Venice
March 1622, 1-14

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1911

Pages

251-265

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Venice: March 1622, 1-14', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 251-265. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88828 Date accessed: 24 July 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

March 1622

March 1.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
348. The English ambassador came into the Cabinet, and said he had a happy omen in presenting a letter of his king upon a serious matter, as it was New Year's day by the custom of the republic. After presenting the letter he said: The letter fully expresses what I am charged to state, and I need not dilate upon it, especially as you have doubtless heard from your ambassador at our Court. I may point out, however, the pious and Christian zeal with which my king has worked for the peace of Germany, though his hopes have proved vain and during the negotiations they have occupied the hereditary dominions of his son-in-law the crowned King of Bohemia. This violent action finally compels his Majesty to abandon the way of peaceful negotiation and revert to the old idea justum bellum cum necessitate. He has therefore decided to have recourse in so just a cause to his good friends, among whom this republic takes a leading place. He charges me to say that as in the crises of the republic he has made declarations and representations which are well known, and is ready to do so as long as his life lasts; he hopes that your Excellencies will not fail to reciprocate his action in this serious situation.
Councillor Morosini replied that the republic had always rejoiced at the successes of the Palatine and deplored his reverses. That his Majesty was taking up the affair so resolutely gave hope to all. They would always give signs of their favourable disposition.
The ambassador said that he expected from the Senate a generous and ample reply such as the gravity of the case and his Majesty's request demanded, and the sooner it came the better it would be appreciated. With this he took leave and departed.
Letter of King James to the Doge Antonio Priuli.
We thought out sincerity towards Cæsar was sufficiently demonstrated, and we therefore hoped that the hereditary dominions of our son-in-law would be respected. In this we were deceived. They gave some hopes of a truce at our intercession; but now the Palatinate has been overrun by hostile armies. We beg you to favour the cause of our son-in-law, for which we shall be eternally obliged to you.
Dated at our palace of Westminster, the last day of December, 1621.
[Italian.]
March 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia,
Venetian
Archives.
349. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Of the English ambassador who has left they say he will not return unless peace ensues in France, and he had been glad to seize the opportunity of winning honour from the course of events here, in order to save his reputation, but recognising that he was of little use and suspect even to the Huguenots themselves, he will seek pretexts gradually to recall his household. I am assured that the Huguenots do not trust either him or the king his master, and the Rochellese wrote to him that they, would be glad if he did not meddle with their affairs.
Paris, the 1st March, 1622.
[Italian.]
March 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Brescia.
Venetian
Archives.
350. ZUANNE BASADONNA, Venetian Captain of Brescia, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Encloses muster list of all the troops at present in this city, made on the 10th February last.
Bressa, the 4th March, 1622.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.351. Extracts from the muster rolls.
Payments to the Dutch and English troops, 68,059 lire, 18 grossi.
Colonel Henry Peyton with 219 foot.
Captain Christopher Peyton, with 215 foot.
Captain Piero Raimondo, lord of Roccalora, with 272 foot.
Grand total of foot in the place, 2,620, with 300 horse.
[Italian.]
March 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
352. That the English Ambassador be summoned to the Cabinet and the following be read to him:
Our Ambassador Lando has told us fully about his Majesty's resolutions and the interests of his son-in-law in the Palatinate, We much regret that matters have turned out there as past events led us to anticipate. His Majesty's resolution is worthy of his greatness, and his royal prudence will recognise the gravity of the state of affairs with the loss of Juliers, the occupation of the Valtelline and movements prejudicial to the general peace in every direction. The part played by the republic is manifest to everyone. She maintains powerful forces both by sea and land, and her expenses amount to a very large sum. The engagement of the Count of Mansfelt will serve the interests of the Palatine, as without removing him from his present service it will establish him therein and prevent him from making engagements with other princes with different interests. In addition our decision to help the States with 50,000 florins a month is very important, as if they should fall through lack of assistance from their good friends the general loss would be enormous, while his Majesty will recognise that in helping them we are assisting his son-in-law, whom they are maintaining. We are sure that he will recognise how much we are doing, and how heavy are our expenses. In addition to this there is the Valtelline, an affair so closely related to the Palatinate that troops from the Milanese have passed freely that way to help Leopold in Germany against Mansfelt. The French crown has perceived this and resolved to employ its might for the restoration of the Valtelline and his ambassador has come to ask us to join forces for this undertaking. We have always offered to assist in this, and if the undertaking is carried out, as seems probable, this will create a diversion and by clearing the passes will prove most beneficial to the interests of the Palatinate. His Majesty will find the recovery of that state the easier if the emperor has none but his own forces, and if the promises not to help him are observed.
