Venice
June 1622, 16-27

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1911

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347-361

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'Venice: June 1622, 16-27', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 347-361. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88836 Date accessed: 27 August 2014.


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Contents

June 1622

June 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
493. GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king gave 40l. sterling to the man who brought him the news of Leopold's flight and of the success of Mansfelt's troops under Hagenau (Aghino). (fn. 1) Nevertheless he has since then shown indications, not only with the Spaniards but publicly that at this moment of his negotiations at Brussels, all warlike action, whether successful or not, is profoundly distasteful to him. He threatens the Palatine and Mansfelt if they do not agree to the armistice and peace. He has ordered Chichester not to pay out one penny if they do not accept. Recently the Spanish ambassador and the agent of the infanta have had audience, assuring the king that their sovereigns desire peace and on their side will make it, the agent presenting a letter in his mistress's own hand to his Majesty saying that in twenty days the emperor and the Catholic will show, and if it does not take place it will not be their fault, they will send commissions to their ambassadors adequate for making peace, and for arranging this peace they will accept Chichester himself as arbiter.
This has highly gratified his Majesty as it seems to assure him of everything and he also considers that if they have not yet their full instructions, neither has Weston from the Palatine and from the chiefs who follow him. To the remonstrances made by the said ambassador and agent that while negotiations are proceeding they are amassing troops and entering Germany with so many designs, he answered that he did not know what to do, since the Palatine and Brunswick are young and will not let themselves be ruled by his advice. He told Gray, who came here for Mansfelt and who is leaving very dissatisfied, that if his advice was followed he would help to the extent of his powers, but not otherwise. He also complained of the apparent concert with Gabor, who from what the Agent Simon Digby writes from Vienna, is rising up again to trouble Cæsar. Accordingly his Majesty seems to wish the Palatine to go to the Palatinate merely to defend the little that remains to him, not believing that Mansfelt and Brunswick, who at first moved for the levy of a single regiment, can have so many men, and he proposes to proceed in the usual way and find pretexts if not to shirk at least to delay the burden of growing agitation on every hand. It is thought that the infanta has only a very restricted authority. Yet they feel confident of overcoming all these practically insuperable difficulties, Weston avoiding more and more the continuation of his offices, and although it appears that everything is making for an armistice, and the Austrians pretend that the Palatine has besought for it, yet they ought to be certain that peace will follow if they completely disband all the armies acting for him, as in the other event the total and irreparable ruin of the Palatinate would ensue.
M. de Soubise of France has arrived unexpectedly at this Court with about 24 persons. (fn. 2) The cause of his visit is not yet known. He proceeded immediately to the king, to whom the French ambassador also went the day before yesterday to forestall his requests and divert from him every demonstration of honour and affection.
The negotiations of the ambassadors of the States are apparently reducing themselves to debates between the merchants on both sides. They seem to be making much better progress, as they have settled in eight days the principal point which did not make a jot of progress for so long.
We hear that the ships of Ostend and Dunkirk have captured some unarmed Dutch vessels coming from Norway laden with wood, but in a subsequent fight with some men-of-war of the States two of them fled to Scotland badly damaged, after having also damaged the enemy considerably.
In the Council they have deliberated upon the fleet I wrote of, proposing that Mansfelt should command the king's part and Mainwaring that of the merchants. But it is not known when they will effect it, the merchants being stayed by fear that the ships will not be employed as they desire. At the same time they decided that henceforward their trading ships shall go united in a fleet, and to give the ambassador at Constantinople the aforesaid order to speak to the Porte against the pirates. He reports that he has already made strong representations and they have offered him to send express orders to Algiers and Tunis not only to prevent them doing any more wrong to this nation, but to order them to give up all the slaves; but it is thought that no results will ensue except the expense of sending a Chiaus.
I hear that his Majesty has decided to send a special letter of thanks to your Serenity by Vercellini, the servant of the Countess of Arundel, who will leave for Venice in all haste. He also proposes to write to the countess herself.
