Venice
May 1622, 2-14

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1911

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311-322

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'Venice: May 1622, 2-14', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 311-322. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88833 Date accessed: 28 July 2014.


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Contents

May 1622

May 2.
Senata,
Secreto.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
441. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Letters from Germany have reached the English ambassador this week. He sent to tell me that the King Palatine had arrived safely at Germenstein, where he met the Count of Mansfelt, and he at once sent to M. Ravilla, who treated with him in the name of the archduchess and who has quarters in the fortress of Germenstein, to give place immediately to his Majesty. Yet at Brussels they announce that he is still negotiating with her Highness, and matters have nearly reached a settlement, but this is probably in order to deceive the world and to divert assistance if possible.
The queen gave birth to a daughter on Wednesday, soon after midday. (fn. 1) This is her second and she has four boys. The christening will take place next Friday.
They are eagerly awaiting news here of the negotiations between the King of England and the imperial ambassador, and they fear that his Majesty will agree to a truce or armistice, either of which, they think, would prejudice the armies of Brunswick and Mansfelt, the affairs of the Palatine and the welfare and liberty of Germany. On the other hand some of the Princes of Germany think differently, and that Brunswick and Mansfelt would pay little attention to any armistice or truce, even if arranged, and news has come that the Landgrave Lewis of Darmstatd has written to ask various princes their opinion supposing these commanders refuse to respect what is arranged in England.
Their High Mightinesses cherish hopes that their affairs in England are in good train, although the letters they receive do not always have the same tone, being sometimes good, sometimes bad.
The Hague, the 2nd May, 1622.
[Italian.]
May 4.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
442. The English ambassador came into the Cabinet and spoke as follows:
No lady has ever left the presence of a prince more gratified than the Countess of Arundel. If your Serenity shows such courtesy to his Majesty's private subjects, how much more will you do for the king, my master, and the Palatine, his son-in-law. I therefore renew the request made in the memorial which I left with Sig. Antelmi asking you to decide as becomes your greatness. What you have decided in the case of the States only increases his Majesty's assurance of being gratified, as he expects no less favour than they obtain. Moreover it concerns your Serenity much more to support the Palatine than Flanders. They are not in such danger or so hard pressed as the Palatine. I simply aim at what is right and not at personal advantage. During the fifteen years that I have served I have never had a more vehement commission from his Majesty than this one, or so just and reasonable. If you give help secretly and do not let me know, I shall rest content. I do not mind the glory provided the results follow. If you please you can do it through the Secretary Suriano at the Hague.
The doge replied: Our desire to satisfy his Majesty could not be augmented. The extraordinary forces which we maintain both by land and sea are intended to create a diversion and will help the cause of the Palatine as they keep the Spaniards busy. If we could do more we certainly should not fail. Upon the memorial we will give a more precise reply. In the matter of the countess we only did what was right and just.
The ambassador said he could not doubt their good will and would await the results. He would look anxiously for the reply to his memorial. He added, I desire to present a gentleman who came with me and is outside, namely Lord Percy, (fn. 2) eldest son of the earl of Northumberland, a youth of finished education, comely and of noble manners befitting his birth. He shows himself worthy of his antecedents, and especially of his father, who has large estates on the frontiers of England and Scotland. In all the wars between the two kingdoms both sides desired his help. He is the most powerful individual after the king and could not be greater even if styled the Prince of Northumberland. The nobleman was then introduced, bowed to his Serenity and kissed his robe. The doge received him courteously, and after he had replied modestly, bowing to the doge and Cabinet, he left accompanied by the ambassador.
[Italian.]
May 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
443. That the Ambassador of England be summoned to the Council and the following be read to him:
We have previously expressed our favourable disposition towards the interests of the Palatinate. This affair inseparably bound up with other matters, and as we have previously remarked to your Excellency, the employment of force in one place affords relief elsewhere. The republic has constantly acted with this object in view. Now we have these last commotions to which the Grisons have been driven by desperation, which have merely drawn upon them the forces of the Spaniards and of Leopold, which in turn may lead to succour from France and other interested powers. Our republic is closely watching these events. She has also made this subsidy to the States while keeping up the old ones to the Zurichers and Bernese. We have confirmed the Count of Mansfelt not less in the service of the Palatine than in our own.
