Venice
March 1622, 18-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1911

Pages

265-273

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'Venice: March 1622, 18-30', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 265-273. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88829 Date accessed: 17 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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March 1622

March 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
375. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
At Theobalds the king's gout grew worse, and kept him almost completely confined, his condition being aggravated by his irregularities and possibly also by his own fears, since matters are not proceeding to his satisfaction. (fn. 1) Accordingly they gave up repeating the masque at the Court, much business being postponed and the audiences of ambassadors put off. But as he is now much better I hope to see him in a few days, as he told me he wished. The ambassadors of the States, who were urgent, were referred to the favourite, who in turn referred them to the Commissioners of the Council to attack the business again. But the matter seems to both sides to have taken an unfavourable turn, and it has caused much dissatisfaction and comment that the ambassadors came unprovided with the necessary commissions and have had to wait for fresh ones. I will only deal with them in the manner prescribed by your Serenity, but their pretensions extend even to the inferiors.
Digby seems once more decided to leave for Spain in a few days, the letters from that Court not appearing sufficient to deter him, as their first warmth suggested, after mature consideration. However, he is thought to be sent more to discharge the embassy for which he was originally appointed, condolences for the late king's death and congratulations to the present monarch, besides the negotiations about the marriage and the Palatinate, than with any real hope of obtaining any advantages on the latter. Nevertheless he will urge strongly for a final decision, which they say they want to have by May, but they said the same about Christmas and Easter. His wife remains at home, although she had made preparations for the journey also. This is a sign of small confidence in the marriage, which nevertheless seems so strongly desired, though still far off, in the general opinion. It is announced among the Catholics here that it will not now take place, as numerous advices from Rome report that their manipulations aim at nothing beyond gaining time.
I learn that Digby's instructions do not contain a word about religion, although on the other side they insist so much upon this, but he may have other private instructions from the king. A very leading minister went so far as to tell me that the Spaniards deceive themselves in promising to effect the marriage even if the pope does not grant the dispensation. He added that it would be a great jest if they did not effect it; although for his part he did not desire it, he would rather see it settled than remain in the present condition, as the Spaniards gain more advantages in nourishing hopes than in satisfying them, and his Majesty had gone so far that he could not withdraw, and if it was not effected his reputation would suffer.
The rumours of similar negotiations with France continue but the Most Christian Ambassador and Lord Doncaster deny it, while they do not affirm, what a gentleman of quality told me in confidence, that M. le Grand (fn. 2) is to come here as ambassador extraordinary to adjust peace between that king and the Huguenots, and if that succeeds, to see if he can negotiate the said marriage and a reunion about the Valtelline.
The same Doncaster, to whom and to whose relations I paid my respects, told me that when he left France the king seemed inclined to make peace and to recover the Valtelline, but he feared that if the Huguenots found him engaged they would kindle a worse conflagration in his dominions. He had gone so far as to offer to go as hostage to the Bastille to guarantee against their moving if the king should make a diversion in the state of Milan or re-integrate the Grisons. He told me that he did not know what state of affairs he should find when he returned to France with fresh commissions, things being so varied and the Court broken up into so many factions and interests, but the king there naturally bore no love to the Spaniards, and if his kingdom was reduced to peace, he thought he would certainly make them keep their promises.
The Bernese have sent commissions to Mayerne the physician to act regularly as their agent here.
In addition to the 10,000l. sent to Vere to munition the various places left in the Palatinate, they appear to have given orders for 20,000l. more.
Your Serenity's decision about the Count of Mansfelt has made an excellent impression here, especially on those who favour the general welfare, as for the rest they do not readily enjoy anything which might displease the Spaniards although for the moment they contrive to make it appear otherwise.
I have just returned from an audience with the prince, who came here the day before yesterday, and from visiting the favourite, to whom I expressed suitable regrets about his Majesty's indisposition; when both expressed great pleasure about it, his Highness in particular, we having first spoken about the Grisons, whom he blamed for making the new treaty at Milan, and for their precipitous recourse to arms. I had a ready reply, saying that one was not responsible for action taken with the knife at one's throat, and it was altogether too transparent to call people free who were weighted with such fetters and desperation often obscured the counsel of friends and led to fury. He asked me if the engagement of Mansfelt was true, and when assured of it he praised your Serenity, saying that his Majesty, who had heard of it, rejoiced greatly. Buckingham told me the same, while thanking me for the office I had passed with him about Broncardo. This audience and visit were accompanied by honours and signs of confidence beyond the ordinary, which his Majesty does not usually show without motive, and they may indicate a stronger disposition to turn in the right direction.