In reply to your letter of the 14th ult. I cannot at present add anything to what I reported the king said to me at the last audience with regard to the repeated instances made by the Ambassador Wotton in favour of the Palatine. The Secretary Suriano writes to me of the design they have to stir up his Majesty, but although such great changes both in speaking and in doing may be observed here it is not at all likely, in my opinion, that they will adopt another line in the matter at the present moment, while the king seems inclined to hold back his son-in-law. But if any offices from that quarter or eleswhere produce any noticeable effects your Excellencies' instructions shall be executed.
I am delighted to announce to you the arrival of Most Excellent Vallaresso on the 11th inst. at Dover, by God's grace, although not without difficulties at sea and from the various hardships which such long journeys entail. To-morrow he will make his entry into this city, and we shall try and see that it takes place with all proper decorum, the usual honours having been received in his Majesty's name. He will relieve me of this charge as soon as possible, with the advantage to your Serenity promised by his high qualities.
London, the 16th June, 1622.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
494. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I left Orleans without seeing the governor again, as he went off hunting. I proceeded through Normandy to the sea, passing by Paris, as only the queen regnant was there. There are dangers everywhere in this kingdom at present. The religious difficulty leaves no part sound and forces the king to keep strong guard everywhere even though the Huguenots are discouraged and are being disarmed by the king's orders. I have been obliged to take escorts several times, notably in passing the forest of the Ponte de Lars, where some wayfarers had been robbed and murdered a few days before. I obtained this escort from M. de Rollet, grand provost of Normandy, who offered to come himself. Thank God my journey has ended without mishap.
At Rouen, where I stayed one night, I heard from a merchant that there was fear of contagion from some poor houses a short distance from the city. I think it right to mention this, as the place has trade everywhere, especially in linen cloth, which they make in large quantities.
The Prince of Longueville, who resides in that city as governor of Normandy, the day that I entered went away to visit some places of his governorship. From what I hear he is very anxious to serve your Serenity.
At Dieppe, where I embarked, I received a thousand honours from M. de Montigni, but very different treatment from the customs officials, because I had no royal passports, from whose insolence I had to redeem myself by heavy gratuities. They would not accept your Serenity's passport, and claimed that I could not even take my silver. The governor assured me that he had no power in this matter.
On the 10th inst. I embarked on a good ship and arrived in this kingdom on the following day at eleven in the evening.
The Rochellese are scouring these seas so boldly that quite recently they plundered and carried off some French ships under the very ports of France and these English coasts, claiming that they are enemies owing to the war with the king.
My entry into London is arranged for to-morrow. I have seen the Secretary Zon, who came to call upon me from the Ambassador Lando. I shall send word of my entry later. Sig. Agostino, the ambassador's brother, has also paid me a complimentary visit. He has great experience of Courts and possesses remarkable ability.
Gravesend, the 16th June, 1622.
[Italian.]
June 17.
Consiglio di X.
Parti Secrete.
Venetian
Archives.
495. That the new cipher be used in place of the old one. It shall be seen and used by no one except the secretaries of our ambassadors and public representatives and those ambassadors and representatives themselves. The new cipher shall be consigned to the secretaries from time to time as they leave or are sent with fresh ambassadors, and the heads of this Council shall write to the ambassadors sending them the counterpart, and they shall begin to use it in their letters to his Serenity and to other ambassadors when they hear that the new cipher has reached them.
Ayes, 15.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
June 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
496. ALVISE CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador Digby entered the Court on the 6th inst. and met with an extraordinary reception, more gentlemen than usual going to meet him, with the king's coaches, and accompanying him to his house. It is thought that they will feed him with hopes and simple promises alone. This will be easy, as he told me he knew for certain they were excellently disposed here, and that they would do anything to satisfy his king, recognising that what his Majesty desires especially about the Palatinate is in the best interests of this crown. He told me he would say little upon that particular point, since it was referred to the congress at Brussels.
From his conversation I gathered either that he is disposed to place implicit confidence in their negotiations, as a devoted servant of this crown, or else he means to deceive the Spaniards.
