Venice
April 1622, 11-20

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1911

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284-292

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'Venice: April 1622, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 284-292. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88831 Date accessed: 19 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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April 1622

April 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
402. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The King of Bohemia did not return that Monday evening, as he put to sea and was driven back by a furious storm. He arrived here on Wednesday and left again on Friday, embarking at Brill for France. Common report states that he has gone to England, but the Ambassador Carleton assured me that he would land at the nearest French port and proceed to Sedan, and thence to the Lower Palatinate. The journey was kept secret for various reasons but he told me in order that I might write to your Serenity. The same day the ambassador sent a special person to England.
The queen remains here in no small affliction at the departure of her husband, especially as she is near her time.
The Hague, the 11th April, 1622.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Candia.
Venetian
Archives.
403. VICENZO GUSSONI, Proveditore of Candia, to the DOGE and SENATE.
At the very moment when the captain of the galeasses left this port, on the 19th ult., with his convoy, news reached me from la Sfochia that six bertons of Tunis, led by the famous pirates Sanson and Guarda had slipped anchor at the islet of Gozzi, 40 miles from Sfochia, and were molesting the inhabitants who opposed their landing. I immediately sent the news to the captain, who decided to go after these pirates, as it is the general opinion that it was they who captured the Formello, Polacho and other Venetian ships. Meanwhile I learned that the pirates had landed at Gozzi, driving off the poor people, who could offer no resistance and took refuge in the mountains, burning thirty houses and taking a quantity of animals, desecrating holy places and making slaves of thirteen women. They then departed, though remaining in sight of the inhabitants of la Sfochia. I decided to go thither with a number of troops, greatly to the relief of the people. After my arrival news came that the pirates had returned to anchor at Gozzi. The people begged me to render assistance. I sent two barques to that island, under Captain Marco Capsodassi, an experienced soldier to fetch off the refugees. He came back and reported that the pirates had left, after putting ashore thirteen women as useless. They had previously made slaves of thirty-four Frenchmen, who had escaped to that island from a wreck shortly before. I have issued a proclamation to prevent any pirate ships from landing, and I have taken all the steps possible for the protection of your Serenity's subjects here.
Canea, the 2nd April, old style.
[Italian.]
April 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Candia.
Venetian
Archives.
404. NICOLO TRON, Proveditore of Cerigo, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A French saetta arrived here to-day on its way from Alexandria to Leghorn. The captain reports that the pirate Sanson with six bertons of Barbary who keeps the ship of Pelegrin di Rossi as a spy, which was at the Vella Carico of Alexandria, and was waiting for him, encountered off the Gozzi of Candia the man of war of M. de Guise, which was accompanying three French ships laden with silk, on their way from Alexandria to Marseilles. In the fight one of the pirates was sunk as well as one of the French merchantmen, and both sides suffered severely. The French went to Suda for repairs.
Cerigo the 2nd April, 1622, old style.
[Italian.]
April 14.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
405. The English ambassador came into the Cabinet and handed in a letter from the Palatine, which had been given to him at Padua, where he had been staying for some time under medical treatment. The following letter was then read:
Frederick, King of Bohemia, Count Palatine of the Rhine, etc., to Antonio Priuli, Doge of Venice.
While the King of England was interposing to adjust the dispute between ourselves and the house of Austria, our enemies occupied the Palatinate, invoking the imperial authority, and the safety of the Holy Roman Empire to justify themselves, accusing us of various errors and crimes which never so much as entered our mind. But God has disclosed their secret designs, divers of their letters having been intercepted, showing that they have conspired to ruin us to secure their perpetual possession of the empire and to transfer the upper Palatinate to the Duke of Bavaria with the dignity of elector. Thus if they overcome the Grisons only the Lower Palatinate will prevent them from giving all that the Spaniards hold in Italy with the Tyrol, Upper Burgundy, Alsace, Luxemburg and all Lower Burgundy, cutting off France and Italy from Germany. If Bavaria obtained the Palatinate and the electoral vote he would always remain under the thumb of the Austrians. Under these circumstances some of the German princes are thinking of trying to save their country and others will doubtless follow their example. In this state of affairs, all who have the general liberty at heart must join forces against the House of Austria. The King of England has given us some money and has undertaken to keep an army at his own expense for the defence and recovery of the Palatinate. We have decided to raise troops and meet our enemies with the largest possible forces, in the belief that God will assist the right and that other powers will not abandon us. We need money to pay our troops and we must apply to our friends coming in the first place to your Serenity, to whom we are sending Henry de Teichnau, asking you to help us in our dire necessity, by which means you will be protecting yourselves against the peril of an Austrian and Spanish invasion. If we succeed the Austrians will not be able to use the forces of Germany to oppress other free states.