Many have told me that your Serenity has done excellently, the Spaniards' object being to remove difficulties as far as possible, only some fearing that it may excite misgivings in them and induce them to follow our example, by inviting the Count to them and so undo him and remove him from Germany.
It has recently been reported from the Hague that they are proposing to draw his Majesty into a league with Denmark, the Hanse towns and other powers as I reported before.
It has been secretly reported to me that the favourite told the king he must summon parliament again, as without it he could not possibly make war in the Palatinate, as only 32,000l. have been collected by the benevolence from this city and almost all the rest of the country, amid the discontent of the people, although they announce that they have much more and that they have not gathered everything in as yet, accordingly they propose to pardon prisoners who are not under capital sentence for a payment which should bring in some 100,000l.
Doncaster says he had observed that the aspect of Parliament when working harmoniously had a great influence upon the consideration shown to this country, and he received very different replies when it got abroad that his Majesty's views did not coincide with those of his subjects, and this would be more serious and general if they were reported to be in disagreement. (Doncaster dice haver rimarcato che molto rileva al rispetto verso questa parte l'apparenza di esso parlamento ben unito diverse assai essendo state le risposte che ha ricevuto quando si intendevano disonanti li concetti della Maestà Sua con quelli dei sudditi da quelle più gravi et generali quando si sentivano discordanti.) It is really believed that they were compelled to recall him although they did not wish to for many respects, but it is also more than certain that they put it off until the very last moment possible.
The Palatine has written to several councillors recommending his interests, and it is whispered in my ear that at this moment he may be with Mansfelt, and that his Majesty does not know it as yet.
Chichester, however, seems ready to start being delayed more by the scarcity of money than by the king's commissions, which are all ready to send to him, but they are awaiting replies from Vere, with the fear that they may not work in well together.
London, the 18th March, 1622.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 18.
Inquisitori
di Stato.
Busta 442.
Venetian
Archives.
376. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the INQUISITORS OF STATE.
I have discovered that this Dominis, by visiting the ambassadors, hopes to obtain passports through the states of their princes. He proposed to ask me also, although he does not intend to enter our territory; this was the usual Spanish trick to force me either to grant it and so possibly offend his Majesty, and also alienate the party which most loves our republic, or refuse it to make some divulgation elsewhere. However he has never been to see me all the time I have been here. As regards a passport I shall tell him he knows how scrupulous the republic is in matters of religion and I am doubtful if they will gratify him until he is pardoned by the pope, and I can do nothing meanwhile, especially as I have no information about his departure except from common rumour. I hope, if the king will allow me, to go away for a few days under the pretext of seeing some noteworthy things of this realm, and thus avoid these rocks which may be more serious than appears at first sight. Perhaps God will supply me with a better idea, and I beg your Excellencies to give me your opinion.
Last week Dominis went round the city in a coach, simply to show himself and to disprove the universal report of his arrest. He remains at liberty, and keeps some one at Theobalds expressly to beg for his leave. The Ambassador Gondomar backs him actively in this, and, I am told, that finding the king felt more deeply on the subject than he expected, he has even gone so far as to blame him to some extent. But I can discover nothing more as I am especially careful not to appear curious. Dominis might be punished by banishment, but that would not hurt him as it is not likely that he thinks of coming back here, and he might receive something else of consequence or be really punished here if they do not wish him to go. The archbishop of Canterbury in particular begs his Majesty to take this last course. It is impossible to predict what will happen, beyond what I wrote in my last.
London, the 18th March, 1622.
[Italian; deciphered.]
March 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
377. To the Ambassador in France.
The diet at Zant has recently approved unanimously of the articles drawn up at Milan, fear and bribes having done their work, and even the French ambassadors' protest did not prevent it. The pope thought of sending cardinal legates to Spain and France, but nothing has been decided as yet.
The matter of the road proceeds satisfactorily. Our Ambassador Gritti has taken leave of the emperor, as the dignity of the republic demands. The emperor recognised our right but could not concede to it owing to the hardness of the Spanish Ambassador. Our Secretary Padavino will remain at that court.
We hear from Spain that the papal nuncio had made some proposals tending to refer the negotiation to Rome, but the French ambassador would not consent, demanding the execution of the agreement, so the ministers then procrastinated, saying they would await news about the Milan treaty. At the arrival of this the French ambassador declared that he would not consider at all what the governor had arranged, and if they did not decide speedily he had orders from his king to make his protest; but he has kept putting this off so far, under various pretexts.