With the above considerations we beg your Excellency to represent to his Majesty our most ready disposition and our intense desire to please him. We also thank you for the confidence you have shown, and we are as eager as his Majesty for the success of his son-in-law and the general welfare.
Ayes, 43.Noes, 24.Neutral, 85.
Second vote. Ayes, 41. Noes, 16. Neutral, 99. Pending.
[Italian.]
March 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
353. To the KING OF GREAT BRITAIN.
Our Ambassador Lando has reported to us your Majesty's representations about the Palatinate, in conformity with your letters and with what your ambassador has verbally stated to us here. What we have done is well known, and it greatly assists the interests of the Palatinate, so that your son-in-law will benefit thereby as your Majesty desires. Your own ambassador and ours will express this more fully, confirming our esteem for your son-in-law and his interests both for his own sake and because of his relationship to your Majesty.
Ayes, 43.Noes, 24.Neutral, 85.
Second vote. Ayes, 41. Noes, 16. Neutral, 99. Pending.
[Italian.]
March 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
354. To the Ambassador in England.
In conformity with what your letters of the 28th January last represent, we send you copies of representations made to us about the Palatinate by the Ambassador Wotton, and our reply. We direct you to make an office in the same sense with his Majesty, so that he may recognise the benefits which his son-in-law derives from our action.
As regards the decision of the French crown about the Valtelline, and our reply, we need only add that the French ambassador seemed anxious to know what exactly our contribution would be. We have endeavoured to make him recognise that it is necessary to make a definite apportionment of the share of each party. But you will only use this information in case you have any one misrepresenting our action and trying to show that our reply was not conclusive.
Ayes, 43.Noes, 24.Neutral, 85.
Second vote. Ayes, 41. Noes, 16. Neutral, 99. Pending.
[Italian.]
March 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
355. To the Secretary at the Hague.
We send you copies of the office of the Ambassador Wotton about the Palatinate, and our reply. We direct you to impart this in our name. We also direct you to inform the States and Prince Maurice of the French Ambassador's request about the Valtelline and our reply thereto, whereof we enclose copies, as a sign of our continued confidence.
Ayes, 43.Noes, 24.Neutral, 85.
Second vote. Ayes, 41. Noes, 16. Neutral, 99.
[Italian.]
March 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
356. To the Ambassador in Germany and the like to the other Courts, except Rome, Spain and Milan.
The dispute with the Governor of Milan about the road has finally been settled in Spain through the efforts of our Ambassador Cornero. This agreement has been approved by the Catholic king and sent to the Governor with orders to execute it. We have given the necessary orders on our side, to avoid the usual delays. We send this for your information to use as our service may require. But as the Spaniards, with their usual artifices, may represent this arrangement in a manner designed to serve their ends, you will remark in discussing the matter, hat such differences commonly arise between neighbours and may easily be arranged if both parties show a friendly disposition.
The like to:
France, England, Savoy, Florence, Naples, Zurich, the Hague, Constantinople.
Ayes, 152.Noes, 1.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
March 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
357. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SANATE.
On the 22nd ult. the new English ambassador kissed his Majesty's hands and presented him with two very large metal candlesticks of exquisite workmanship. Owing to their size they could not be carried to the Divan but were taken to the Clioseo, where the king went to see them. It is said that they may serve to illuminate the rooms where they are accustomed to give certain representations by night in the seraglio.
The Vigne of Pera, the 5th March, 1622.
[Italian; deciphered.]
March 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
358. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I am told that the nuncio here has in hand a plan to form a league of Christian princes against the heretics, though he has not yet spoken to me formally on the subject. I find that the plan is to form a league of all the Catholic powers against the heretics, nominate the Duke of Savoy as general of the league and make the Most Christian its chief and protector. In this way the Spaniards aspire to ruin both Italy and France. I have opposed this notion and made a good impression. I understand that the Duke of Savoy is undecided in the matter and wishes to see which way things are going.
Papers have appeared here advocating a union of Germany against heretics, with the same crafty designs.
Paris, the 5th March, 1622.
[Italian.]