On the day after his arrival he had his first audience in a most private manner, which is reported merely to be one of condolence; but it is thought that he hastened to see his Majesty about business, and I am told it was about the nomination of Bavaria to the electorate, to say that his king will not suffer this wrong to his son-in-law, and the Catholic must see that the emperor goes no further to give the duke possession. The king assured him that he would give every satisfaction to England, and would write to the emperor, as he did on the following morning. It is observed that the king has never before shown such alacrity with respect to representations made to him.
Madrid, the 17th June, 1622.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure.497. Copy of a letter of the EMPEROR FERDINAND to the POPE.
Difficulties in the way of rewarding the merits of the Duke of Bavaria. The disturbed state of Germany. When things are more tranquil will give first attention to enfeoffment of Bavaria and in other respects gratify the pope's wishes.
Dated at Vienna, the 15th April, 1622.
[Latin.]
Enclosure.498. Copy of letter of the EMPEROR to the KING OF SPAIN.
Hears that Lord Digby is going to him as ambassador from the King of Great Britain. He will probably urge the restitution of the Palatinate. Has promised the electorate to Bavaria for his great services. and nothing remains to be done except his solemn investiture. Requests him to tell the ambassador that the emperor's word is pledged to this. For the rest is ready to gratify him to the extent of his ability.
Dated at Vienna, the 11th May, 1622.
[Latin.]
June 18.
Misc. Cod.
No. 61.
Venetian
Archives.
499. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
We hear from Brussels that as the infanta had no powers from the emperor, but only a simple letter, and the ambassador only had the King of England's credentials without including powers from the Palatine, Mansfelt and other princes, they decided in both cases to send for proper powers. In the meantime the Englishman proposed on armistice, but they gave him no answer. They say here that the Palatine and Mansfelt have sent a courier to Brussels both promising to abide by what is arranged there, and the Englishman will also promise. This news however does not come from there, and it is thought to be published at the court in order to intimidate the Hungarians.
Vienna, the 18th June, 1622. Copy.
[Italian.]
June 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenzé.
Venetian
Archives
500. GIOVANNI FRANCESCO TRIVISANO, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The idea of a marriage between a sister of the Catholic and the Grand Duke has been greatly strengthened since the arrival here last Sunday of the Count of Monterei. His Excellency has met the consulta of state several times to discuss the matter, and the ministers here have visited the ambassador's apartments in the palace on the same business, and I am assured that all their sessions are devoted to this affair only. I hear that there are but few difficulties in the way but they will not make any declaration at present, as they wish first to await the arrival of Montona at the Court, and the arrival of the replies and satisfaction that they want here from the king in this matter.
Florence, the 18th June, 1622.
[Italian.]
June 20.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Lettere Re e
Regine
d' Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
501. JACOBUS dei gratia, etc., DOMINO ANTONIO PRIULO, Venetiarum Duci, amico nostro charissimo, salutem et felicitatem:
Serenissime Princeps, amice charissime.
Cum nobis, tam per Legatum Serenitatis vestrae quam per litteras consanguineae nostrae charissimae Arundeliae et Surriae comitissae, jampridem innotuerit, quanta tum aequitate tum favore Serma Rep. dictam consanguineam nostram sit prosequuta; et gratulandum Serti et Va gratias agendas duximus quod non modo iniquiore eam suspicione liberaverit, sed (et nominis et gentis ratione) singulari et publico ornaverit Honore. Quod tum nos grato animo (uti par est) amplectimur, neque pari in vestros gratia, ubi occasio inciderit, deerimus (cum quae in eorum, quos tam propinquo loco habemus gratiam et honorem fiunt tanquam nobis facta interpretemur) tum praecipue consanguineus noster charissimus Arundeliae et Surriae comes summus noster Angliae Marischallus de vestro erga conjugem suam tam publico favoris testimonio maxime sibi gratulatur, qui uti praeclarissimae civitati vestrae (pro suo, conjugisque suae praecipuo in eam affectu) tantum tribuit, ut ad teneram filiorum suorum aetatem informandam praeter coeteras eam delegerit (quod non solum consentientibus, sed et valde approbantibus nobis factum agnoscimus) ita proculdubio ampliorem hinc occasionem sumet, non confirmandi modo sed (si fieri potest) augendi et liberorum suorum imposterum et sui impraesentia in vestram Rempublicam studii, eujus nos in rebus omnibus quae illam attingunt, testes assidue reddimur: Huic itaque charissimae Consanguineae nostrae Serenitas vestra pergat favere, uti nos ex animo optamus, ut Serenitati vestrae bene sit atque ut Serenissima Respublica semper florescat.
