Venice
April 1622, 21-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1911

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292-311

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'Venice: April 1622, 21-30', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 292-311. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88832 Date accessed: 01 October 2014.


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April 1622

April 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
416. Benetto Ferro, who was sent to negotiate with the pirates of the west has reported his progress. He considers that further travelling in the Turkish country would be dangerous; it would also be inopportune, seeing that the Viscount de Lormes, with whom he was to act, has gone to Candia. That leave be granted to him to return home to take up that affair again at a fitting time.
Ayes, 104.Noes, 5.Neutral, 10.
[Italian.]
April 22.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
417. The English ambassador came into the Cabinet with the Countess of Arundel, whom he held by the right hand. He gave her his usual place on the right hand of his Serenity and himself sat on the left. After the Countess had stated her errand in English, the ambassador standing the while, he sat down and interpreted as follows:
The reason for this unusual appearance is a great and urgent matter, although for an insufficient and unfounded cause. Yesterday this noble lady on returning home found a group of people discussing the fate of that unhappy gentleman who ended his days by the hand of the executioner. (fn. 1) They said that common report traced a share in that affair back to her, and it was in discussion to make some intimation to her on the subject. She might be well advised to secure her reputation as people were speaking publicly on the subject. This lady therefore, feeling what was due to her birth and position, as wife of the Earl Marshal of England, and conscious of her own integrity, decided to appear before your Serenity getting me to introduce her to tell you these facts and receive your commands, as far from desiring to escape she wishes to submit herself to them in order to prove her sincerity and vindicate her reputation.
The doge replied: This matter is entirely fresh to us. As the countess understands our tongue we can assure her that there has not been a syllable or shadow of a question upon the matter which the ambassador has propounded. We rejoiced to see your ladyship this morning and thought that you had come to ask some favour. We regret greatly the reason which has brought you, but assure you that there has not been the slightest idea of any such thing. It was possibly started by some rascals who wished to cover themselves. Foscarini has expiated his previous malpractices; that is the end of him. Your ladyship enjoys the love and esteem of the republic, where all your countrymen are most welcome. We rejoice to communicate our affairs to his Majesty and especially to the present ambassador, whose friendly disposition we know.
The ambassador thanked the doge for the compliment. The lady would depart much relieved at what he had said. The republic had no more sincere friend than herself, no greater well wisher than her husband. As the rumour against her was public she desired public reparation. However, she was entirely satisfied by the doge's reply and placed herself in their hands. The doge added further complimentary remarks and said that if the ambassador could give him any clue to those who had spread such lies he would punish them in an exemplary manner. The countess returned thanks with effusion, and they then departed. (fn. 2)
[Italian.]
April 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
418. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king has routed Soubise, capturing 2,000 men and slaying a like number. (fn. 3) This is a mortal blow for the cause of the Huguenots. What may set them up again is that on the very day of Soubise's defeat four good ships arrived at la Rochelle with 1,200 foot from Amsterdam, of French, Dutch and English nationality.
Niort, the 26th April, 1622.
[Italian.]
April 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
419. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Secretary Calvert told me on the king's behalf that he was completely satisfied with your Excellencies' replies about the Palatine, and recognised the continued confidence shown towards him, several letters from the Ambassador Wotton having brought him similar particulars. Another minister also signified the same to me. They whisper that the said ambassador may be recalled very soon owing to some intrigues in which he is engaged to obtain the post of Secretary of State or because his Majesty has complained openly these last days of his economy in writing, as he has also felt angry at the ill reception of Ayers, returned from Constantinople, although in disgrace, and the ill manner in which the other one Roe had been received at the Porte.
The imperial ambassador has had a most solemn public audience and a very long private one yesterday, quite alone with the king, who came post from Theobalds whither he returned immediately afterwards, previously visiting the favourite's wife suffering from her first delivery and small pox, to show his sympathy. (fn. 4)
The ambassador discoursed at the first audience upon his master's desire for peace since he assumed the empire, disturbed by some restless spirits who would not follow this king's advice, which was worthy of all praise and was universally commended. He said he had come to congratulate the king on his good health, to respond to the offices he had passed and to assure him of a peaceful disposition, the Catholic king also suggesting this.
The king replied in similar fashion, that he had always desired and laboured for peace, and now the world might be satisfied of his sincerity. He continued with compliments and matters of small consequence.
I have not yet discovered any particulars about the second audience, except that the ambassador tried to make it believed that his master really desired peace and was disposed to make it on reasonable terms, which should be arranged at Brussels. The king gave evidence of only a moderate satisfaction at this, expressing a lively decision and an abhorrence of delays, touching on the various behaviour adopted when Lord Digby was in Germany.
The ambassador announces that he will leave next week, and Weston will follow him. In private conversation he hinted that his negotiations would have for an object the honour and safety of the empire and the emperor. He does not take a step without the advice and guidance of the Ambassador Gondomar, who sees him every day and also shows letters which create the impression that Mansfelt has settled everything with the Infanta of Brabant and will disband.
Colonel Gray, however, who comes from Mansfelt, reports the exact contrary. He is declared the count's master of ordnance and comes to levy 3,000 more men, as permitted, though he will find it difficult owing to the dissatisfaction of the others who went with him, and because it is almost impossible to take them to the Palatinate. He brings thanks to his Majesty for the offer to include the count in the treaty and assurances that he will always labour for his son-in-law and no others, except at his pleasure, asks for money and says the Palatinate can easily be recovered if he could have 100,000l. to satisfy his troops.