But everything will receive its principal and proper vigour by his Majesty's resolution, of which your Excellency informs us, to support his son-in-law which we have always recognised as the true remedy, and we feel sure that he should show the more activity at the present time to take advantage of the movements in Rhetia. Your Excellency will inform your sovereign and the Palatine of what we have here set forth, showing the efforts of our republic in the common cause, and his Majesty recently expressed to our Ambassador Lando his appreciation of our efforts.
Ayes, 88.Noes, 1.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
May 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
444. To the ambassador in England.
Wotton has made two further offices with us about the Palatinate, whereof we enclose copies. Meanwhile your letters about your offices and the king's reply have arrived very opportunely. We have replied to the ambassador here, and also to the States and Prince Maurice, and we do not think you need add any more except ex professo to his Majesty in order not to raise again a matter he has so satisfactorily concluded. We only wish you to use this in case any one says anything, and remark upon the opportunity afforded by the movement in the Grisons, which the republic is closely watching, and which is excellent for relieving the Palatinate, as Rhetia is already occupying all the attention of the Austrians and the Spaniards, forces being sent there which were originally intended for the Palatinate. For this purpose we send you a short account of the events in the Grisons, so that you may impart it to his Majesty, if not verbally, in the way you think best, as a further sign of our confidence, and as a sign that God has arranged these happy events to favour his Majesty's resolutions in favour of his son-in-law, while he will certainly never find a better opportunity than the present, and that we shall leave nothing undone ourselves in a question of such moment in order that those poor people may not succumb.
Ayes, 98.Noes, 1.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
May 7.
Misc. Cod.
No. 61.
Venetian
Archives.
445. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Infanta of Flanders has written to the Count of Suarzemburgh, ambassador extraordinary of Cæsar in England, to write and induce the king there to confirm as soon as possible all that he had promised in Mansfelt's name, in order by speedily carrying it into effect to prevent him from changing his mind and breaking the treaty.
They write from Brussels that the King of Great Britain at the request of the Spaniards has nominated another person to go to the congress at that city because the first was not acceptable to them, and that his Majesty has asked the infanta for an armistice in the Palatinate before entering upon the negotiations, and for the settlement of this point they are awaiting the return of Suarzemburgh from London.
Vienna, the 7th May, 1622. Copy.
[Italian.]
May 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
446. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Doctor Camerarius, who was sent to the King of Denmark last February, was received most honourably as an ambassador. He asked for particulars about the Palatine. When told of the decision of the King of Great Britain to maintain 8,000 foot and 1,600 horse he did not seem to believe it, especially as the king had not said a word about it in his letters. He told Camerarius to get the King of England to write to him about it and to deal frankly as their near relationship required, and then he would see the king his nephew and soon arrange something for his service. With this Camerarius left him.
The Hague, the 9th May, 1622.
[Italian.]
May 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
447. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On Monday we heard of the departure of the imperial ambassador from London for Brussels. They are awaiting eagerly to hear the outcome of his negotiations there, in which Sir [Richard] Weston will act for the King of Great Britain.
The Palatine's ministers declare that even if the King of England arranged a truce or an armistice, his Majesty could not accept it at present, because he is in the hands of his troops in the Palatinate. Baron Dohna added in confidence to me, The king is no longer at the Hague, and they can no longer make him do what he would have felt obliged to do if he were still here. The Hague, the 9th May, 1622.
[Italian.]
May 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
448. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador designate for England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Three days ago I arrived here after a journey of thirteen days which was delayed by the luggage, that one can hardly lighten who travels with any suite and who does not wish to expose himself to the delays and perils of the sea, and during these revolutions in Germany I could not get to England by a route less dangerous than this of France though it is longer and more costly. So far I have kept my pen inactive, having diverged from the more direct route of Milan, with a regard for present circumstances which I hope your Serenity and your Excellencies will approve, and few things occurred worthy of a speedy report.
I had an uneventful passage through that part of the state of Milan which I had to traverse but was honourably received even in places with Spanish garrisions with the knowledge of their leaders. At Palestra, a fief of the Boromeo family, I found a company of the terzo of il Serbelloni about to start, for Alsace the soldiers said. General news may confirm this, and some say that the Austrians have suffered serious reverses in those parts.