Datum e regia nostra Grenovici xo die Junii, anno Domini 1622.
JACOBUS R. [autograph].
Endorsed: 20 June, 1622; received on the 4th July.
June 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
502. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Encloses copy of a letter from General Vere to the English ambassador.
The Hague, the 20th June, 1622.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.503. Extract from a letter of GENERAL VERE to the AMBASSADOR CARLETON translated from the English of the 2nd June, 1622, old style.
From my last of the 23rd ult. you will have learned that the forces of the Margrave of Baden and the Count of Mansfelt were to unite in the country of the Landgrave of Hesse. They did so last Sunday, and on Tuesday they marched to Aschenburg, a town of the Archbishop of Mayence, to occupy the pass; but Tilly, having received reinforcements, anticipated them, and they withdrew, camping near Gerau on Wednesday evening. Early on Friday they were charged by a regiment of cuirassiers between Bensheim and Lorsch and a regiment was thrown into disorder. The skirmish lasted until the night, but the enemy's infantry did not appear. The enemy will claim this as an advantage, although the retreat was very honourable. The two armies are still in this neighbourhood, but it is uncertain what steps they will take.
Mr. Chichester arrived here on Monday, very opportunely to see both. His stay here has been entirely taken up with ceremonial. He had audiences yesterday, the king getting here on Friday evening. The Landgrave of Darmstadt and one of his younger sons accompanied his Majesty. The king's presence with the army will produce an excellent impression and keep everything in good order without confusion, for which the Count of Mansfelt works hard in spite of his gout.
[Italian.]
June 23.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
504. The English Ambassador came into the Cabinet and said:
I have recently suffered from an indisposition of the stomach which would not yield to treatment, as I was let blood six times without effect. I regret that it has happened at this time. I sent my secretary from Padua about the Count of Mansfelt, and the fear that he might be going to leave the service in which he is so usefully engaged. I now find that the representations of your Serenity have taken effect. On reaching Venice I learned with great satisfaction that your Serenity had decided to send some help to the King of Bohemia. You could not gratify my king and his allies in any better way. My king will not fail to do his part either on the civil or the military side. He has sent an ambassador extraordinary to Spain, well knowing that to be the fountain of all the activities of the house of Austria. He has sent other embassies to France, for reasons that may be better understood than expressed, and to the infanta at Brussels. At the same time he pays 8,000 foot for the Palatine and will do more. But unless his good friends help him he does not know what else he can do. My king relies upon favours from your Serenity. As I was here at the time of his Majesty's generous declarations in favour of the republic I feel I have good grounds for promising him a suitable return.
The doge replied that the ambassador well knew their affection and esteem for the king, his master. They would do everything possible. As Leopold and Feria were sending all their forces to the Grisons, this clearly helped Bohemia and the general welfare at which the republic aimed.
The ambassador said he did not doubt that the republic was doing a great deal, but they hoped to be satisfied. He went on to recommend a Scotch gentleman, who had been before and desired to renew the offer of his services. He introduced him into the Cabinet and presented letters of recommendation from his Majesty with a paper of his own. After these had been read the ambassador departed.