Dated the 3rd March, 1622.
Sir Henry Wotton, after having presented this letter and heard it read spoke substantially as follows:
He had orders to add the warm intercession of the king his master. He adduced two reasons, (1) the merit of the cause, and (2) the community of interests. On the first head the ambassador impressed upon his Serenity the fact that the Duke of Bavaria had secretly obtained a promise of the electorate of the Rhine before the true elector was invited to take the Bohemian crown. This was proved by sufficiently clear references in the intercepted letters, which had been printed. On the second head he asked if the Austrian usurpation could not be restrained by the united forces of princes zealous for the general peace. What would prevent the flood from spreading to Italy and particularly to the dominions of the republic? His Majesty relied upon the wisdom of the Senate which had recently spent a goodly sum with excellent results in fomenting a near diversion, and should therefore be the more ready to support a distant one. His Majesty might reasonably expect a return for his open declaration and offer of his forces at a time when the republic was in difficulties, but he would be contented with a silent contribution in a form most acceptable to his Serenity to the amount to be expected of an old friend, qui (according to the old rule) in rebus incertis cernitur. In this way his Serenity would lay his Majesty, his friends and allies under an obligation which they would not fail to repay.
The doge replied: We have listened attentively to the particulars about the Palatine, and we wish him all prosperity. We will send a formal reply to his requests. We must say that all these motions and armaments have compelled the republic herself to arm strongly and incur very heavy expenses. We are doing our utmost, and if the King of England makes resolutions befitting his greatness great results may be expected. The republic is also supplying a contribution to the States, which all serves for the general good.
The ambassador replied: The alliance of your Serenity with the States and the consequent contribution originated long before this affair of the King of Bohemia and for different reasons, so this affair has no relation to ours. We beg your Serenity to lend a helping hand in Germany. Your expenses upon armaments are well known and correspond to the greatness of your Serenity, but the additional help asked for can be provided by the great power of the Senate from whom I anticipate a favourable reply. His Majesty does the same in view of his declarations made in favour of the republic.
The ambassador then left.
[Italian.]
April 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
406. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
All eyes are now turned towards the imperial ambassador, who arrived in this city the day before yesterday, being met in his Majesty's name by the Marquis of Hamilton and lodged and defrayed in the late queen's house (fn. 1) and with great pomp. Next Sunday has been fixed for his audience. The Secretary Calvert told me that he thought his mission was merely complimentary, as the negotiations were to take place at Brussels afterwards. In this way he will gain more time and will receive better treatment than he might after the issue of the negotiations, and will make his Majesty spend more, the burden being no light one for his purse. They say he will assure his Majesty that the Catholic never negotiated for a marriage with his master, and that they had shown him copies of letters from the pope to the emperor with the instances of Bavaria about the electorate and the reply that they cannot satisfy him because the King of Spain desires to treat with the king here. But perhaps this announcement is not over true, although uttered by important persons.
The Ambassador Wotton has sent advices in conformity with what I told the king, which will serve as a check.
Gondomar has laboured to create the impression that the advices brought by the Scot are a false and diabolical invention fabricated by the Puritans here, as he says that the Spanish fleet is making ready against pirates, Moors and Dutch. The Scot has been sent to prison for speaking too freely against the Catholic king and for publishing these reports too freely among the people although he produces remarkable evidences. Many have asked me if I had similar news from Spain, and some who are persuaded of its truth have expressed amazement that the republic, being so friendly with his Majesty, has not given him any hint of a matter of so much moment, well known, so he says, in those parts. But they are the words of a fanatic, unworthy of consideration.
It seems that orders have been issued to review the provision of arms in the realm, and the relaxed discipline of the men, and some money has been spent upon munitions for the principal forts of Ireland by virtue of old orders.
The king has ordered that some indigo and other small goods, upon which the English laid hands in taking the Dutch ship, shall be found or paid for, although of no great value. The ship has already gone free. They have already gone to fetch Digby with their ships, and it would be easy for something else to happen, such as the punishment threatened to the Vice-Admiral.
The Earl of Oxford has been deprived of his command, not for this but for other offences, and the orders against the Dutch have been completely withdrawn, and perhaps the fleet will not sail again, also owing to the lack of money.