When I entered Piedmont a courier caught me up sent by the Governor of Milan with a despatch sent after the ordinary courier who had already left for Spain.
At my entrance into this city, although somewhat spoiled by the rain, I was met by the cavaliers of the guard and the coaches of the duke in whose name the Marquis of Lanz, nephew of his Highness, came to welcome me. He was also appointed to do the same to the Most Excellent Sig. Priuli on his way through. The ambassador here omitted no terms of honour, receiving and defraying me in his own palace. I wish I could repay these favours with something more than gratitude. I shall leave after paying the necessary compliments and proceed to Lyons as that road is considered safe, and so I hope I shall avoid mischance. At Lyons I shall decide on the rest of the way after obtaining information. I shall avoid the necessity of an escort to avoid additional expense, but with a due regard for the public reputation in my person.
Vico, appointed as my secretary, has not yet arrived from Marseilles, but I am writing for him to go by the shortest way to Lyons.
Turin, the 10th May, 1622.
[Italian.]
May 11.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
449. The English ambassador was summoned to the Cabinet and the deliberation of the Senate of the 6th inst. was read to him about his request for contributions to the Palatine; he said:
I will begin with the last part of what has been read to me stating that his Majesty has graciously received the reply given to him by the Ambassador Lando upon my first offices for the King of Bohemia. It is most true that his Majesty proceeded tentatively to sound the disposition of your Serenity and was very pleased with the first reply given to me, confirmed by Lando. This encouraged him to the more particular requests which I made here in his name. Between the first and second decisions of the Senate I observe no great difference in the substantial terms, and his Majesty cannot be so pleased with the second as with the first. In the considerations adduced the only new thing I observe is the fresh commotions in the Grisons, which are advanced by the Senate as a reason for keeping its forces in readiness; but from what I learn these commotions will soon cease. As a fact I see nothing in answer to the king's urgent request beyond the usual general terms. I should have preferred some action to confirm the words. I will do my best in conveying the new decision of the Senate, but, as my studies have led me more to natural philosophy than to political terms I can only say that out of nothing nothing comes. The reply is simply bare bones without flesh. If friends do not help in so urgent a necessity, other means must be tried; but these things are better understood than expressed. I am glad to believe, however, that your Serenity does not wish to leave my king dissatisfied. In addition to immediate help he is sending 45,000l. sterling to Strasburg every three months, to serve for maintaining 8,000 foot and 1,500 horse. He has sent Sig. Filippo Burlamachi, a leading London merchant, to Strasburg for this payment. A little additional help granted by the republic would prove of the utmost value. It would replace in large part the 50,000 florins that is 5,000l. sterling which you give to the States. What a thing it would be for the greatness of this dominion to hear his Majesty's prayers and supply a like sum for the present needs. Tell me, shall I write to my king that you cherish the best disposition towards him but you do not know how to make it effective? I repeat the trouble in the Grisons is not likely to last long, and as that supplies the chief reason for delay, I feel sure that you will not contemn the necessities of my king and his kindred, and though you have not told me you will give the necessary instructions at the Hague, and I shall say with the old parrot of Rome: Non bene est dixit sed bene erit.
The doge replied: We take the deepest interest in the affairs of the Palatinate and are doing great things. Our efforts in Flanders tend to keep engaged the most powerful force that the Spaniards possess. We do not think that we can do more at present. The actions of the republic are narrowly observed from several sides. Others are operating under the cloak of religion.
The ambassador replied: I have heard your Serenity with great relief. Your words serve as a most prudent comment upon what has been read to me. But I should have preferred a greater disposition to respond to the king's requests. I admit that to uphold the Grisons, to succour the States and to permit the Count of Mansfelt to remain in the Palatinate are great things, but they do not go to the heart of our present needs which require you to enter more thoroughly into the great undertaking to which the king has put his hand. I will report the actions and motives of your Serenity as fully and as sympathetically as you could desire. The ambassador asked if they had received confirmation of the news of some action favourable to the King of Bohemia. The doge and councillors told him of good news sent by the Palatine and his arrival with the forces. The ambassador looked glad, took leave and departed.