March 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
359. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They are awaiting here the news of the departure of Lord Chichester for Heidelberg from England.
Prince Maurice told me that they heard that the King of England, through his agent at Brussels, was asking for a truce. He said: This is a plague. I do not know how that king conducts his affairs (si governa). I fear lest at the same time he may ruin two armies, those of Mansfelt and Brunswick, and dash the courage of the princes and the towns, who seem inclined to arm. In order to know more about this matter I paid a visit to the English ambassador, and in the conversation, mentioned that I had heard this news from Brussels. He said: It is not my king so much as the emperor who is wanting this truce, and his imperial Majesty has referred the negotiations to the Infanta, to do what she thinks proper. I said: Does not your Excellency think that it may injure the interests of the king here, and throw some amount of discord into the affairs now on foot? He replied: It also appeared that the Spaniards thought it would damage their interests and give the king's supporters time to arm and to munition the fortresses still remaining in the Palatinate. They require the truce to include the withdrawal of Mansfelt, and of all the king's forces from the Upper and Lower Palatinate. In this way he seems to me to palliate the orders, which are not approved here, especially by the prince, and that the King of England is pursuing this truce. He added that the king must be careful not to allow himself to be deceived, and his Excellency seemed very doubtful whether this truce would ensue.
The Hague, the 7th March, 1622.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.360. Letter of Frederick King of Bohemia, etc., to the Doge of Venice.
Has submitted all his affairs to the King of Great Britain. Intercepted letters have discovered the emperor's intention to transfer the vote to Bavaria, and assure the supremacy of the house of Austria. All who love the common liberty should resist Austria and Bavaria. The King of Great Britain has promised assistance; the writer is going himself to vindicate his rights; asks for assistance from Venice, to whom he has sent Henry von Teichenau.
Dated at the Hague, 3 March/21 February, 1622.
[Latin.]
March 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
361. That the English Ambassador be summoned to the Cabinet and the following be read to him:
Our Ambassador Lando has told us of his Majesty's resolution about the Palatinate, where events have happened as might have been expected, while his Majesty will recognise the gravity of the general situation. The labours of the republic are manifest, especially the engagement of Mansfelt, and will all help the Palatinate. There is also our subsidy of 50,000 florins a month to the States, as provided by our alliance with them. The case of the Valtelline is closely allied with that of the Palatinate, witness the passage of troops from Milan to help Leopold. France has resolved to insist on the restitution of the Valtelline and has asked what our help will be. We have replied that this must be exactly arranged. We beg your Excellency to represent to his Majesty how much our republic is doing to help his son-in-law. (fn. 1)
Ayes, 138.Noes, 1.Neutral, 11.
[Italian.]
March 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
362. To the KING OF GREAT BRITAIN.
The efforts of the republic are serving the interests of the Palatinate, so that his Majesty's son-in-law will derive therefrom the advantages desired by his Majesty. Expressions of esteem for the said son-in-law.
Ayes, 138.Noes, 1.Neutral, 11.
[Italian.]
March 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
363. To the Ambassador in England.
To speak to his Majesty in conformity with the enclosed reply to Wotton about the Palatinate. Enclose information about the Valtelline. If he sees the French ambassador to give him this information, as if privately, observing what he says, and sending word of everything he discovers worthy of notice.
Encloses copies of what the ambassador at Rome writes about the marriage between England and Spain and Dominis, to serve simply for information.
Ayes, 138.Noes, 1.Neutral, 11.
[Italian.]
March 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Venetian
Archives.
364. To the Secretary at the Hague.
Send copies of Wotton's office about the Palatinate and the reply thereto; to impart this information, and tell the English ambassador there, as it may satisfy him and serve as a reply to the offices which you mention in your letters of the 7th ult, received to-day. It may also serve to divert them from making fresh requests. You will speak to the same effect to Prince Maurice, which will serve as a reply to his office in favour of the Palatine. We also send information of the French decisions about the Valtelline. You will impart this to the French ambassador and Prince Maurice.
Ayes, 138.Noes, 1.Neutral, 11.
[Italian.]
March 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
365. To the Ambassador at the Imperial Court and the like for Florence, Milan, Naples, the Hague and England.
The French crown has informed the duke of Savoy that they have decided to use force for the recovery of the Valtelline and opening the passes, and has asked us to second this design. We have expressed our willingness to take our share in this enterprise. We send this for information. The French ambassador expressed a desire to know what exactly our contribution would be. We informed him that it would be necessary to apportion the share of each one exactly. You will only speak of this reply if you hear any one misrepresenting the matter. We have instructed our Ambassador Pesaro to endeavour to obtain a speedy declaration, so that matters may be disposed for speedy execution.