News arrived recently that the Palatine, after encountering a dangerous storm at sea, feigning to cross to England, was near Calais with a few others, including Nedersol, acting as his Majesty's agent. With them he went post to the Duke of Bouillon at Sedan, in order to join Mansfelt later with some escort, and they think he will have reached him now. He also proposes to confer with Vere and if possible with Brunswick to decide upon the course he will take.
I have learned on excellent authority that a week ago the king being in his bedchamber, with only two gentlemen of the chamber present, was very disturbed and deep in thought. Suddenly, without any conversation leading up to it, he broke out of his own accord, And so the King of Spain thinks he can use me in this fashion; does he think me dead? he will find me only too much alive and determined. Then casting a rapid glance all round the room, fearing he had been overheard, he changed his style and remarked: I have trusted and still trust the Ambassador Gondomar more than any man living (penetro per via ben certa che otto giorni sono il Re nella sua stanza di letto, mentre vi fossero presenti due soli dei suoi gentilhoumini di Camera; assai inquieto in profondita di pensieri, senza precedente discorso usci a dire da se stesso; il Re di Spagna dunque cosi è per trattarmi? crede ch'io sia morto? mi trovera più che vivo et rissoluto; poi con occhi veloci e fissi girando tutta la stanza in sospetto di essere sentito mutò parlare, soggiongendo; ho confidato et confido più nel Ambr. Gondomar che in huomo vivente).
A leading minister informed me that now his Majesty and the prince hope more for the recovery than the restitution of the Palatinate, and promise themselves very little about the marriage, but in order to see the end of both affairs after having gone so far they feel bound to simulate hopes, founded upon so many promises and assertions. Chichester will leave about the Palatinate after the departure of the imperial envoy, taking with him the largest sum of money they can find just as they sent Vere as much as they could and keep sending him remittances every day. Digby has not yet embarked, by the latest advices. He postpones, under various pretexts, perhaps to learn all about the said ambassador's offices. He has authority from the prince not only to conclude the marriage but to solemnize it in person. It has been finally decided that his wife shall go, if well enough, to show his Majesty's disposition and to remove all cause for delay, so that she may accompany and serve the bride to these shores. He ended by telling me that the more they fear failure here the more they try to have appearances in their favour and to shift the blame.
The day before yesterday there arrived from Mansfelt a secret copy of an intercepted letter of the last of February (fn. 5) from the emperor to the pope, which was sent immediately to the king. I could only obtain some particulars with great difficulty. They clearly show a determination to transfer the electoral vote to Bavaria, but there were strong reasons why the duke should not oppose a truce to await the issue of the negotiations with the king here, and the still uncertain issue of the Hungarian diet. If they could induce that king to consent to the palatine and his children being deprived of the electoral dignity, he could immediately give his Highness possession; but war would be most dangerous, the treasury of the Catholics being exhausted, the Spanish army scattered in various places, and the imperial much diminished. Before making war the emperor asked to know what help the pope would give him; meanwhile he asked him to intercede with other princes not to disturb in any way the affairs of his imperial majesty and the King of Spain, but rather to join with them in such a war which they call holy.
Yesterday they made the ordinary muster of 7,000 to 8,000 of the citizens here, but with special pains, so that the imperial ambassador might see it, the prince and several lords of the Council taking part before a large crown.
I have expressed my willingness to exchange visits with the ambassador, showing my determination not to be treated differently from the other ambassadors of crowned heads, according to the precise instructions of the 4th December, 1620.
London, the 22nd April, 1622.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 23.
Misc. Cod.
No. 61.
Venetian
Archives.
420. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The commissioners for Brussels have been chosen, but not announced because the infanta has written that she finds the King of Great Britain disinclined to send commissioners, and she hears he will not discuss the questions on their merits, while the success of Mansfelt and Erbstat fill him with hopes of recovering the whole of his son-in-law's dominions. The Spaniards also seem to be growing cooler in this business because they do not want to offend that king openly. Bavaria recognises this and has written here to say that as the pushing of his claims may kindle a conflagration in the empire which may not easily be extinguished, he will remit the grants made to him by Cæsar, while reserving his advantages, which means that he will keep Upper Austria.
They have been highly offended here by the retention at Nimuegen of the Count of Sforzemburgh, the ambassador extraordinary for England, for three days until passports arrived from the States, it being first announced that he had been made prisoner. They consider it a great affront.
Vienna, the 23rd April, 1622. Copy.
[Italian.]
April 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
421. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Prince Maurice seems much exercised by the fear that the King of Great Britain will arrange a truce or an armistice in the Palatinate, and accordingly his Excellency and the States turn their eyes in that direction to see what will be the outcome of the negotiations of the imperial ambassador.
The States have issued orders to stop the passage across the sea of those who may go from Scotland or England to serve the Spaniards.
The States were much incensed at the arrest in England of the ship from the East Indies, but are even more pleased at the news of its release, and more still to hear of the manner in which the king has spoken to their ambassadors.
The Hague, 25th April, 1622.
[Italian.]
April 26.
Consiglio di X.
Parti Secrete.
Venetian
Archives.
422. In the COUNCIL OF TEN.
That the paper presented by Giovanni Battista Lionello, notary in ordinary of the chancery to the chiefs of this Council, about the Countess of Arundel, be sent to the Savii of the Cabinet so that they may decide as they see best for the public service.
Ayes, 15.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
April 26.
