Venice
August 1622

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1911

Pages

383-401

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'Venice: August 1622', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 383-401. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88839 Date accessed: 18 September 2014.


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August 1622

Aug. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
548. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king Palatine arrived at Sedan on the 16th of last month, leaving the remaining places of the Palatinate in the hands of English garrisons only, dismissing Brunswick and Mansfelt and consequently releasing the soldiers from their oath, all by the advice of the King of Great Britain, to whom all this was announced by M. Sciombergh sent to England in haste for the purpose.
We hear from Brussels that the Spaniards announce an armistice in the Palatinate for a year, but the English agent writes to the Ambassador Carleton and the queen here that there is nothing as yet to build upon.
The Hague, the 1st August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Aug. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
549. Instructions to GIRONIMO PRIULI, chosen Captain of the two armed galleons.
You will observe your customary prudence as regards western vessels and galleys, leaving the initiative with them, so that if they behave well you will not impede their voyage or their resolutions in the common seas far from our islands and places; but if they make expeditions therein, or inflict or attempt any harm upon our subjects and ships or commit other hostile acts, you will treat them as enemies and pirates, where you can do so with safety. As regards the galleys and other ships of the Turk and those of England, you will follow what you see is our intention from the copy of our decisions upon this matter; and you will treat Turkish vessels especially in a friendly manner so that they may have no reason to complain.
If you should cruise outside the Gulf to protect the vessels of our subjects in seas notoriously infested by pirates you will proceed with all necessary prudence, you will abstain from entering closed ports. You will act with caution according to the advices you receive about the pirates, especially the one called Sanson, and we rely upon your ability and courage both in going and returning. You will remain at sea during the pleasure of the Senate.
Ayes, 105.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Aug. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian.
Archives.
550. ALVISE CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Count of Gondomar has arrived from England, and therefore they will begin to arrange for the conclusion or the breaking off of the marriage. It is said that this minister is strongly in favour of the alliance, and that he will urge it strongly upon the king.
Madrid, the 5th August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Aug. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
551. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The preparations for the fleet proceed slowly and seem likely to end at the very outset as is the way with most feigned things done simply for the sake of appearances. The levy of a troop of English granted for the Archduchess of Flanders, as my predecessor advised, was suspended by the king four days ago, but the suspension was withdrawn a day later, and they continue as before. The three English ships which I reported as come from Spain with about 800,000 crowns for Flanders, were arrested by his Majesty's orders, who proposed to use the money for his mint. Once it had entered the realm he could claim by the laws that it should not be taken out again, and further claim it to be confiscated as contraband, because it arrived without notice and was about to depart without leave. The arrest lasted three days, but when the Spanish ambassador came and said that the money belonged to his king and threatened in particular the rupture of all negotiations, the ships were freely released on the fourth day. This consideration possesses so much efficacy that they change all decisions in a moment here and refuse those legitimate advantages which no other prince would refuse, for pure reasons of state. The ships are well provided with men and guns, and though it seems that they are not short of money in Flanders for the moment, yet their arrival will prove opportune to reinvigorate the Spaniards, and one may say that England had a hand in these succours.
The Spanish ambassador has obtained from his Majesty sixty English sailors for the ships of Dunkirk, who accept as wages a fourth of the booty which they may take from the Dutch. This grant was previously refused several times; it is important as it may serve as a first step to greater things or as a precedent for taking more. His Majesty says that being the friend of all he can refuse none the use of what he has in superfluity.
The negotiations of the Dutch ambassadors, which they told me were nearing port, now seem in rough water. One difficulty is the restitution of goods taken from the English by the Dutch, to be done more in one place than another. The difference amounts to some 30,000 reals. When the ambassadors told me of this I remarked that the present state of affairs required the settlement of such differences, and they should rather consent to some loss, with the hope of obtaining greater advantage. They answered lamenting the difficult nature of the English but admitting the force of my arguments that the matter should be settled in a friendly way.
His Majesty has received a letter from the infanta remarking in particular that nothing could be better for the Palatinate negotiations than the Palatine's well advised retirement to Sedan. The king seemed greatly pleased at this. Nevertheless the affair proceeds; the armistice exists in fact as the forces have departed. For the rest it is a chimæra, as the Ambassador Weston knows well and has written so frankly, but perhaps the king prefers not to recognise this, and to believe what the Spaniards promise, especially as negotiating relieves him of fighting.
Tilly is following Mansfelt, who is understood to be in Lorraine. By that way he may proceed to France or Flanders. There are various rumours which it is not my business to report.
A ship arrived from Spain reports that the Dutch and the men of Algiers, landing near the Strait, have designs upon the Mamora.
A silver mine in Wales discovered awhile ago promises great advantages to this crown according to fresh reports.
To-day the Marquis of Buckingham has held a review of some of his men as the new lieutenant of the county, both the king and prince being present for a short while to honour him. Shooting was forbidden until they had passed.