Ayes, 138.Noes, 1.Neutral, 11.
[Italian.]
March 11.
Consiglio di X.
Parti Comuni.
Venetian
Archives.
366. In the Council of Ten.
That power be given to the Savii of the Collegio to send one of the Secretaries of the Senate to the house of the English ambassador, who is indisposed, to read to him the Senate's deliberation of yesterday evening, as they have requested, so that he may be able to send to his king by the ordinary leaving this evening.
Ayes, 14.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
March 11.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
367. The Secretary of England was introduced into the Cabinet. He asked them to excuse the ambassador, who was sick and had been bled. He asked for a reply to the request made at his last audience, to send it that evening to the king. They expressed regret at the ambassador's indisposition and said that the secretary would take the reply of the Senate to the ambassador. The secretary found him up, in spite of his indisposition, and read to him the Senate's decision of the 10th inst. He listened attentively and with approbation, asking for the part about 50,000 florins a month to the States to be read again. He asked what kind of florins they were and remarked that the difference in the value of money between one nation and another gave rise to difficulties. At the conclusion he said I fully understand what has been read to me and I thank his Serenity and their Excellencies for the honour done to me. As they have anticipated in part the request of his Majesty, so I anticipated in part the intentions of his Serenity, in telling his Majesty of the excellent disposition of the republic, especially in the case of the Count of Mansfelt, showing that there is no intention of removing him from his present service, and it will divert him from serving other princes, as I understand he received tempting offers both from France and Spain. As the contract has been signed by both parties I consider it quite safe.
In the affair of the Valtelline I understand that the republic will act in conjunction with the forces of the French Crown, and indeed his Majesty is deeply interested in that region through the treaty of Madrid. I will represent everything to my king, confirming the excellent disposition of the republic.
The secretary gave him a letter for his king, which he said he would gladly forward, asking for a copy. When told this was not usual, he admitted as much, saying he expected it concerned the reply read to him. The secretary said that might well be the case and then took leave.
[Italian.]
March 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
368. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Since the Dutch ships from the Indies passed through the Strait without meeting those of his Majesty there have been rumours that General Oxford had no instructions to fight them or to shed blood, though they do not deny that he aimed at arresting them; but really he was ordered to do so only if he felt the stroke to be certain, and perceiving that it was very uncertain and desperate, he abstained. However they did meet a Dutch ship which they believed to be one of these, and fired shot at her, but on learning that she came from the west and was laden with salt, they let her go unharmed and she has already reached Zeeland. The ambassadors of the States received the news thence. It is clear from this that though they were to fight, this did not extend beyond the East India ships. The Ambassador Gondomar laments that they did not arrest them and says he had written to Spain announcing their capture; and the king seemed displeased at his return to this city so soon, and forbad him to come after him to Newmarket, but on the other hand ordered that money should be given to him, and that is the greatest favour one can receive here in the present sterility.
It was reported that the Most Christian had recalled all the French serving the States, but they would not obey, and his Majesty, fearing this same thing might happen to him, when he thought of doing the like, has ordered 8,000 to proceed to the Palatinate. It is also reported that Oxford is to sail again in a few days, either to take other ships of the same voyage, as the ministers here say in the guise of a threat, or to coast off Flanders and open the ports there to trade and succour. But as the first points do not prove to be over true, the others would disappear in the opinion of the most prudent, if the ambassadors here adjusted their business successfully. They are awaiting the king's return to take it up again with more mildness. But they fear that the commissioners will oppose their audience, not wishing his Majesty to be informed of the details or of the truth, and I believe that so long as the negotiations with Spain live there must always be some difficulties with them, although not perhaps with the objects which the Spaniards would have one suppose, or with such consequences as they would suggest, as although his Majesty would like to compel and mortify them, as he would hate them to become greater, he would not ruin them, not because he loves them, but in his own interests.