Most Serene Prince,
John Reade (Reidi), a Scotch gentleman, represents to your Serenity that in 1618 he left his country upon the occasion of the war in Friuli, and was offered a commission to raise a company of foot. With this hope he stayed on for a year with two servants, without salary or entertainment, at great expense. At the end of that time, as he could not afford to remain idle any longer, he accepted the lieutenancy of a Dutch company. After fourteen months this company was dissolved and he again presented himself for the promised commission. The Proveditore of Legnago sent him with letters to your Serenity, and the doge wrote back directing that he should receive a commission under M. de Roquelaure, if that captain thought fit. Meanwhile he was maintaining some 50 soldiers, but owing to the absence of M. de Roquelaure he had to dismiss them as he could not stand the expense. The commission arrived but he had to decline it because he had dismissed the men. Accordingly he gave up hope and prepared to return home when the outbreak in the Valtelline aroused fresh expectation in him of opportunities for service. At the end of six months General Paruta, on the recommendation of M. de Roquelaure, sent him with letters to the Savio of Terra Ferma for a commission; but after waiting for some time he was sent back to the general, who told him that there was no need at the moment to make this levy. Nevertheless he went to M. de Roquelaure and remained six months, supported by the hope of serving the republic. He now hears that there is an opportunity of serving, and has come post from the court of England with letters of recommendation from his king. If levies are to be made in that kingdom, he asks for preference and a commission. If such levies are not made he asks for the promised commission of a company of ultramontane infantry. Failing all these he asks for some provision befitting the greatness of the republic and to recoup him for the expenses which he has incurred.
[Italian.]
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi
filza.
Venetian
Archives.
505. Letter of King James to Antonio Priuli, doge of Venice, recommending to the republic John Rede, a Scottish gentleman, and asking that he may be preferred before others if they decide to levy troops within his dominions.
Dated at Theobalds, the 9th April, 1622.
[Latin.]
June 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
506. To the Ambassador in England and the like to the Hague.
Negotiations for an armistice have already been started in the midst of the successes in the Palatinate, with prospects of better results. No more severe blow could be struck at the present moment against the general safety, especially that of the States and the King of Bohemia, and the seriousness of the prejudice may be gauged by the eagerness of the other side. In this matter you will proceed with a proper regard for what is necessary, addressing yourself to those who love the welfare of the king and dignity of that crown; and with the others and with his Majesty himself you will speak or keep silence as you judge best. Your offices must be directed to pointing out that since his Majesty's generous resolution to help his son-in-law, it has been seconded by fortunate events; that the commotion of the Grisons, the continuation of the war in Flanders, some other counterpoise to the Spanish arms in Italy, sustained by one who aims solely at the general good, assure the total relief of the Palatinate the more readily and quickly. If they had not these, and there was only Gabor to consider, they would quickly make peace with him even upon disadvantageous conditions. Even in the midst of Digby's negotiations they strengthened their hold upon the Palatinate, negotiating for a division thereof and the distribution of its royal and ancient titles. Now they see that force cannot prevail and that the justice of that prince's course is beginning to prosper, they, try to procure an armistice, which they negotiate for the same reasons with captious proposals to stay hostilities in the Grisons also. Similar armistices would suffice to strengthen the weakening hold of the Spaniards upon the countries occupied. On the other hand, if the Palatine's hands are bound by such an armistice it will not be easy at another time to reunite the powerful forces which he now has. It is well known that the Spaniards made very tempting offers to Mansfelt through the infanta of Flanders, and therefore his engagement by the republic came most opportunely. This proposal for an armistice lets loose a number of evils which would lead to the worst consequences, opening a clear way for the preponderance of the house of Austria, which might spread in directions least expected, as no potentate, however remote or great has remained immune from their attempts. We also direct you to add, to meet any objections during these reiterated demands of Wotton, that as the republic could not keep these serious matters to herself, so we shall not fail to do our utmost, making contributions to the States and to the Grisons and we shall not hesitate to do more upon occasion, in order to engage all the forces of Leopold and Feria and so relieve the Palatine.
We have told you formerly of negotiations to marry the infanta of Spain in Tuscany; these negotiations are now progressing as you will see from the enclosed copy of what our Secretary Trivisano writes, which will serve you for information. We have received the advices of the journey of you, Valaresso, and we suppose you have now arrived and therefore we direct these presents to you both.
The like to the Hague, mutatis mutandis, except the last paragraph, adding:
We send this so that you may perform an office thereupon with the Queen of Bohemia, Maurice and the other lords of the government, and with the English ambassador, who being well intentioned and in high repute at the Court of London may advance the above considerations with efficacy and obtain the results desired.