Calandrini was summoned afterwards and they read him the decision taken on the 6th inst. He said he would represent it to the States but he could have wished for further particulars. The States would serve his Serenity as a cloak, by sending contributions under their name. The doge having replied substantially as above, only more briefly, Calandrini departed.
[Italian.]
May 12.
Consiglio di X.
Parti Comuni.
Venetian
Archives.
450. In the COUNCIL OF TEN.
That the chamberlain of the Council pay 77 lire to Captain Francesco Onganin for expenses in carrying out the sentence of the 20th ult. against Antonio Foscarini.
Ayes, 15.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.451. Account for carrying out the execution of the Cavalier Foscarini.
lire.
To the executioner62
To five porters for carrying the body to the piazza and assisting in other matters15
TOTAL77
[Italian.]
May 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
452. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador for England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Vico, destined as my secretary arrived here but in a poor state of health. He was willing to continue the journey with me, but I thought it best to leave him behind, so that with time and rest he may be fit to serve, and I hope in a few days he will be able to do so. Thus I am starting for Lyons without this necessary minister.
Turin, the 12th May, 1622.
[Italian.]
May 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
453. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador arrived at Xaintes and saw his Majesty under Roiano, probably with some mortification, as the place surrendered that same day, (fn. 3) and the king wished the audience to be postponed so that he might first arrange the terms of surrender. This ambassador left England with great hopes of peace here, but finding affairs so changed, he is very doubtful and undecided. He told me he had returned because he was bound to, and because the ambassador of the Most Christian had begged his master to send him back. His object was the peace of this kingdom and the honour of his Majesty. On hearing of the arrival of the deputies with the negotiations and the prospect of a speedy conclusion of peace, he had tarried because that was not his affair, and he hoped to congratulate the king upon a happy issue to the business. However he had come here to receive his Majesty's commands. If he could not be useful he would return, and he told me that if he did not meet with a welcome he would go back by the posts.
They have told him that they merely desire the peace of the kingdom with the king's honour, putting off all resolution to Bordeaux and assuring him that the king is going to Lyons for other purposes than war.
It appears that this ambassador is making some representations about the restitution of the Palatinate, but I will try to discover particulars.
Petit Niort, the 13th May, 1622.
[Italian.]
May 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
454. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassador was the first to advise the king, who has recently suffered from fresh attacks of the gout, for which he will endure no treatment, by a letter, of the arrival of the Palatine in the Palatinate, remarking that he will not prevail because the forces against him are no less powerful and because not numbers but God's will gives the victory. Now the Spaniards have given up all thought of an agreement with Mansfelt which they desired so much, and they fear that Brunswick may join him, having declared that he will put himself under his command which he makes his name constantly more feared, by fire and sword. Count Henry of Bergh, has postponed his marching, who was appointed to thwart him in conjunction with the troops of Cologne and Anhalt, owing to the shortness of money, the infanta delaying all provisions so that his men were 60 or 70 days on half pay, with no small danger of mutiny. Meanwhile we hear of the defeat of two regiments of Tilly by Mansfelt, (fn. 4) who proposed to press forward in the height of his fortunes. The Spaniards are dismayed and fear the worst with the recovery of the lost country, especially as the arrival of the Palatine, whose wife has borne him another daughter, will increase their courage, while bringing more money, and with a quantity of arms reported to be taken at the capture of Mademburgh with those which he has taken with him, or in credit for the amount of 500,000 florins, received either from the States, owing to the offices of this king's ambassador, or as a loan from the Prince of Orange.
Since the confirmation of the news that the emperor has assigned the electoral vote to Bavaria, although they have not yet confirmed it, and since they heard of the Palatine being in his country, although the king complains that he has not sent him the news himself by letter or messenger, feeling here seems to have grown stronger. They have sent off Chichester in haste, it would have been better had he gone before, and with him the merchant Burlamacchi, upon whose credit they propose to make the payments, which appear to be 10,000l. down, 25,000l. soon after and 2,000l. a week for the maintenance of the 8,000 foot and 2,000 horse of which so much has been said. This will be the utmost they can do and then not without difficulty in the present scarcity of money, without a parliament.