Senato
Secreta.
Communicazioni dal
Consiglio di X.
Venetian
Archives.
423. On Sunday I met Francesco Vercellini, a Venetian whom I had known more than ten years, as he had been steward to the late Ambassador Barbarigo and now has the same employment with the Countess of Arundel. He told me that he was going soon to England, adding casually, though perhaps with design that on Thursday when the countess was in her carriage at Lizzafusina the Ambassador Wotton's secretary met her on horseback and gave her a letter which stated that the ambassador knew for certain that the Senate had decided to tell her to leave their dominions in a few hours, and advising her to return to her villa and leave before the intimation was made. The countess was much astonished, but told the secretary she thanked Wotton for the advice, which however she would not accept but would hasten to Venice.
She arrived there that evening and landed first at the ambassador's where she conversed some time without his mentioning the matter, so she was the first to remark that she wanted to have from his own mouth the confirmation of what the secretary had told her. The ambassador said it was quite true and the decision was because they knew her house had been frequented by the papal nuncio, the secretary of the emperor and the Cavalier Foscarini. He had heard of this fifteen days earlier but did not wish to disturb her by telling her. The countess said she was amazed how such a false report got about and swore to him as the ambassador of her sovereign that she had never set eyes on any one of the three persons named, in her house, in fact no diplomat had been there except himself and the resident of Florence. As this concerned the English name as well as her own reputation she would go to the Cabinet on the following morning to clear it up; if he would assist her she would be glad, if not she would go alone. The ambassador tried hard to dissuade her, but finding her more and more determined he could not help going with her, and your Excellencies know the rest.
She was highly pleased with the doge's gracious reply, and her distress vanished to a great extent, although Wotton told her afterwards that the words were arranged beforehand, trying to leave her with the impression that the matter had been previously debated by the Savii with some discussion about her person. Accordingly she is very angry with Wotton, not only for making her believe as certain what the republic never thought, and by the bad advice to flee and so create an indelible impression of guilt, but because she is not without reasonable suspicion that he had something to do with the origin of this false report, because he objected to her staying in this city, fancying that she watched his proceedings, and was a weight on his arms, preventing him from acting with such freedom in public affairs as he desired.
On Friday she sent a full account to her husband, and will perhaps send a special gentleman to his Majesty trying to be avenged on Wotton, as Vercellini hinted to me, and penetrate to the heart of the matter, and before going she wished Wotton to confirm before his Serenity that he had written and said the above words. She considers the doge's gracious words sufficient, but she would be perfectly consoled if she could obtain something in writing. I told him this was not usual, but he remarked that as the injury was public, not only in Venice but in all the Courts, some public demonstration on the other side would be especially appreciated by her.
As I did not know whether I ought to show any knowledge of this affair, I confined myself to generalities in my conversation with Vercellini, but as he is a Venetian and for other reasons I thought it my duty to report the matter.
[Italian.]
April 26.
Consiglio di X.
Parti Comuni.
Venetian
Archives.
424. In the COUNCIL OF TEN.
That the jewels of the sanctuary and the halls of arms of this council be shown to such foreigners and others as the heads of this Council shall approve eight days before and eight days after the feast of the Ascension.
Ayes, 15.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
April 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
425. To the ambassador in England.
The Countess of Arundel, having come into the College with the Ambassador Wotton, informed us of an injurious accusation laid against her, as you will see by the enclosed copy of her statement. Although in answering her his Serenity made ample amends, we wish to make a special demonstration, according to the accompanying decree. We charge you to speak to the lady's husband so that he entertain no doubt of the invalidity of the report and remain convinced of the affection and esteem of the republic for him, augmented by the dignified and most open life led here by the countess, who is educating her sons in the sciences, to render them faithful imitators of their father and ancestors. If he wishes you will read to him the aforesaid decree, omitting nothing which may serve to tranquillise his mind upon a matter in which it behoves us to give just satisfaction. Should other noblemen of the Court discuss the topic, you will repeat these assurances, which by admitting the news to be false and announcing our regret will clear the private character of the countess and that of the entire English nation. Should the earl desire it you will give similar assurances to the king, so that our wish to give the earl entire satisfaction may be manifest. Should you ascertain that any report at variance with the truth is in circulation and has reached the king, we give you leave to make precisely the same statement to his Majesty as that which the countess received from us.
In proof of our good-will we have decided to present the lady with various confections and other refreshments. As certain particulars have been communicated to us upon this affair, which render it more important, opening our eyes and disclosing the motives and ends of those who perhaps aim at avoiding the discovery of their own proceedings here, we send the minutes of this audience so that you may use them as a guide to sift the matter and ascertain what impression it produces in England, so as to give us distinct account thereof.
That the officials of the Razon Vecchie do expend one hundred ducats in confections and wax to be sent in the name of the State to the Countess of Arundel. (fn. 6)
Ayes, 138.Noes, 3.Neutral, 14.
[Italian.]
April 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
426. That the Countess of Arundel and the English ambassador be summoned to the Cabinet and the following read to them.
The purity and candour of your ladyship's manner of life cannot be disparaged in the slightest degree by slanderous reports. Through the communication made to us by you and the ambassador, we recognise even more fully your noble qualities and you might thus remain reasonably satisfied in your mind. But although you might be reasonably convinced of this by what was said by the doge yet we choose that you may further be assured by decree of the Senate, that the news of so false an imposture proved the greatest surprise to us, not the slightest shadow thereof having ever been entertained by any member of the government. Besides our surprise at these injurious accusations we regret to see that certain persons have iniquitously raised them on the basis of their own ill-will, and we could have wished by some means to come at the truth in order to take measures which on every account should be severe.