Ayes, 128.Noes, 2.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
June 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
507. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassadors of England, Spain and Savoy have arrived here, all prevented from going to the camp and excluded from negotiations. His Majesty has sent a special gentleman to the English ambassador, who seems more and more dissatisfied to excuse his delay in coming to this city expressing a great desire to see him, and begging him to have patience. The office was appreciated, but the ambassador has since sent another gentleman to his Majesty expressing his desire to see him, but as he is useless to serve him, asking for leave to return home as he is determined to leave. He told me in confidence that nothing would avail for the service of Christendom but a generous resolution of his king, who in conjunction with the States, his friends in Germany, the most serene republic and the Duke of Savoy could confound all the plans of the Spaniards, French and Romans.
I tried to turn these ideas to good account.
Toulouse, the 24th June, 1622.
[Italian.]
June 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
508. ALVISE VALARESSO and GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassadors in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
When I, Valaresso, reached Gravesend I awaited Sir [Lewis] Lewkenor, who came to welcome me with his Majesty's coaches and boats, by the king's order. I entertained him that evening and the following day until after dinner, the time appointed for my entry. I went with him towards the city and at Gravesend I found the Ambassador Lando with a large number of coaches of the nobles here, who came to honour your Serenity. I expressed my thanks and we resumed the journey together, this company making the entry noteworthy. I reached my predecessor's house. which I have engaged, and found everything ready for the reception of the master of the ceremonies and those who accompanied me. After the usual courtesies from the other ambassadors I spoke to Lewkenor about an audience, submitting myself to the king's pleasure. They gave me two days later at Greenwich, and though the time seemed short for preparation, I succeeded in overcoming all difficulties.
Lord Candis (fn. 3) fetched me from the embassy by the king's order and took me to the Court, accompanied by numerous carriages. He presented me to the king with Sig. Lando. I expressed the esteem of your Excellencies, and preceived from the king's behaviour how much he appreciated what I said.
I saw the prince the same day and among other things I told him that your Serenity had received many favours from his father and hoped as much from him. He made a most gracious and friendly reply.
By this I, Lando, am relieved of my charge, and am the more gratified because I leave it in such good hands. I have given him every assistance and handed over to him all the papers that can help him.
I took my leave on the following day. His Majesty showed me extraordinary honour, sending his coaches and gentlemen of high rank to fetch me, while his Highness also was most gracious. This commendation made me blush, as it far exceeded the merit of my humble deserts, and they expressed the utmost affection for your Serenity. The king charged me on my return to thank you for the honour shown to the Countess of Arundel. So I shall depart in a few days with the more satisfaction after I have paid the necessary visits leaving these princes as sound in their friendship to your Serenity as they are in body.
Lewkenor told me, Lando, first, and me, Valaresso, later, on the way to Gravesend, that he had orders to salute me on my arrival in the name of the Spanish ambassador and to express his desire for good relations with the ministers of the republic, and expressing sorrow at the differences which arose not with him but his predecessors and suggesting how gladly he would welcome some expedient to avoid them, although that would be very difficult owing to the claims of the republic. We both expressed a full reciprocation of these sentiments, saving only the honour of your Serenity, as might be proved by the office which I, Lando, performed with him on my arrival in this city, to open the way to relations, to which no response came, to my astonishment. Lewkenor remarked, as if for himself, that something had certainly been wanting, and he thought the ambassador was sorry, but his profession was more that of a soldier than an ambassador. I, Valaresso, replied that it seemed only reasonable that he should return my predecessor's visit before we took any further steps, and pay me the compliments which it is customary to offer to a new comer. It may be that nothing more will happen, as the ambassador has not sent to perform any definite office, and possibly the ambassador took this action in order not to miss the approval of the Court and to avoid any further office. However your Excellencies shall hear all that happens, assured that I shall do nothing derogatory to your orders or to the laudable conduct of my predecessor.
London, the 24th June, 1622.
[Italian.]