What the king said recently to the Ambassador of the States, after expressing regret for the accident, and saying he had withdrawn the commissions, was substantially, so they told me, that no prince in the world should disturb his friendship with them. Some fresh difficulties have arisen in the negotiations with the commissioners, who act as partisans rather than judges; the merchants aiming at having their own way in everything. But his Majesty showed his desire to unravel all the knots.
After these events the ambassador, to keep up his reputation, denies in a remarkable manner the reports about his levies in Scotland, which are said to have succeeded wonderfully, and that they are giving money to some in this neighbourhood, but every one considers this more ostentation than fruit, as has always been the case in such affairs and as I have reported.
Dominis has been summoned before the archbishop of Canterbury, some bishops, Lords of the Council, lawyers and judges, and after admitting and acknowledging various of his signatures and compositions, he was told to leave these realms in twenty days, never to return, by the royal command, under severe penalties. He is thus banished, as I announced that he would be. I see clearly enough that he will leave with the support of the Spaniards, although Gondomar speaks as I reported.
I have received your Serenity's letters of the 18th and 19th February, which went to the Hague by mistake, sent me by Suriano, who should have received his. The news about the league against heretics comes opportunely as the Spaniards never cease to announce here that the republic would join for defence, although the idea finds no acceptance whatever here. I also have yours of the 5th, 10th and 11th March, and have told the Secretary Calvert all the particulars of the reply to the office about the Palatine as the king is away from London. I think I left him well impressed, besides what the Ambassador Wotton may write, from whom no letters have yet arrived. I hope that his Majesty will remain as satisfied as the Secretary seemed to be about the many points of confidence which the letters contained. But if necessary or if an opportunity occurs I will reopen the matter and repeat it to the king.
I made some remarks to the Ambassador Trilier here about the resolutions of the French crown upon the Valtelline. He made no definite reply, indeed a rather doubtful one, although his king considered he had been deceived in the matter, remarking that he had other matters on his hands, and would see what the republic and other powers concerned thought of doing. He asked me with much curiosity what the pope really thought about it, and in this he seemed in my opinion to utter his own sentiments rather than his master's, as he has frequently done.
Doncaster has left for France with good commissions for the peace in that kingdom and to urge upon them the cause of the Valtelline.
London, the 18th April, 1622.
[Italian; the parts in italics deciphered.]
April 15.
Consiglio di X.
Lettere di
Ambasciatori.
Venetian
Archives.
407. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the heads of the COUNCIL OF TEN.
It came to my knowledge that the agent Vamala of Brussels here, through Sir [Thomas] Lake, formerly the king's principal secretary, has employed an Englishman here, unequalled in deciphering and who has frequently amazed me, to try his hand at copies of two letters of your Serenity one dated the 18th February to the Secretary Suriano at the Hague, and one undated, which were almost certainly intercepted. I have obtained copies which I enclose, and am now waiting to see whether the man will succeed in his deciphering. He has had the paper two weeks and I hope he will not succeed. Vamala must have the originals in his possession. I have sent the copies to the Secretary Surian.
London, the 15th April, 1622.
[Italian deciphered.]
Enclosure.408. Copies of the two letters in cipher aforesaid, marked A and B.
April 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
409. To the Secretary at the Imperial Court.
With regard to the pernicious designs of the English knight Eliata, you must maintain your vigilance, and try to discover in what direction he has actually gone, and with what conditions, in order that you may send us full particulars.
Ayes, 132.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
April 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
410. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I remarked to the English ambassador that the Palatine had taken with him credits for 500,000 florins, supplied to him by the States, by the influence of the Prince of Orange. He neither denied nor confirmed this, and he behaves in a manner to confirm the truth of the report. He is also supporting Mansfelt's requests, not without hope of success.
The States and the whole community are much incensed by the news received this week of the arrest in England of a ship coming from the East Indies, the more so because it has happened at the opening of fresh negotiations between their ambassadors and the English commissioners. They have made strong remonstrances on the subject to the English ambassador. (fn. 2)
The States have also received equally strange news to-day, that the deputy of la Rochelle who left the Texel in an armed ship accompanied by M. de la Noue, fell in with two ships from Guinea near the Dutch coasts laden with sugar and other merchandise for Amsterdam, which they captured and took to England and sold. They consider this the basest ingratitude here and are very angry, while they throw some of the blame upon the English who had the merchandise.
We have no certainty as yet whether the Emperor's ambassador has left for England, and the agent of the King of Great Britain has not written a word about it to the Ambassador Carleton.