On the other hand Weston was sent to Brussels to arrange an armistice or a truce, although everyone thinks that the forces of Mansfelt and Brunswick will make it difficult, and it is not thought that they will accept it, although the king has written to his son-in-law making him large promises if he will accept it and if he does not threatening to deprive him of all assistance. This is thought to be a trick or that it will in nowise be obeyed even if genuine. But his Majesty in his eagerness to see the issue of the negotiations at Brussels has refused to pay the levy of men in these kingdoms for the moment, although at first he seemed resolved to grant it.
There are whispers of rebellion among the subjects of the king of Poland, with some idea of choosing his son, the King of Sweden or him of Denmark and making a fresh union with the Protestant princes. It is firmly believed that Baden, disgusted with Cæsar, will declare for the Palatine. The son of the Landgrave of Hesse, in his father's name, calls to mind the needs of Germany, urging the point in general terms, with the purpose of renewing the said league; some also say that he proposes to marry his sister to the prince, (fn. 5) just as they offered another to the late Henry, but certainly they will not embrace any offers from him from France or from any others unless they break first with the Spaniards. We hear that these are persuading the king to send a fresh ambassador to the emperor, ostensibly about the Palatinate, to make him think he is acting very vigorously. It is not easy to see whether these first successes of Mansfelt will serve them as a pretext for further delays and for an unsuccessful issue to the Brussels negotiations, or otherwise. From that quarter we hear that Dominis was eagerly awaited by the nuncio, who prepared quarters for him in his own house.
A book entitled "The French Herald" has been prohibited, dealing with the ascendency of the house of Austria and bitterly attacking the king here. They have also imprisoned some preachers who also attacked him rashly, sowing the evil seed of grave seditions. (fn. 6)
More than sixty Dutch ships have recently passed the coasts of this kingdom. They are supposed to be engaged upon some project in concert with the pirates upon the coasts of Spain, and it is reported that the latter have attacked the Spaniards and won a notable victory.
The Ambassadors of the States continue their negotiations. They are now engaged upon claims upon the merchants here to the amount of some 100,000 crowns, and one may say that they are not progressing an inch.
The Spaniards are not pleased at the news of the progress of the Most Christian, which also displeases the king here and the generality, although other news has come of a different tenor. Doncaster after getting within 150 miles of that sovereign seems to have received a hint to go no further without other motion. On this account he sent a gentleman post, who has been sent back to him in haste, probably to recall him, but nothing certain is known yet. It is thought that the king, encouraged by victory, will not listen to negotiations any more. The Ambassador Triliers on the other hand told me that he would welcome peace, for which he hoped, and if it ensued his master would certainly devote himself to the recovery of Rhetia. He assured me that he attached no credence to the Spaniards whose artifices aimed at delaying his decisions, but he also told me clearly that it could not be done without peace in France.
The new Spanish ambassador arrived recently. (fn. 7) I immediately sent the Secretary Zon to visit him, who offered my congratulations and respects, and a desire to show the esteem of the most serene republic for his king, and I would come myself to express the same if he would allow me to do so with satisfaction. He simply returned thanks and dryly remarked he would be glad to see the Most Illustrious if I would agree to be treated as ambassadors of the Catholic king treat those of the republic. The secretary replied that in the absence of the power I should always have the will to enjoy the friendliest relations with him. With that he left, the ambassador never moving a step to accompany him. So far he has not made any response to me, but I shall not fail to maintain the public dignity.
He has not yet had audience of the King. The French ambassador sent his compliments but abstained from going to visit him, as to the astonishment of every one the Ambassador Gondomar has quarreled with him for his behaviour towards the imperial ambassador, taking up the matter as a minister of the house of Austria, and claiming reparation.
London, the 13th May, 1622.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 13.
Consiglio di X.
Lettere di
Ambasciatori.
Venetian
Archives.
455. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the heads of the COUNCIL OF TEN.