June 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
509. ALVISE VALARESSO and GIROLAMO LANDO, Venetian Ambassadors in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Palatine, although he advances many arguments to show that an armistice will damage him and all the rest and only benefit the Austrians, not only submits himself to his Majesty, by letters which came in six days, but is sending his Councillor Pauli to Brussels to convey his assent to the Ambassador Weston and to inform him of all particulars so that the negotiations, hitherto suspended for lack of such authority may proceed steadily. Many here persuade themselves that this will prove successful, the more so as Mansfeld seems to desire it, especially now that Tilly's army is increased by the troops from Bohemia and become stronger and perhaps more numerous, while he has not yet been able to unite with Brunswick and has been obliged to withdraw since the taking of the town. Some say that the Landgrave of Darmstat had to do so also under Mannheim, although honourably with slight loss on both sides, leaving the enemy masters of the country with their rear open to succours while he remains rather shut in and short of provisions, as the country can only support a few, not such a large number of fighting men. The king here fears that something important may have happened already which may damage the course of his negotiations, as it is difficult to arrest the full tide of success, but otherwise he hopes the more for the settlement of that affair as the infanta of Brabant gave authority to the Ambassador Criester to negotiate and arrange an armistice immediately with some limitation of time, in the Palatinate with the Princes of Germany until it is arranged in Brussels and they proceed further.
It appears that Soubise came to this Court to inform the king of the affairs of France, and to ask for help in men and if possible money. He had a long time with his Majesty and receives high honour as a kinsman, although at first the king did not seem very pleased, but now they talk of granting him a levy of volunteers and it is announced that he has money to carry this out. But in the impossibility of much being done in this quarter owing to the lack of money, this spur of his has aroused fresh hopes in the king of peace in that kingdom, which seemed completely extinguished a short while ago, especially as his wrath was appeased by the restitution of the ships arrested, and he thinks this will serve to release him from all obligations and to gain time. Thus they have renewed the commissions of Doncaster, who had been hastily recalled and ordered to leave without receiving presents, and with every sign of offence. They are renewing his commissions, which leave him free to stay there or come away as he may think best and to assist not only the general interests of the Huguenots but the particular ones of Soubise. Meanwhile the Council is deliberating upon what they can do if the negotiations do not succeed, while Soubise with much freedom keeps reminding his Majesty of the numerous promises which those of the religion have received from him, and presses strongly, although the Ambassador Tillières offers vigorous opposition.
Various men have left here singly to serve with the Huguenots, and it appears that the patents of the Council not of the king direct that certain individuals shall be allowed to go as commanders, with their suite. They say that four companies have gone so far and they will levy another 1,000 men.
The hope that they will convoke parliament at Michaelmas increases, not for foreign but for domestic affairs. Necessity seems to call for it, but the report may be due to artifice rather than to any intention of carrying it into effect.
Five very rich ships have recently arrived together from the East Indies, two English and three Dutch, (fn. 4) with news of the conclusion of the negotiations with Persia about silk, so they say. Some consider this noteworthy owing to the past disputes between these nations, although the bonds of interest alone and fear of the pirates have united them for their mutual advantage. In the same way the disputes between the merchants approach nearer and nearer to a settlement and so the ambassadors of the States hope to leave shortly with a complete arrangement.
The Spanish ambassador here reports that a new agreement about the Grisons has been made at his Court with the consent of the Ambassador of France and of your Serenity, and with the help of the nuncio and Don Balthazar de Zuniga. (fn. 5) The Secretary Calvert and some others told us the same.
I, Lando, herewith finish my charge, the execution of your Serenity's letters of the 27th ult. will therefore pertain to the Ambassador Vallaresso.
London, the 24th June, 1622.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 25.
Misc. Cod.
No. 61.
Venetian
Archives.
510. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They write from Brussels that the negotiations promise to be lengthy. The English ambassador, perceiving this and in order not to remain longer a charge upon the infanta, is looking for a house and has asked for passports for those whom the Palatine, Mansfelt and others may send.
Vienna, the 25th June, 1622. Copy.
[Italian.]