The said ambassadors deplore their condition, saying that if they mean them to perish here, they must perish inevitably as they are in great danger and bearing an insupportable burden alone, having so powerful an enemy, who is doing his utmost to subdue them, while even their friends are against them. Hearing that in Spain it has been decided to arm 80 galleons, they remark that if these are meant against their States, they cannot do much harm, unless their friends allow them the use of their ports, a thing they cannot believe. But they suggest that this fleet might be aimed against theso realms and when their fleet attacked them in the time of Elizabeth, they tried to lull the suspicions of the Dutch by long and specious negotiations.
As regards the Palatinate they announce their readiness to open a way for the king if he will send a good army thither; and they do not think 8,000 foot and the 1,600 German horse sufficient, the unfitness of that nation being proved, and they would be less zealous still under the colours of this crown. If he thought of reuniting the Princes of Germany, it might create an impression among them that he did not mean to act with vigour if he did not employ his own subjects in the affair, and therefore they would do no more than remain armed, as each of them had begun to do in his own defence. They say that if the Spaniards are his Majesty's friends he ought to ask them for a passage through Flanders to send his men to the Palatinate.
Frequent requests for money come from Vere. They recently sent him 10,000l. to begin to enlist troops as he thinks best, with liberty in case of difficulty to send for some hence in driblets, to engage some of those in Holland and to fill up with Germans. They promise to send him 40,000l. or 50,000l. more in a few days and to provide him from time to time, while they urge him to provision the few places remaining in that country so that they may be able to sustain sieges, and to make some offices for reuniting the Princes before Chichester's arrival, who is expected to leave soon.
They are not only asking a benevolence of 100l. sterling a head from the richest, but 2l. or 3l. from others also, although it is not thought that it will all see the Palatinate, and it seems that his Majesty has laid hands on the 20,000l. collected for the Huguenots. They hope to keep this force on foot for this year and to give some help to Mansfelt, and they think this may meet the needs; so they do not contemplate doing any more, indeed they could not in the present disordered state of affairs here (nell' isconcerto in che si trovano qui le cose), before they see the issue of the negotiations at Brussels, where it is said the emperor's ambassador will stop, and whither they propose to send the earl of Arundel, the Secretary Calvert, Chichester or some other person not yet fixed upon, as their decisions are frequently changed from one hour to another, and they speak and act usually in opposite ways, with irresolution and variation.
London, the 11th March, 1622.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
369. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
It was a gentleman of the Ambassador Aston who came from the Spanish Court with the letters reported. From what I can gather with difficulty he brings word that in pressing for definite decisions and replies they have encountered difficulties about the restitution and delays about the marriage, although they tried to advance both points very gently. But the substance is that they will not restore the Lower Palatinate owing to its importance for the Flanders wars and for other reasons; and they cannot honourably give up the Upper owing to the promise to Bavaria, with the electoral vote; and they speak of giving another state in exchange. They ask for a delay of a year about the marriage to complete the negotiations at Rome and for the sake of the infanta who is still tender and not well disposed to proceed to this kingdom. It is further added, though upon slight authority, that if they want to effect the marriage immediately, they must at once give liberty of conscience here, abandon the Dutch, recall the subjects of this Crown serving them, and renounce the Bermudas and Virginia with all the rest of America, claimed by the Catholic.
The favourite came to London, I believe on purpose to speak with the Ambassador Gondomar, as he remained closeted alone with him for several hours. The king has shown flashes of great wrath of late at this news. He finds it hard at first to conceal his feelings, whether he is glad or sorrowful, but this is soon quenched in the usual way and he displays no further animation, either from misgivings about his own powerlessness or from profound lethargy. While he is so reluctant to tear himself loose from the Spaniards, it seems likely that he will have to continue for a long time, I will not say to hope, but to suffer, and while the object is to soothe them and cause them the least offence possible they will experience no difficulty in finding means to keep fast the knot which helps them so greatly. I have heard a strange opinion that the king being suspicious by nature may not intend to marry the prince at present despite the eagerness with which he continues the negotiations (fiamme di sdegno assai si sono per tali avisi vedute questi giorni nel Re difficile a cuoprire nel principio li moti del suo animo, lieti o mesti che siano, ma tuttavia si sono estinte et mortificate al solito ben tosto non si mostrando punto animato di vantaggio, sia o dubbio d'impotenza o letargo profundo; et in tanta renitenza dallo stacarsi da Spagnoli apparisci che habbia a continuare anco per qualche tempo non diro a sperare, ma a sofrire, et che loro mirando a trovar temperamenti, et a disgustarle meno che sia possibile non haveranno difficile il trovar mezi da tenere tuttavia ingropato il nodo che tanto a loro giova, et ho sentito un concetto rimarcabile che di natura geloso ben che continui con tanto ardore la trattatione non disegni forse di maritar il Principe per hora).