The like to Savoy, Florence, Naples, England, the Hague, Rome, Germany Spain, Milan, Zurich.
Ayes, 183.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
March 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli
Venetian
Archives.
378. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The new English Ambassador had instructions on arriving here to try and arrange an accommodation between the Sultan and Poland, and he has had lengthy interviews on the subject with the Grand Vizier, who complained bitterly of the Poles. The ambassador said that he had instructions from his king, as the friend of both parties, to interpose and try to arrange terms; but the Vizier answered that it did not become the Sultan's dignity to listen to any negotiations before the Poles fulfilled what had been arranged with them in the field, and so the ambassador said no more. I hear that the French Ambassador performed a similar office the day before yesterday and received the same answer.
The Vigne of Pera, the 19th March, 1622.
[Italian; deciphered.]
March 21.
Consiglio di X.
Parti Comuni.
Venetian
Archives.
379. To the Ambassador in England.
We sent a reply on the 27th September last to what you advised about the Muranese who are teaching the art of glassmaking in that kingdom, but as we have heard nothing more we feel sure that our letter must have gone astray, together with the duplicate. We now repeat it a third time, to the effect that you will covertly convey to the glassworkers who are banished, as if on your responsibility, that they will render themselves much more worthy of obtaining some favour from us if they will decide to leave England and proceed to some place on our frontiers where they will cease to practise their art, to the prejudice of our laws and our service.
Ayes, 16.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.380. To the heads of the Council of Ten.
Last September this tribunal was petitioned on behalf of some poor Muranese exiles in London, practising our art of glassworking, to the great detriment thereof and damage to your Serenity through loss of the duties. The petition was graciously accepted, but owing to pressure of business and the change of the council the matter could not be brought before the council, but they decided to write to the ambassador in England to give exact information on the subject. This was done, but as the first letter was intercepted they sent a second, and now it appears that these also went astray; we therefore pray your excellencies that they may be repeated a third time, or that something else may be done so that those unfortunates may receive some favour from your Serenity's generous hand and that our poor art of glass may be restored, and so many poor families relieved from their wretchedness.
Endorsed: presented on the 7th March, 1622.
[Italian.]
March 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
381. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The States hear nothing from London to satisfy them, indeed they fear that their ambassadors will gain nothing from their journey. However, many of the directors of the East India Company have gathered here this last week to try and find some means of satisfying the English, by sacrificing the interests of their company as much as possible. But I do not hear that the States have prevailed upon the directors to abate their original claims. The English ambassador here, who would like to see his king satisfied and at the same time the old union between his Majesty and these Provinces, laments their obstinacy and seems disgusted at their methods of proceeding.
Some months ago the States sent one Manriques to Algiers to arrange a treaty with the pirates, and he seems to have succeeded as the pirates have written expressing their desire for peace, offering to restore Dutch slaves and not to touch Dutch ships again, and they say they are willing to join them against Spain. (fn. 3)
The Hague, the 21st March, 1622.
[Italian.]
March 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
382. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The day before yesterday the king sent letters to England, so far as I can discover in order to urge that monarch to hasten on the steps he has already decided upon and to dissuade him if possible from trusting to the artifices which may be covered beneath the proposals of the emperor's ambassador.
There is a general rumour here that the marriage between the English prince and Spain's sister will no longer take place, the wish being father to the thought. Moreover there was a report here recently that the King of England himself was thinking of marrying, and the Spanish Ambassador encouraged the notion in order to exclude the Palatine's children from all hopes of succession, through his having other sons. But the English ambassador here laughs at the latter idea and shrugs his shoulders about the other, apparently not knowing what to say. But many here agree in the opinion that the Spaniards are playing with the King of Great Britain and are trying to profit by negotiation, making use of time as a soporative.
Two things have passed the lips of some of the leading ministers here recently, one that Venice would accept the electorship of Bavaria, the other that she might make a league with the Spaniards. The English Ambassador asked me if I had any knowledge of this. I said, No. He told me that he could not believe either and had observed to his king that it was merely an artifice, because he did not see what advantages your Serenity would gain, and it showed clearly how impossible it was to trust the Spaniards. He further told me that his sovereign felt assured the integrity and sincerity of your Serenity.
The Hague, the 21st March, 1622.
[Italian.]