June 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
511. GIOVANNI FRANCESCO TRIVISAN, Venetian Secretary in Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Count of Montenei is to leave to-morrow. He brought their Highnesses the investiture of the state of Siena and his negotiations certainly turned upon nothing else, except upon the marriage of the Grand Duke; about this I learn that the archduchess means to carry it out and give her consent, and it would certainly take place. The ambassador upon one occasion spoke highly of these princes and this city and in the presence of many gentlemen remarked: A sister of his king would be very well employed in this house and on his arrival in Spain he would recommend and procure this with his Majesty.
Florence, the 25th June, 1622.
[Italian.]
June 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
512. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Chichester, finding the General Vere had not been able to gather the whole force of 8,000 foot and 1,600 horse that the King of Great Britain wished to maintain in the Palatinate, paid those whom he had enlisted, and distributed the rest of the money partly among the troops of Mansfelt and partly to those of the Margrave of Baden.
Councillor Pauli has gone to Brussels in the name of the Palatine The Ambassador Carleton told me this yesterday, but when I asked what instructions and commissions he might have he said he did not know, but he thought he had at present simply gone to get information, but he might easily have powers to negotiate as the Palatine has no means of support.
The ambassador proceeded to tell me that by letters from London he heard that his master seemed satisfied with the reply given by the most serene republic. He said that his king's present relations with Spain, after he had declared that he wanted no more than restitution for his son-in-law, did not allow him to appear before the world inciting others to help the Palatine. But I can assure you, he added, that the king will greatly appreciate whatever else the republic may do, and if, from motives of prudence, he has recently thanked his Serenity, he would thank him a thousand times more. If the forces of the King of Bohemia were supported and the Austrians consequently compelled to keep their troops there, the republic would reap two great advantages, security from the Spanish forces and the restoration of the Grisons. This could be done with 100,000 florins a month, equally divided between the king and the Grisons, and very soon the King of Spain would not have an inch of land either in the Palatinate or the Grisons. He remarked that the republic was prudent, and knew full well the aims and proceedings of the Spaniards.
Finally he shrugged his shoulders and said. That is my opinion and I know well that my king has knowledge of those things, as Sir [Henry] Wotton has written to him as well as his Majesty's resident at Turin. He added: I speak out of my desire for the general welfare and the especial good of the republic to which I owe so much.
I thanked him and said he might rest assured that we should always remember his merits and virtues.
The Hague, the 27th June, 1622.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
June 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
513. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
After the Dutch men-of-war had given chase to two ships of Dunkirk, the latter took refuge in Scotland, being enabled to escape, thanks to a fog. The Dutch ships are blockading the port of Boulogne.
Three ships have arrived from the East Indies very richly laden. Three others have reached England with an even richer cargo, having in particular a great quantity of silk. The sailors report that cordial relations exist between the two countries in the Indies. This cannot fail to assist the negotiation of the ambassadors of these Provinces in England, whose last letters have greatly relieved the government here, the chief difficulty being practically settled, Aerssens in particular writes that he hopes to have done very soon, and to get back here within six weeks. The letter is dated the 16th ult.
The Hague, the 27th June, 1622.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The relief of Hagenau in Elsace by the Count Mansfelt and the retreat of the Archduke Leopold in some disorder with the loss of part of his artillery and munitions and six of his horse troops rendering themselves to Count Mansfelt's service is much multiplied here by merchants' letters from Strasburg, Frankfort and Collen.—Carleton to Calvert, the 23rd May, 1622, o.s.—State Papers, Foreign: Holland.
2 Salvietti writing on the 17th says that Soubise arrived "last Wednesday," i.e., June 15th. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962B.
3 Lord Cavendish, son of the Earl of Devonshire.—Finett: Philoxenis, page 112.
4 Laden chiefly with silk, and also with indigo, calico, etc., the estimated value of the cargo being 250,000l. sterling. The Dutch ships carried pepper. Salvetti on the 27th June. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962B.
5 The treaty was signed at Aranjuez on the 3rd May, 1622. For the terms see Siri: Memorie Recondite V, pages 373–376.