The Ambassador Doncaster returned recently from France without having absolutely taken leave of the Most Christian. It is reported that he not only brings hope of peace but some fresh proposals for a marriage in that quarter. But perhaps the indisposition of his wife and other private affairs have induced him to take this journey more than anything else.
Some altercation has taken place, though immediately quenched, between the prince and the favourite, and for the same cause between his Majesty and his Highness, who showed his teeth more than ever before (qualche altercatione vi è stata, ma subito anco sopita, fra il Prencipe et il detto favorito, e per l'istessa fra Sua Maestà et l'Altezza Sua, che ha mostrato il dente più che facesse mai).
The king stayed at Royston on his way to Theobalds, being smitten with his usual pains in one arm, which were increased by a fall from his horse. He now remains in his own room, which they keep closed; but he is now much better, and is expected in this city to-morrow. While dining and supping in public he taxed with lightness and irreligion that del Dominis, who has proposed to return to Italy. He said he had been blamed by the world, though quite wrongly, for arranging with him at his departure for a reconciliation with Rome upon some point of religion. God knew how far this was from his heart, and if he had any such thought, though he had not and believed he never would, he would not conceal but would publish it; and if he negotiated with the pope he would not require the archbishop of Spalato as an instrument, as he had many bishops equal to him in learning, especially Winchester. To justify himself in addition to this declaration he had desired a paper signed by Dominis testifying that he had never uttered a word to such an effect either directly or indirectly.
I hear that the Ambassador Gaballeoni of Savoy, before he left here, asked his Majesty, I do not know why, if he was really conducting any negotiations at Rome, and warned him that Dominis was treating in his name, but he did not believe it. The Protestants here, suspecting that the signed paper referred might have been prearranged, and they keep urging the king not to permit their religion to be made a jest, and saying that the man simply came here as a spy. Accordingly the King seems more stirred up about his departure than he did at first, and has not yet granted him the leave requested, which the Spanish ambassador is working hard to obtain for him.
It appears that they have decided upon orders cancelling those last sent to the posts, so that persons going and coming may be examined carefully and with the customary oaths.
The Countess of Arundel and her sons have been recalled from Venice, a gentleman being sent with orders from his Majesty himself to bring her back. (fn. 2) A pamphlet which has appeared in France upon the conversion of the Countess has displeased them, and here they have allowed to appear a poisonous book against the Popes and Cardinals which was kept suppressed for many years. It seems that the Ambassador Gondomar intends to complain about some of these things, claiming that they have broken their promises to him; and he has also complained seriously to the Council because a Spanish ship being wrecked in the West at the Bermudas, an island owned by the English, they have laid hands on the goods and committed many outrages on the people, and hinting something of the claims of his sovereign to that country. Accordingly he received a mixed reply, somewhat bitter, but it is thought that the affair will be easily adjusted if he has not greater objects in view, as the mere question of the ship is one of little moment.
The riots of the workmen seem to have calmed down, as they seem to be satisfied with the money which they have received and with the provisions which are being discussed.
London, the 11th March, 1622.
[Italian; the parts in italics deciphered.]
March 11.
Inquisitori di
Stati.
Busta 442.
Venetian
Archives.
370. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the INQUISITORS OF STATE.
I think I understand better the anxiety of the Spaniards to get Dominis away from here, and it is principally what I wrote on 21 January last. He now says that the king is not sending him, and also that he is going not so much on affairs of religion as of state. The king is aggrieved by the rumour that Dominis is going for his conversion, and. seems disinclined to grant him leave, the populace seeming greatly disturbed by the idea that there is something prejudicial to the religion professed here, and that he has come here as a spy. He has caused some letters sent to him from Rome to be intercepted. They are in the name of one Labiani, possibly assumed. It is said the king thinks of punishing him or may decide to drive him away, but the Ambassador Gondomar is trying hard to obtain leave for him, and I think he will ultimately get it. Many persons have spoken to me, but I said I knew nothing beyond the common report, and diverted the conversation. The action of the ambassador makes me act with the more caution, and I avoid every occasion of referring to it.