March 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
383. To the Ambassador at Rome and the like to the other Courts.
The Duke of Savoy has finally seen the reasonableness of our action as regards his ambassador's steward, who has since been condemned to two years imprisonment and a fine of 200 ducats for his victim's heirs. We have voluntarily pardoned him the imprisonment, to please the ambassador, who seemed completely satisfied, he also remarked that he always considered his steward perfectly innocent, but the condemnation made him think otherwise. We send this for information to use as our service requires.
The like to France, Spain, England, Germany, Florence, Milan, Naples, the Hague, Zurich.
Ayes, 128.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
March 26.
Misc. Cod.
No. 61.
Venetian
Archives.
384. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Bavaria feels certain of having the electorate, and is arming strongly because he has heard of the assistance in men from the King of England to the Palatine under Vere, and from the States.
They announce here that Mansfelt has with him persons from England, France, the Infanta, Lorraine and Savoy, and some are going from your Serenity; all to negotiate in their own interests.
The Marquis of Sexalvo di Galitia has been nominated in Spain as Ambassador to this Court. The Spaniards pretend to be sending him at the instance of England about the Palatinate, as they want to make that king believe that they are making every effort, with the intention of mocking him afterwards, and to escape by building on his inveterate irresolution.
Vienna, the 26th March, 1622.
[Italian.]
March 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Candia.
Venetian
Archives.
385. The VISCOUNT DE LORMES to the DOGE and SENATE.
Detained by bad weather. Hopes to reach his ships twenty days after leaving this place. If the ship Martinella was taken by Captain Sanson, as is suspected, swears he will have it restored with other prizes taken as soon as he reaches his ships, handing them with all the goods taken to the duke of Candia. Informed that his enemies are doing everything to ruin him. Hears his ships are towards Syria; if he meets them he will bring them to Candia.
Candia, the 27th March, 1622.
[Italian.]
March 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
386. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Count of Swartzembergh, the emperor's ambassador for Brussels and England is to go to Brussels first, to arrange about the emperor's proposals, and then proceed to England, though some say is he only going in order to gain time. The king here is anxious about what the said ambassador may propose. Prince Maurice told me that although the King of Great Britain wanted a truce or a peace, he would never advise it, and when I asked his Excellency how the king here could help consenting, seeing he has placed everything in his father-in-law's hands, he said, The King of Great Britain has nothing to do with the German troops, and I do not think that the king (referring to the prince here) will consent. And he seemed to attach very little importance to what the King of England might do. He remarked that the king here needed assistance though no one assisted him.
The Hague, the 28th March, 1622.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
387. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The assembly of Holland adjourned on Thursday to meet a fortnight later. They have to consider the defence of these provinces, as hopes of an arrangement between them and the crowns of France and England grow fainter and fainter. There seems little prospect of peace in France. As regards England Prince Maurice told me that he did not think those interested in the East India company would yield easily, and he did not see how it could be done, adding that the people here would not readily consent to prejudice their own interests.
The Hague, the 28th March, 1622.
[Italian.]
March 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
388. ALVISE CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
To the pope's representations in favour of the Duke of Bavaria, brought by Father Hyacinth, they have replied by referring him to a congress or diet to be held at Brussels, which will be attended by the Infanta, the Marquis of Bedmar, representatives of the emperor and of the Dukes of Bavaria and Neuburg, with Lord Digby and others for the King of England and the Palatine, with the idea of satisfying that monarch at least in appearance, who is said to have in hand negotiations for a fresh truce or peace with the Dutch.
Madrid, the 29th March, 1622.
[Italian.]
March 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
389. To the Ambassador at Rome and in conformity to the other Courts, except Savoy.
Two soldiers serving the republic were recently violently carried off to Modena. The duke there expressed his regret and offered to send back the prisoners. The duke had since asked us to let him keep them, as having conspired against his son's life. The Duke of Savoy has backed this request, but we have answered saying that the men ought to be released, while we would release Captain Leoni, who took them, and whom we arrested.
The like to:
France, Spain, England, Germany, Florence, Milan, Naples, the Hague, Zurich.
Ayes, 161.Noes, 3.Neutral, 9.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The king's trouble in his arm descended to his leg. His fears were apparently connected with a dream, in which his old tutor Buchanan foretold his end. Birch: Court and Times of James I, ii, pages 297, 301. Lando's Relation of England, 21 Sept., 1622, infra.
2 Roger de Saint Lary, Duke of Bellegard, known as M. le Grand.
3 No definite treaty seems to have been signed before November of this year; see Dumont: Corps Diplomatique, v, pt. ii, pages 411–414, but see page 230 above.