Our Ambassador Lando will have orders to give account in conformity to the Earl Marshal, your husband, and to notify the whole wherever necessary with the fullest expression of our esteem for your noble qualities, and we hope that you will long enjoy your sojourn in our city where you will always receive the most cordial marks of our good-will.
We hope that your Excellency the ambassador will report to the Countess and the Court what is aforesaid and in so doing fully display those abilities which are peculiar to you. (fn. 7)
Ayes, 138.Noes, 3.Neutral, 14.
[Italian.]
April 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
427. To the ambassador in England.
Yesterday we prescribed all that was to be done in the matter of the Countess of Arundel enclosing the necessary papers. This morning the countess and the ambassador have presented a narrative of the circumstances. We send you a copy of their exposition and this narrative by the ordinary of this evening. You will find something added and something changed since the ambassador's exposition at the first audience and in the doge's reply, as you will clearly perceive on reading the papers. These discrepancies should unite you to stand on your guard and to regulate the offices committed to you by your own understanding.
Read to the Council of Ten and the Savii. (fn. 8)
[Italian.]
April 29.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
428. In accordance with the deliberation of the Senate Lionello was sent yesterday evening to tell the English ambassador and the Countess of Arundel to come into the Collegio this morning. Lionello reported that on his doing so the countess welcomed the favour of an audience and the ambassador also, but when told that the countess also was asked he changed colour. He confirmed this by saying that he had no business to treat with that lady before his Serenity, yet he would come and receive the public commands and she would enjoy this very great honour.
Accordingly the countess and the ambassador came into the Collegio together and were seated as before. The countess had two sheets in her hand and the ambassador signed to her to present them, but the doge interposed saying, We must first read to your Excellencies the deliberation of the Senate why we sent for you, and then we will willingly hear what you have to say.
After the deliberation had been read, and listened to most attentively by both, though it produced very different effects upon them, the countess spoke first, in English, the ambassador interpreting. He said, This lady thanks you warmly for the great honour accorded to her. She has a special regard for this republic, as shown by her coming here with her sons, and therefore she is the more glad that your Excellencies recognise how others are trying to slander her, by rumours which do not cease even now. She takes consolation from this most thorough testimony, which she would like to hear read again in another room, in order not to weary your Serenity, and to have a copy. As the calumny was public she begs your Excellencies to pass an office with the king, our master, as the rumour may have spread, and I myself was deceived. The countess will present a compendium of the affair, and with that she rose and presented the two sheets she held to his Serenity. The ambassador said it would suffice to read the first, the second being a rather long account of the affair, but as the lady signified by her gestures that she wished both to be read, it was done. They are as follows:
Most Serene Prince,
My devotion towards the republic could no be better expressed than by my coming with my two sons to live here for so long a time, with my king's consent. I shall always preserve an indelible memory of the favours accorded to me and to my sons, especially the last on the 22nd April, concerning my honour and reputation. But as the false rumour against me seems to gather strength I have thought it necessary to procure a relation from the English ambassador which I hand to your Serenity, and which I desire my king to see and the rest of the world, so that the benignity of your Serenity and my innocence may both appear at the same time. But first I thought it my duty to show it to you, begging you to acquaint his Majesty with my innocence, and to provide for the extinction of the false report which is still current against me.
ALETHEA, ARUNDEL AND SURREY.
True narrative of the reasons which moved the Countess of Arundel and Surrey to ask audience of the doge of Venice in the full Collegio on the 22nd April, 1622. (fn. 9)
Sir Henry Wotton, English ambassador at Venice, supposing the countess to be at her villa near Dolo, sent his secretary John Dynelei to her on the 21st April with a letter containing three points; (1) he had heard, and it was commonly reported in the city, that Foscarini had been condemned in part because he had met some public ministers several times in the countess's house on the Grand Canal; (2) the ambassador heard on good authority and no later than that very morning, though he had heard of the first point some days before, that the republic proposed to give her a fixed time to make her departure; (3) to avoid such an affront and danger to her servant, he thought she would do well to keep out of the way, remaining at her villa instead of coming to Venice, until the ambassador could tell her more.