Pasini writes from Brussels that Lazari remains there greatly honoured by the French ambassador and the nuncio, although he said he was going to Paris three months ago. Bedmar, the Spanish ambassador, pays him most attention. They are keeping an eye on him and on his correspondence with Rome. Count Ottavio Martinengo has been given a place among the Infanta's councillors of war and is in high favour as well as his son. Various Italians frequent the Spanish ambassador's table. I have had observed and cultivated some captains of Dutch ships which were in the service of the republic, who were named as chiefs of the plot, but nothing has come out. Messer Vincenzo Rosello of Murano says he believes the objective was Corfu or Zara, rather the latter, with some intelligence within. I think there are no grounds for this idea. Camillo Mezantini has made a plan of a town which I understand to be Algiers, which he showed to Lazari, saying it was a place of the republic in the Gulf and he would take it to Spain to show the Court how to capture it. His motive is gain.
London, the 11th March, 1622.
[Italian; deciphered.]
March 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
371. To the Ambassador at Rome and the like to the other courts except Savoy.
One Giovanni Petro Sovigo living at San Barnaba has been found guilty of the death of a certain goldsmith. The Ambassador of Savoy has been to claim his release because he was his steward. We told the ambassador that justice must take her course, as the privileges of ambassador's households do not extend beyond the embassies. Meanwhile we assured the ambassador of our esteem and that in any other case we should endeavour to satisfy him. Nevertheless he has not appeared satisfied and has sent word to the duke. We send you this for information to use for our service if you are asked or hear the matter discussed.
The like to Germany, France, Spain, England, Milan, Florence, Naples, the Hague, Zurich.
Ayes, 100.Noes, 4.Neutral, 36.
[Italian.]
March 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
372. To the Ambassador at Rome.
We send you a copy of what our Ambassador Lando writes from England about Dominis. We also send you for information only the request made by the King of England by his own letter, of help for the Palatine, and the reply given to his ambassador, as it is necessary that at this moment you should be fully advised of all that happens.
Ayes, 128.Noes, 2.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
March 12.
Misc. Cod.
No. 61.
Venetian
Archives.
373. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The emperor has finally decided to oblige Bavaria with the electoral vote and the Palatinate. He has made the decree and arranged the investiture, but they will not be published yet, because he wishes first to see the issue of the Hungarian diet. He seems to have done this to please the pope. The Spaniards although they simultaneously promised the pope not to allow the electorate to fall to a heretic, the King of England not to let his son in law suffer harm and Bavaria the grant of these, have consented to the last, though they are procrastinating the announcement, in order, as their ambassador here says, to see the issue in Hungary, Italy and Flanders and of the marriage with England, where they do not wish to offend the king so openly at the very moment of settlement. Afterwards, if Italy remains at peace, if matters turn out well in Hungary and if the English marriage takes place, they may then be able to prevent the English from helping the Dutch, and content the king there by assigning the part of the Lower Palatinate across the Rhine to the Palatine's sons, as they propose to give the other part to Neuburg in exchange for his claims to the duchy of Cleves. They also must await the issue of the negotiations at Brussels, and therefore the announcement is withheld for the present and depends upon the course of events.
Vienna, the 12th March, 1622.
[Italian.]
March 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
374. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have heard nothing more about the truce which the King of England desires, beyond what I wrote last week, only the Count of Solms told me he was advised that the Count of Suartzembergh was to be sent to England from the imperial court to negotiate a peace, and they announce that Saxony urged this upon Cæsar as well as some of the ecclesiastics.
The States do not know what to expect from England, or what to hope about their affairs there. Borela, the advocate of the Company, has left for London with secret instructions, but so far as I can discover they are not such as to give the satisfaction required. Some members of the Chamber of Zeeland in particular say that they must not give way, or if they do it will only encourage fresh claims, and so they must stand firm. The Ambassador Carleton is unhappy about this, and he told me that he thought the evil might grow worse and he feared some regrettable incident.
The Hague, the 14th March, 1622.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Wotton's report to Calvert of the Senate's reply is printed by Mr. Pearsall Smith from the State papers at the Public Record Office.—Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton, ii, page 227.
2 "One Boroughs, that was secretary to the late lord chancellor, and hath an office of keeping the records in the Tower, is sent to call home the Countess of Arundel but whether from the king or her lord I cannot say." Chamberlain to Carleton, the 9th March, 1622. Birch: Court and Times of James I, ii, page 297. The gentleman was Sir John Borough.