to them last year. Their plan here is to unite with the English now under Vere, the troops gathered together of every sort in those parts to the required number, to march under the flag of this crown and receive its pay. If these are well paid they hope with the assistance of the 6,000 or so that the King of Bohemia may collect from the States, Denmark and other powers, to force the emperor to sue for peace in a year at most. But if they see him favourably disposed they may stop or become lukewarm, although the king professes that he desires no truce, but a speedy decision or war. Some believe, however, that so long as a ray of hope exists he will persist in his halting progress, and will not believe in his taking any resolute step unless he decides to reconcile himself with his subjects, take their advice, send a fleet to the West in conjunction with the Dutch and make war by a diversion, otherwise they do not think he will do enough in acting against the emperor alone and separating himself from the Spaniards. However, time and events may cause friction and great flames may rise gradually if not at once from small sparks.
Lord Chichester has been appointed to go as ambassador to Heidelberg to superintend the war and events. He is a man of ability both with the sword and in council. He has been summoned from Ireland where he was treasurer. (fn. 6) He will be ambassador of the king not to any prince in particular, but generally to the Palatine and the Princes of Germany, with the object of reuniting them if need be, for which letters have been sent to them, to the emperor and others according to events. He is to pay the troops and supply all needs. He had instructions to leave at once. He tried, though in vain, to obtain leave to make the levies here, saying that experience showed how little the Germans were worth. They will not make these levies till March, as the money is not ready for which the Council is labouring every day. The Lord Treasurer promises to have 200,000l. very soon. The clergy have volunteered to give 10,000l. They hope for more from gentlemen and others from whom they mean to obtain it under the privy seal. They have doubled the custom on wines as being a luxury here where beer is the usual drink. They think of putting taxes on many other unnecessary things and on the transactions of foreigners, which are already sufficiently burdened. As the money obtained in the first way will serve for once only, so the second may not produce so much as they expect; and various difficulties and notable opposition appear in speech to say nothing of deeds.
The general dissatisfaction constantly increases, as every day they imprison some fresh member of the late parliament, and they have chosen some of the most active of them to send as commissioners to Ireland, (fn. 7) whither they will proceed immediately to pacify the disorders in that most distressful kingdom, where the people are aggrieved by the unlawful impositions and innovations of the viceroy, which will be speedily removed. After this pacification the king should take more courage, as he has always been afraid of trouble in that quarter.
The day before yesterday the old favourite, Somerset, was released from the Tower with his wife, upon condition that they should keep five miles away from the Court.
London, the 28th January, 1621 [M.V.].
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
300. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Nedersol, secretary of the Queen of Bohemia, who came here to bring the usual stimulants and to extract the fundamental wishes of the king, also had commissions, as I hear on good authority, to recommend the interests of the States, saying that they had heard with astonishment a report that his Majesty's ships were to make reprisals upon theirs for what had taken place in the East, which would be a sorry response to their friendship towards him. The king answered that a woman should not meddle in such matters, and she had enough to think of for herself and her children without going further, and as for the States he would do nothing unreasonable or improper. Thus he recently remarked to some magnates that whatever happened he would never abandon their friendship and would favour them always.
The said ships keep postponing their departure. They were quite ready, but had consumed their provision of bread while lying idle and must have a fresh supply before they leave, and what is of more consequence, money. The commander received sealed orders only to be opened at sea. The ships are few and one cannot imagine what they are to do. They think now that the idea of going against the Dutch is abandoned, the negotiations between their ambassadors and the thirteen deputies of the Council being already on foot. The merchants of the East India Company here claim 11,000,000 florins as compensation for the damage inflicted upon them, but as they had no clear accounts ready the king was very angry and threatened to give the ambassadors leave to go when they pleased without more ado. The latter asked for their despatch and presented on their side claims for 17,000,000 florins on behalf of their company. The affair is proceeding very smoothly. Accordingly it is thought that this fleet will go to coast about Ireland, and that it will remain in the Channel here, as the Secretary Calvert told me, merely to maintain the supremacy of the sea and to cruise about these islands.
Nedersol also spoke about the Palatine's journey to Denmark and the Palatinate, but though the king said he wished he was there now, it is clear that he cannot start at present without a good escort. Accordingly he has returned to the Hague with his answer, the particulars of the Spanish reply and his Majesty's decisions. His master seems to have contemplated sending the Baron Dohna to Venice to renew his requests for help, which they wished to have backed from this quarter, but now he proposes to entrust the office to the Ambassador Wotton. The Secretary Calvert spoke to me warmly on the subject yesterday, saying that action by your Serenity would induce other friendly powers to follow your example. He asked me to write home and to send a letter of his Majesty. It runs substantially that as his Majesty had not been able to obtain the restitution of the Palatinate from the emperor by friendly negotiation, he had to try another way, and to intercede for his son-in-law with his good friends, including your Serenity. I answered in the same terms as I have before to similar requests.
London, the 28th January, 1621 [M.V.].