The secretary did not find the countess at her villa but in her coach near Lizzafusina on her way to Venice, where he gave her the letter. She told him that she intended to come to Venice. Arrived there she landed at the house of the ambassador, with whom she had a long conversation on the matter in the presence of her attendants. He told her that the aforesaid matters had been reported to him very strongly. The papal nuncio and the imperial resident were among those reported to have met Foscarini various times at her house and late at night. Foscarini used to go there disguised, with a large hat, French style, and a short cloak and armed. The servant in danger was Francesco Vercellini, simply, she believed, because he was a Venetian subject. The reports about these meetings became current immediately after Foscarini's arrest. Immediately the ambassador heard of the proposed dismissal he hastened to inform her, though without the smallest unworthy thought on his part, but simply from a sense of duty and to save her from disgrace. The countess declared this infamous report to be utterly false. She had never passed even the slightest compliments with the ministers mentioned or with Foscarini either except that when she first came to Padua eighteen months ago, he said he would call on her at Venice, a thing he never did but sent a Jew to offer his excuses. She asked the ambassador's advice what course to pursue to stop this report, so injurious to herself, her family and her nation. He asked for time to discover the origin of the rumour, but the countess, seeing the publicity of the matter, desired some public satisfaction of her innocence and some public atonement for the wrong done to her by the authors. She therefore asked the ambassador to procure an audience for her on the following day. He could not do so then as it was nearly the fourth hour of the night, but early on the following morning the countess again honoured the ambassador's house and told him that after mature consideration she had decided not to delay her justification any longer. Then, after some discussion, the ambassador resolved to accompany her, although very unwillingly, as he had been before. The doge and Collegio received her with every mark of honour and respect, the ambassador acting simply as interpreter. She made two requests, that if her name or house were involved in Foscarini's trial, the accuser might be produced, and that as the report was public she might have public satisfaction. The ambassador, in presenting this, remarked that he himself had told the countess of this malicious report. After attentively listening to the countess the doge broke out into the most vehement protests that no one had ever entertained the smallest suspicion of any such thing, they esteemed themselves honoured by her coming and living among them so honourably and quietly; they had no more confidential relations than those with the subjects of the King of Great Britain, and the ambassador had long known how far they were from distrust and suspicion. Some abominable and false rumours were inevitable in every state among the mass of the people, and if the author could be found he would receive an exemplary punishment as they recognised the great qualities of the countess and the true nobility of her husband, to whom the doge desired to be remembered. Finally he begged her to rest assured that they had none but the highest opinion of her in the republic. The countess was fully satisfied with this reply so that she did not consider it necessary to ask for anything more. She simply remarked that she had no other means of serving them, but she showed her affection by coming with her sons to live there for a long while, and she had always been nobly and courteously welcomed in this famous city.
HENRY WOTTON.
After the reading the doge remarked that those present had heard the contents of the papers and might perhaps have a more convenient opportunity of seeing them again. With regard to the countess's desire that they should write to England, he would tell her the decree of the Senate, usually kept secret, namely that the Ambassador Lando was charged to assure the Earl Marshal and every one else that nothing had happened to alter the high esteem they and the whole city always entertained for the countess of which they desired to assure her once more.
Here the ambassador interposed saying that the communication made by the Ambassador Lando to his Majesty and others ought to conform exactly with the paper read. which related the matters from the beginning. The doge said they had given orders to have the truth of the matter reported.
The ambassador, who throughout the audience had made constant interruptions, again broke in saying, I have to justify myself also in this matter, because, as I told your Serenity, I have been deceived. Rumours against the countess came to me from every quarter after the sentence on that unhappy gentleman. I heard on very good authority that when Foscarini was asked about his night walks he said he had been occasionally to the countess's house on business (per occasioni d'officio). The doge and councillors declared there was not a word of truth in this. Neither the countess nor any English person had been mentioned at the trial.
The ambassador tried to appear relieved and said, That is all, we all owe our heartiest thanks to your Serenity, and must attribute the slander to those who thus sought to relieve themselves of the merit of having effected the bribery which happened in that detestable case (et convien l'invetiva derivare da chi mirava a scaricar se stessi del merito di haver procurato li subornationi seguite in quel detestabil caso).
Ignoring this remark the doge turned to the countess and said: We hope you will rest satisfied, as we shall always try to render you so. As a sign of our good feeling at the approaching feast of the Ascension two of our Savii are instructed to place a galley at your disposal which we hope you will accept. The countess rose and expressed her thanks. The ambassador did the same and on leaving added, The countess leaves overwhelmed with obligations; she devotes herself and her sons to the service of your Serenity and will always pray that the most serene republic may only end with the elements and remain for ever glorious and powerful. With that they departed.
In the hall of the Pregadi the countess introduced Colonel Peyton and three or four other gentlemen of his nation, and asked me, the secretary, to re-read the above deliberation in their presence. I did so and they were much pleased, departing with fresh thanks. Shortly afterwards Vercellini and another of her gentlemen came for a copy of the deliberation, which they were allowed to take by order of the Savii.
After dinner Lionello returned from taking the present to the countess, consisting of candles and confections in fifteen basins. He reported that the countess expressed herself as greatly obliged by the favours she had received and seemed entirely satisfied. When he went down the staircase her steward confirmed this, saying that she appeared as contented as the ambassador was confused, as he feared that he had utterly ruined his fortunes and his prospects at the court by this business. (fn. 10)
[Italian.]
April 29.
Consiglio di X.
Criminale.
Venetian
Archives.
429. In the COUNCIL OF TEN.
That the will of Antonio Foscarini, signed by him in prison on the evening of the 20th after his sentence had been made known to him, shall have force as if duly witnessed by the authority of this council, though it is not convenient for it to be issued in its present form.
Will of Antonio Foscarini leaving 500 ducats to each of his nephews and sisters, ten ducats yearly to each of his nieces the nuns; 6,000 ducats to his niece Isabetta, to marry; 500 ducats to his sister in law Lucretia; 100 ducats to Father Paolo the Servite to pray God; residue to nephews Nicolo and Geronimo.
Ayes, 11.Noes, 2.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
April 28.
Consiglio di X.
Criminale.
Venetian
Archives.
430. That the will of Antonio Foscarini be placed with his process in the chest of the Inquisitors of State, so that it be shown to no one and that no copy be given.
Ayes, 14.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
April 29.
Consiglio di X.
Criminale
filza.
Venetian
Archives.
431. In the COUNCIL OF TEN.
Letters of Fra Paolo of Venice refusing the bequest made to him by Antonio Foscarini, as he will have nothing to do with one who rendered himself unworthy of the prince's favour.