The translator of the cipher who professed so much has not discovered one syllable. He called in the assistance of another who though equally ignorant of Italian, discovered the enclosed syllables by his knowledge of Latin. By means of the Secretary Zon I have succeeded in diverting both from continuing their labours, though this has cost me much trouble and expense. I enclose a copy of Filippis' letter to Vamale to discontinue the work. He also gave me copies of various letters to your Serenity including the one in Vamale's hands at which they were working, and they swore to me that nothing else of this matter remained in their hands. They said Vamale was very angry when he heard I knew about it. From what the Secretary Surian writes to me I find that the date corresponds with that of a parchment, void of letters and ill used handed to me by the son of the master of the posts at Antwerp with the information that the courier had been robbed.
London, the 13th May, 1622.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosure.456. Extracts from the ciphered letter.
m32 z6 m33 m32 b43 m32 b31 z6
b5 z7 g43 m11
m11 n24 g43 m14 m41 m21 z11 m34
b31 b1 g41 n23 g64
g41 m44 z6 n51
Der di desiderar
publica
Catolico facendo
rapalatino
la forza
Enclosure.457. Letter of FILIPPIS to VALMALE.
Thinks it useless to waste further time upon the cipher, owing to its difficulties and his ignorance of the language. To continue might prejudice his affairs. A brother of his is now in prison; his own name odious to the king, who recently professed his hatred for this art and those who practise it. (fn. 8) Paid heavily for his correspondence with Marcardider, and God save him from doing anything odious or obnoxious a second time. Therefore begs to be excused from labouring any longer in his vineyard.
[Italian.]
May 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
458. To the ambassador in England.
Since our despatch a week ago we sent for Wotton to the Cabinet and read him the office whereof we sent you a copy. In reply he renewed his requests in the most vigorous manner, which does not correspond with what you had from his Majesty. You will use the copy for information and so that you may support the operations of the republic if you find that the ambassador is calmed by the pertinent and prudent reply of his Serenity, so that what we are doing for the universal good and the Palatine in particular may not be obscured. But you will only act in case you find that his Majesty has been disturbed by some office from here or elsewhere, when you will impress upon his Majesty how much we have done in the way you may think best.
Ayes, 115.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
May 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
459. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have heard from a person who goes deeply into things that negotiations are proceeding between Spain and Florence, which will soon conclude with a marriage, the king giving the grand duke the sister, whom they are negotiating to give to England, and that Monterei has charge of this matter also, but that everything is passing with the utmost secrecy, in order not to lose the game with that king about the Palatine, and also because their final decision must depend upon the course of events, as in case of a rupture in Italy they would go any lengths to interest and oblige any power.
Rome, the 14th May, 1622.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Louise Hollandine, born on the 27th April, who afterwards turned Roman Catholic and became abbess of Maubuisson in France.
2 Algernon Percy, afterwards tenth earl of Northumberland; at this time 20 years of age.
3 Royan surrendered on the 11th May after a siege of five days.
4 Tilly suffered a serious defeat from the joint forces of Mansfelt and the Marquis of Bagrave at Wiesloch in Baden on the 27th April, 1622.
5 See note at page 307 above.
6 Thomas Winiffe, whom Salvetti, on 22 April, calls chaplain to the prince, committed to the Tower on the 17 April for comparing the surprisal of the soul to Spinola's usurping of the Palatinate, and John Knight who in a sermon at Oxford declared it to be his opinion that it was lawful for subjects when harassed on the score of religion to take arms against their prince in their own defence, and was sent to the Gatehouse. Brit. Mus. Add MSS. 27962B, Birch: Court and Times of James I, ii, page 304. Gardiner: Hist. of Eng. iv, page 297. The book in question is a pamphlet of 21 pages entitled "The French Herauld sent to the Princes of Christendome, printed according to the French Copie, 1622." It sets forth the ambition of the King of Spain to make himself sole monarch of the world and appeals in turn to Lutherans, Calvinists, the German Princes, the Swiss, the Dutch, Italy, Savoy, Geneva, France and finally the King of England to rouse themselves to action.
7 Don Carlos de Coloma, Governor of Cambrai, who arrived on the 7th May. He had his audience four or five days later, according to Finett (Philoxenis, page 103).
8 It seems likely from this that this Filippis was a brother of Sir Robert Phelips of Montacute in Somerset, imprisoned in the Tower at this time for the part taken by him in the late parliament, possibly Francis Phelips, the youngest of the three brothers. See Burke: Landed Gentry; Hist. MSS. Com. 1st Rep., page 54. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 374.