The Hague, the 18th April, 1622.
[Italian.]
April 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
411. To the Ambassador LANDO.
Your successor Valaresso is travelling to England to relieve you. You will perform jointly with him the office of your leave taking and his introduction, with the king, the prince and other lords and ministers as you see fit. We direct you to hand over to him all public papers, which will serve to guide him. That done you may return home in the assurance that you have given satisfaction, having added to the merits of your ancestors by your own worthy services.
Ayes, 135.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
April 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
412. That the following instructions be given to Alvise Valaresso, chosen as ordinary ambassador to England.
Your previous services give us confidence in entrusting to you this leading embassy in the present troubled state of the world. We direct you to proceed at once to that Court by the least difficult and safest way. Arrived in London you will obtain audience of his Majesty, jointly with your predecessor Lando, for his leave taking and your introduction. You will then present your credentials, expressing our warmest esteem for his Majesty and our desire for the continuance and increase of the existing cordial relations, saying that we shall always wish him every prosperity, and that we always feel sure of meeting with a full response from him. You will wish him a long and happy reign, and will act throughout your charge in such a manner as to win his affection and confidence as the best way of profiting in negotiating, and as a favourable introduction in the search for advices.
You will also pay your respects to the Prince of Wales, expressing our esteem befitting his reputation in the world as a lover of glory and justice. You will try to foster his friendliness to our republic, and you will show him such signs of confidence as you may esteem necessary upon occasion in the course of your embassy.
You will keep on the look out in the present crises in the Palatinate, the States and elsewhere to advise us of everything which concerns our service.
You will observe the rules given to your predecessor in your relations with the other diplomatists at the Court. The popes have asked us to direct our ambassadors to help the Catholic religion. You will act with reserve, so as not to do more harm than good, performing no office unless sure of success.
We will give you letters for princes and courts according to the route you follow, so that you may pay your respects in a becoming manner.
You will receive from the Ambassador Lando all the necessary papers. We give you leave to keep, beyond your ordinary household, a chaplain and an interpreter; we will allow the chaplain 186 ducats a year and the interpreter 100 ducats a year. We will give you 300 gold ducats of 7 lire a month for expenses without rendering account, and you must keep eleven horses, including those for the secretary and his servant and four footmen. We give you four months in advance and a donation of 1,000 ducats and 300 ducats of 6 lire 4 soldi for horses, clothes and trunks without rendering account.
We will give your secretary 100 ducats as a gift and 20 ducats each for couriers accompanying you, and you will have 150 ducats of 6 lire 4 soldi for expenses of couriers and carriage of letters, for which you will render account. For all other expenses we have assigned to you 40 crowns a month, giving you four months in advance, as well as the salaries of the chaplain and interpreter for the same period. You can take silver at our risk to the amount of 400 ducats, to be valued by the officials of the Rason Nuove.
Ayes, 135.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
April 19.
Collegio,
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
413. Letters patent of Antonio Priuli, doge of Venice, asking all friends and ordering all the ministers of the republic to grant free passage to Alvise Valaresso, going as ambassador to the King of Great Britain, his household, train and property.
[Italian.]
April 20.
Consiglio di X.
Criminale.
Venetian
Archives.
414. In the COUNCIL OF TEN.
Are you of opinion that for the things uttered and read, sentence be passed on Antonio Foscarini, knight, son of the late Nicolo.
Ayes, 13.Noes, 0.Neutral, 4.
We will that to-morrow morning before daybreak in the very dungeon where he now lies, he may be strangled by the executioner, who shall hang him by one leg on a lofty gallows between the two columns of St. Mark, and that he be left thus for the whole day.
Ayes, 10.
[Italian.]
April 20.
Consiglio di X.
Criminale.
Venetian
Archives.
415. We will that he be condemned to a dark dungeon for life. Should he escape that he be outlawed for ever, and if taken be brought back to prison, with a reward to his slayer of 1,000 ducats in our territory or 2,000 in foreign parts, to be paid from his property. He shall not be released within twenty years except by nine balls of the Councillors and chiefs in full Council of Seventeen.
Ayes, 5.
That he be put to death as aforesaid and left in the same prison until evening, and then removed for interment.
Ayes, 2.
That Foscarini's valet Valentin be released.
Ayes, 17.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Somerset House, known in Queen Anne's time as Denmark House.
2 See Lando's second despatch of the 8th April, No. 398, at page 282 above.