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
301. To the Ambassador at the Imperial Court.
The Governor of Milan has arranged with the Grisons about the Valtelline and other matters also. We do not know the conditions yet. They say the Grisons are very mortified and do not think the agreement will last long. It is rumoured that they will send other troops from Milan to help Leopold and the Grisons complained to Feria about this. Our orders for the entertainment of the empress were admirably carried out.
The like to the following:
Rome, France, Spain, England, Savoy, Constantinople, Naples, Zurich, the Hague, Florence, the ambassadors extraordinary for Spain.
Milan, the part about the empress only.
Ayes, 108.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Jan. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
302. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Spanish ambassador has made a fresh request that this commission may hasten its decision about leave to marry the king's sister to the prince of England. The commission met yesterday and it is reported that the decree will certainly follow, and so far as the Catholic religion is concerned it can be done. Men think that the Spaniards have done this in order to stop the English king's decisions and preparations to help the Palatine and his other dependants.
Rome, the 29th January, 1621 [M.V.].
[Italian.]
Jan. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
303. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Huguenots become stronger and stronger at sea. I have been assured that thirty-six ships are building at Amsterdam for the Rochellese. The States excuse themselves, saying that it is done by individuals and under the pretext of trade. The king has forbidden the English and Dutch from trading towards Bordeaux, in order to cut off the revenue which the people of Roian derive from the customs. This is a novel remedy, so that the country shall not sell its wine, its sole source of supply.
The English ambassador stays on, lodged but not defrayed in the king's house, receiving good words. But he always protests that he is going and that he desires peace.
Paris, the 29th January, 1621 [M.V.].
[Italian.]
Jan. 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
304. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
His Excellency told me how much the States esteemed the friendship of the most serene republic. No one now ventures to oppose the Spaniards. He added with no small passion: They have captured the King of Great Britain and rule him in such sort that before the year is out I fear they will render him completely hostile to these provinces. God grant it be not so, but I fear it. He continued: The Spaniards have had a good shot (usato un bel tiro) at inflaming the King of Great Britain against this state, telling him that we have affronted him by sending to colonise Virginia, his own domain. The Ambassador Carleton had spoken to him on the subject and of his master's resentment, but he considered this merely a pretext to pick a quarrel as the Dutch had gone to trade and settle in those parts more than fifteen years, and nothing had been said about it all this while. His Excellency further told me that the Spanish ambassador had offered his Majesty free trade in the East Indies, urging him to get his merchants to break off the union with this nation. Moreover, the members of the English company demanded 12,000,000 florins as compensation for damages, an utterly unjust and dishonest demand. His Excellency showed great passion in telling me this and seemed afraid that Spanish arts might produce consequences very perilous to these provinces. He told me that he had always advised postponing this embassy, as he did not think the moment opportune. One clearly understands how little hope the ambassadors have of a successful issue to their negotiations. They say as much very clearly in their letters and also remark that the air does not suit them, a sign that they wish to get back.
Nedersol, the queen's secretary, who has returned from England, tells their Majesties that the king has decided to maintain 8,000 foot and 1,500 horse in the Palatinate. His Excellency seems to attach no importance to this, as it is not to raise fresh troops but only to maintain those already in the Palatinate. He remarked: It is idle talk, it will just amount to nothing (Sono fiabe, sono un bel niente). He said he had advised the Palatine to ask his father-in-law to give him money to pay the troops in the Palatinate and others, to prevent disturbance.
The Hague, the 31st January, 1622.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 Father Hyacinth or Giacintho.
2 According to Salvetti, writing on the 6th January: il Re Cattolico in grazia dell' amb. Inglese haveva fatto restituire ai mercanti Inglesi 8 nave cariche di pesci et altro che i corsari de Barberia havevano ripreso di valsente di circa 20,000 lire sterline. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27,962B.
3 The proclamation was issued on the 6th January, old style.—Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 333.
4 The masque was Ben Jonson's Masque of the Augurs, presented on Twelfth Night by the prince and other lords and gentlemen. "The Spanish ambassador and the French ambassador's wife and niece were present but most of the other ambassadors were not invited with respect to the incompatibility between them and the Spanish." Finett:Philoxenis, pages 91, 92. Salvetti writing on the 21st January says: Il principe fece domenica passata(i.e. Jan. 16) il suo bel balletto et di questi ambasciatori vi furono Spagna et Venezia i quali non s'erano mai prima visti rispetto alle differenze de' titoli di parità. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27,962 B. See also Nichols:Progresses of James I., pages735–49.
5 An account of this accident, which occurred on Wednesday 6/16 January, is given in a letter to the Rev. Joseph Mead of the ½ January.–Birch:Court and Times of James I, ii, page 282.
6 Arthur, Lord Chichester, was lord deputy of Ireland from 1604–14, and lord treasurer there from 1616–25. He was appointed to the latter office on 11 July, 1616, to hold during pleasure. Cal. S.P. Ireland 1615–25, page 128.
7 The names of the commissioners and their instructions are given in the Cal. S.P. Ireland 1615–25, No. 830.