[Italian.]
April 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
432. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The imperial ambassador after having run at the ring with one of the lords here together with the prince, was feasted by the king, ending with a confection of sugar soldiers in array, which has caused remark, many observing even behind his Majesty's own seat that other muskets and pikes were required now. (fn. 11) The king gave him a jewelled collar worth about 1,500l. and some well furnished horses from the favourite. He left the day before yesterday taking with him Dominis, sometime archbishop of Spalato, clearly by arrangement with the Spanish ambassador, despite all he has said. His private audience appears to have passed in superficial matters like the public one, and it only seems that he tried to induce his Majesty to divert the Princes of the Union from opposing the emperor again. The king did not agree to this. He also desired Mansfelt to disarm as Gondomar no longer says that he has made an accommodation with the infanta, but has announced that it does not become the imperial dignity to make peace through fear or force, but really because once disarmed he could not arm again and Bavaria might immediately have the investiture in safety. This agrees with the intercepted letters, with the advices from every quarter and with what the Ambassador Wotton reported, that the emperor had signed away the electorate and the Upper Palatinate to Bavaria, leaving the Lower to him who had taken it, and that the nuncio at Vienna freely urges the ratification of this which I suspected for the reasons given in my last, and he even says that although the king here may know it he will feign not to. Accordingly the king is very anxious about it, and the prince remarked recently before a few intimates that he thought all things were slipping away (suaniranno). Weston, who will leave for the negotiations at Brussels in two days, has changed his style of speaking and now says he is going out of obedience to his king, and no longer with any hope of success.
After a popular rumour that the Palatine had been here incognito and then of his death, we heard that he had reached Sedan, though not without danger. The imperial ambassador, in private conversation remarked that the king here expressed his disgust that his son-in-law had gone to the Palatinate; he had never advised it, although he had frequently stayed him from going there, but finally he told him that his son had not gone to do mischief but rather to prevent the forces of Mansfelt and others disturbing the good things in negotiation. I also hear on good authority that three weeks ago his Majesty sent orders to Vere to do nothing but defend himself for the moment, while continuing his levies, and sent word to Mansfelt in conformity. This was due to the prompting of the Spanish ambassador; but as the latter did not obey, other orders and advices were sent more secretly, according to methods frequently employed here; the king showing great joy in expression and speech the other day, although no one now pays much attention to what he says, at the news that Mansfelt proposed to enter Bavaria. Perhaps he does not think this would disturb the negotiations, as disbanding in the Palatinate would, which owing to its present sterility can hardly support its few inhabitants let alone large armies. Thus when the king heard that Tilly had burned some villages near Heidelberg with cruel slaughter, he blazed into wrath and remonstrated strongly with the ambassador.
After the secret audience and the advices aforesaid they suspended some of the honours which they proposed to show to the ambassador, although he is honourably entertained, and refused him some favour which he requested, doubtless at the prompting of the Ambassador Gondomar, the king openly showing his displeasure especially about the release of the earl of Ormonde, the chief Irish rebel, and at the show of contempt not only of his Majesty but of the divine Majesty also, the altar being broken and the vestments of the chapel prepared for him being torn to pieces without the culprits being found out. No reply was made to his remonstrances and nothing effective done to satisfy him, so it appears that, doubtless owing to the pressure brought by the pope against his son-in-law, and owing to their slight hopes of the marriage, the king inclines to renew the laws against the Jesuits and other priests, the leading ministers saying freely that they do not believe the marriage possible now. The question has been laid before the Council and has been referred to six commissioners. Some hope that it may not be carried into effect, but they seem inclined to do it in order to irritate the Spaniards and Rome. They are using all diligence for the provision of the 100,000l., though they try to keep it very secret, as if they wished to help the Palatinate secretly, while constantly cherishing their hopes. There are also renewed whispers about convoking parliament, but that certainly will not happen easily.
Colonna, Gondomar's successor, is expected next Monday. The latter seems slightly uneasy (sospeso) about leaving here while his credit with the king and others is somewhat less than it was before. Perhaps he also fears what Digby may say about him in Spain, as they were not on good terms when Digby left. Digby finally embarked and is believed to have promised much more at that Court from these parts, especially about the Dutch than can possibly happen.
A ship with English soldiers for Brussels went to land them not at the port of Calais, but at some place near. The Governor would not allow it, but sent them back and wrote to the Ambassador Triliers that if such a thing happened again he could not help hanging the men. When the king heard this he expressed his entire satisfaction, as when Lord Vas, one of the colonels, took leave, the king said a great deal to him showing that the business was little to his liking.
In Scotland they have ordered the erection of certain forts at the port of Monterhos, and the restoration of Leith castle, as in recent months some ships of Ostend and Dunkirk entered that port professing that they were driven by fortune and by enemies, but with the suspicion that they took soundings there. They have given orders for the purchase of 10,000l. worth of powder in Holland to keep in reserve here.
The earl of Oxford, recently commander of the fleet, and the lord chamberlain of England, has been sent to the Tower together with one Hawley (Ale) his companion, whom they have diligently searched for letters and papers by the king's command. The reasons have not so far appeared. Apparently they said something too free of consequence (parole lubriche e di conseguenza). (fn. 12)
The advices from France bring good hope of peace there, accordingly the Spanish ambassador seems afraid lest the Most Christian may really apply himself to the recovery of the Valtelline; but he says the king is young, the French are voluble and some change may take place. The Ambassador Triliers speaks about it with some doubtfulness. He told me that if his master directed his arms towards Italy, he himself would return to Paris, where for provision of money and other things he would be better situated than if he went uselessly in that direction. Here they would like the Ambassador Doncaster to arrive in time to take some part in the accommodation, if it ensues. He takes very friendly letters from the king and prince, and a report is revived that that king also proposes to send an ambassador extraordinary to this court. The eldest son of the Landgrave of Hesse has arrived here with some other purpose than to see the country, it is thought. (fn. 13)
London the 29th April, 1622.
[Italian; the parts in italics deciphered.]
April 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
433. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
At the announcement of the approaching visit of an imperial ambassador, I foresaw what would happen. I expressed my intention to honour him as others did. I sent my Secretary Zon to visit him and to find how he meant to treat me. When I called him most Excellent he only replied with most Illustrious, and waited nine days without responding to the visit. I expressed surprise at this conduct, and induced my friend Sir [John] Finet, deputy master of the ceremonies, to make some remark to him on the subject. He did this, at the same time giving various reasons why the ambassadors of the republic should be treated differently from those of the crowned heads. He said he had never treated them so, neither had Spain nor France. But at length, possibly forseeing that the whole court would blame him, he sent a gentleman to me, who, however, only used the title most Illustrious, to express the hope of seeing me before his departure. I replied, also giving him the title of most Illustrious and saying that my secretary had already expressed my desire to visit him if no impediment were placed in the way. Two days later, I let him know through Finet, as a neutral person, that I could only see him on equal terms, but assuring him of all friendliness if he would agree to this. He replied courteously but said that the course he had adopted was no mere caprice, but what he considered proper; at the same time he begged Finet so to present the matter to me that I should remain content, and not take it ill. My conduct has met with approval here; but they have not approved equally of the conduct of the French ambassador towards him, whom he sent to visit as soon as he arrived, before receiving any sign from Spain who called personally soon after, as he did two days later. He claimed that the imperial should return the visit first, but as he returned the Spaniard's without sending anyone to him, France waxed wrath, and would not receive his return visit, though he tried twice, replying that he would not find him at home, as the fine weather invited him to take a walk, and afterwards that he could not find that or any other day.
London, the 29th April, 1622.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 29.
Consiglio di X.
Lettere di
Ambasciatori.
Venetian
Archives.
434. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the heads of the COUNCIL OF TEN.
I hope that the labours of those who try to discover your Serenity's cipher will always prove vain, as may appear from the enclosed copies, of which I have seen the originals, two in English and one in French, and have obtained the copies from the Agent Vamale of Brussels, who employed the decipherer Filippis. The latter says he has discovered the general construction but not all the details. He has had the paper a month but the little he has discovered could be found in an hour. I have also received a copy of those mentioned in what I sent to your Excellencies. This is all that has happened so far in the matter, but I hope to get to the bottom of it very soon and put the Council in possession of all the particulars.
I beg to acknowledge the receipt of the Council's letters of the 21st ult. with duplicates of the 27th September about those of Murano who have introduced into these realms and taught the art of glass and crystals. In reply I may say that the subject demands the most prudent attention of your Excellencies, the more because they have already set up new furnaces in Scotland well supplied and arranged by a certain company of merchants who have sent thither as their agent Leonardo Michellini a Venetian of low birth and a thorough rascal. The greater part of the men who worked here have betaken themselves thither, perhaps in the hope of having flints of the Ticino, as I wrote, by the ships which will go from our parts, whence other new workmen have also gone. It is most necessary to keep an eye upon this, and especially upon the principals as your Serenity may be sure that this important matter can never be set right without great rigour, as I understand that it is spreading to France, Flanders, Amsterdam and even to Virginia, whither the company of that name is preparing to send the musters, as I wrote. In execution of the commands of your Excellencies I have tactfully approached them, and some have already settled with wives and children and comfortable means, so that to work by address is impossible and no other way is open to me.
Of the exiles, Benetto Seguso has left with the purpose of deserving the public favour and Rocco Zanon also. But when they approach the frontiers it is not likely that they can long abstain from practising the art, as they have no income and know no other means of earning a living. I fear I can do little with any others and I cannot even be sure of these. I assure your Serenity that I have even given my own money to some in order that they might return to Murano as they professed they wished to do; but I afterwards learned that they had gone to Scotland and to work elsewhere, which alone would render them worthy of some punishment.
London, the 29th April, 1622.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
435. Letter of VAN MALE to PHILIPPIS.
Marvels at his long absence as he promised to come soon. Has dealt sincerely with him and hopes he will do the same. Will give remuneration equal to his expectations.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
436. PHILIPPIS to VAN MALE.
Received last letter yesterday evening. The paper more difficult than anticipated. Will try hand to unravel the cipher, though ignorance of the language and the novelty of the invention bewilder him. Asks patience and will bring the papers before Friday.
Tuesday, the 15/25 April, 1622.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.437. Letter of VAN MALE to PHILIPPIS.
Uneasy at absence because he has the papers. Come at once to report and give back the papers. Will be well recompensed for his toil.
18/8 April, new style.
[Italian.]
438. Extract from letter to the SENATE.
At the moment of writing last week the ordinary of Rome arrived. We hear that the emperor has resolved to give the electoral vote to Bavaria, and although the Spaniards will make a show of opposition to deceive the English they will not do so effectively, while they keep half the Palatinate. To keep the empire in their house they propose to marry Leopold to the Catholic's sister and choose him King of the Romans. This agrees with what was written a week ago of their intentions. The assembly has resolved nothing about the dispensation for the prince's marriage, while they can keep the king well disposed and encourage the hopes of other princes. We see how far these designs prevail, but we consider it necessary to be kept informed of the truth and know that we can rely upon your prudence.
[Italian.]
April 29.
Inquisitori
di Stato.
Busta 442.
Venetian
Archives.
439. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the INQUISITORS OF STATE.
Dominis has gone at last within the term prescribed to him. The Spanish ambassador again acted as his protector, getting him to go with the imperial ambassador to Brussels, as his way might have been threatened by some Dutch ship. He was fined 100l. for various defaults in the custody of the Savoy, but he was not forced to pay, and left eight days ago without doing so. He went by water at night to the French ambassador and stayed a good while. He left in his Excellency's coach with some gentlemen and members of the Spanish ambassador's household. Some apprentices who are naturally most insolent, threw stones at him owing to the ill-feeling that all the people have conceived against him. They did some harm to the coach and pressed about the door as if to threaten him with violence. The Spanish interpreter threatened them in English in the king's name and called the constable of the parish, so they all left without more ado. The part taken by the ambassadors shews the importance which they attached to the affair. I understand that France gave every assistance for his passage through that kingdom. Dominis intends to go that way from Brussels, where, however, he may stay for some time. The fact that he never communicated with me is a bad sign, though it is better that he did not, for the reasons I gave. Every one says that if he wished to leave here, he ought, as a subject of the republic to have asked pardon of the pope through her minister rather than through the Spaniards. So the idea that there is some hidden mystery keeps growing. Various friends have spoken to me about it, such as the ambassadors of the States. Giovanni Francesco Biondi, a subject of the republic who seems faithful, a Protestant and who with the Ambassador Carleton arranged his coming hither and who professes that he was accustomed to receive letters from Italy and Venice, did everything in his power to prevent him from returning and then tried to stop him, chiefly for fear that he might prejudice the correspondents. I will do what I can to get more from Brussels.
London, the 29th April, 1622.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
440. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Grand Vizier has consigned to the English ambassador a letter for his king in reply to the one brought by him, stating that the king welcomed his Majesty's offer of interposition to arrange a peace with the Poles provided that they first send an ambassador and show themselves ready to fulfil what they promised on the field, with other expressions which show a disposition in the Turks towards peace. (fn. 14)
The English ambassador informed me that as the Emir of Aleppo claimed to lay an impost of two per cent on silk exported by his countrymen from that place, and as he could not obtain any remedy here from the Grand Vizier, he had written home urging his king to conclude a treaty he had himself arranged with the Great Mogul, when sent there as ambassador, whereby English ships would go to a certain port of his country to take the silk which usually went to Aleppo and transport it direct to England, and thence distribute it over Europe, which would be a great gain for the English and a serious loss to the Turks.
The Vigne of Pera, the 30th April, 1622.
[Italian; deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 Antonio Foscarini.
2 An English translation of this is printed in the Report upon Documents in the Archives and Public Libraries of Venice, by Sir Thomas Duffus Hardy, pages 76, 77
3 Louis routed Soubise at the island of Rié on the 16 April, 1622.
4 James stood godfather to Buckingham's firstborn, a daughter called Jacobina. Cal. S. P. Dom., 1619–23, page 366.
5 Apparently this is the paper in Latin preserved among the State Papers, Foreign, Germany (empire), after Simon Digby's despatch of the 27th March, 1622, and endorsed: Summa litterarum Imperatoris ad papam interceptarum et abs S. Digebio, 12 Aprilis, 1622, st. v.
6 A translation is printed in Sir Thomas Hardy's Report, page 78.
7 Printed in Hardy's Report, page 79.
8 Printed in Hardy's Report, page 83.
9 Wotton's English version of this paper, preserved at the Public Record Office among the S.P. Foreign, Venice, is printed by Mr. Pearsall Smith: Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton, ii, pages 232–5.
10 The whole is translated and printed in Sir Thomas Hardy's Report upon the Venetian Archives, pages 80–3.
11 The banquet was given on Sunday, 29th April, in the parliament house, Whitehall. Schwurtzenberg, the ambassador, left on the following Wednesday. The lord who tilted with him was Mountjoy Blount, lord Mountjoy, "who had always much the better of the ambassador." Birch: Court and Times of James I, ii, page 305.
12 The Tuesday before Easter the Earl of Oxford was committed to the Tower and his minion Hawley to the Gatehouse for idle and unfit speeches touching the king and his government." Chamberlain to Carleton, the 27th April, 1622, old style. Birch: Court and Times of James I, ii, page 307.
13 A letter to Mead calls him the second son aged 18 or 19 (Birch, ii, page 303). Philip, the second surviving son, was not quite eighteen at this time; his eldest surviving brother, William, was over 20. Hübner: Genealogische Tabellen Tab. 209. In Nichol's Progresses of James I (iv, page 759) he is called the second son of the Landgrave of Hesse named Philip. He was supposed to have come to offer one of his sisters for the Prince of Wales in case the Spanish marriage fell through. Birch, ii, page 305
14 Roe was of opinion that the Turks were glad of the action taken by James, as they were afraid of the Poles. He claimed to have achieved complete success in his negotiations on this question. Negotiations of Sir Thomas Roc in his embassy to the Ottoman Porte. London, 1740, pages 24, 25.