I made my excuses to his Highness through a cavalier, a great friend of mine and an official in the prince's court, for postponing my first audience until a convenient time in order not to incommode his Highness. He had express orders to thank me for my consideration, so that I understood the prince's satisfaction at not being disturbed in his rural pleasures at this season.
I have received your Serenity's letters of the 18th ult. to which I will duly attend.
London, the 5th August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Aug. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
552. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Some of the soldiers of the regiment recently raised in England by the Earl of Argyle, have deserted and taken refuge at the fortress of Bergh. They report that the majority of them have decided to run away the moment they have an opportunity, as they object to serve the Spaniards and pretend that they were deceived, as when they were enlisted they thought they were coming here, and were not told otherwise. (fn. 1)
Your Serenity will have heard of the arrest of four ships from Spain by the King of Great Britain and their subsequent release, contrary to the expectation of the Dutch ambassadors, who asked leave to take them and were told that the king himself would detain them. The ambassadors foresaw that this might happen through the efforts of the Spanish ambassador and sent to warn the men-of-war of the States to be on the alert. But so far they have only found one ship, which they brought to Middelburg; they are pursuing the other three.
The Hague, the 8th August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Aug. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
553. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Spinola has gone to Brussels where the negotiations seem unlikely to result in anything. They have arranged in England that the Palatine shall sign his powers merely as Frederick. Meanwhile fresh attacks are made on the Palatinate. The king highly praises the honest conduct of the Ambassador Weston at Brussels. The States grieve to see that the King of Great Britain does not perceive how ill the Spaniards treat him, feeding him with empty hopes and deluding him with vain pretexts.
It has been said here that the Spanish marriage will not take place, but that the daughter of Spain will be wedded to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. But the general opinion here is that if the negotiations with England fall through, as they fully expect, she will rather be given to the emperor's son.
The Hague, the 8th August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Aug. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
554. GIROLAMO LANDO, late Venetian Ambassador in England, and MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I, Lando, left England amid honours from his Majesty and others, adequate to the merits of your Serenity, but far exceeding my deserts. I travelled through France and finally arrived here. In conversation the duke spoke of the 8,000 foot and 1,600 horse sent by the King of Great Britain. He wished us to write to your Serenity urging the importance of not disbanding Mansfelt's forces. Sig. Veit Ferens has brought letters from Mansfelt, with letters of credence to me, Morosini, and to Wake, the English agent here.
Turin, the 9th August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Aug. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
555. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Sig. Veit Ferens has decided to accompany the Ambassador Lando to Venice. I have found him intelligent and sincere. He has never departed from my advice, and has never spoken to the duke or the English agent without coming first to take instructions from me, while he has always returned to report to me all particulars. I have thought it as well that neither the duke nor the English agent should know the real cause of his mission, and he goes upon the pretext of asking for the monthly payments for the States. The duke and the agent have both spoken to him against the count disbanding his army or making an agreement with the Spaniards, offering to write to your Serenity to urge the payment of those monthly sums. The agent showed me letters from Berne stating that the Duke of Bavaria, being released from all fear of Mansfelt, is leading his army towards the evangelical cantons. He believes this news because he has heard something of the arrangement of a truce at Brussels for nine months between the house of Austria and the Palatine, The Ambassador Lando left here yesterday evening.
Turin, the 11th August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Aug. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
556. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Count of Mansfelt has entered French territory. The blow is severely felt. The Duke of Lorraine, to escape greater ills, has supplied him with provisions. The suspicion increases here that England has a hand in this. They know that the Count is negotiating with the Spaniards.
Besiers, the 11th August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Aug. 12.
Senato.
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
557. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Doncaster has returned from his embassy in France. He went at once to the king in the country so it has not been possible to visit him yet. I understand that he brings little more than his letters related. The Most Christian is far from thinking of peace and determined to exterminate the Huguenots, chiefly through the instigation of Condé. They have no small fear of succour from this quarter, and the king there shows little respect for the one here either in deed or word. I hear something, though it may not come from him, that Soubise is in ill odour with the Huguenots, and they would be sorry to see him again in command of troops.
A few days after Doncaster's arrival his secretary arrived, who remained behind and went to Sedan to pay his respects to the Palatine. It was thought that he might remain in France, as with the return of the ordinary Ambassador Arbort no other minister remains there for this crown. But apparently they do not at present think of sending Arbort back or replacing him by another, with this threat of an open breach.
Four days ago in referring to Mansfeld his Majesty spoke in such a way as to show that he had some foreknowledge of his decision about entering France. News has since arrived of his having entered, and in addition to other respects it is clear that the opulence of the country, the ease of the pass, and the security of intelligence may easily have induced him to take the step. A leading nobleman in conversing with me on the subject remarked that as a minister of your Serenity I might know more of Mansfeld's purposes than others, suggesting that it had occurred by your advice or connivance. This idea may have originated with some malignant person although passed on to me by a friendly one. I thought fit to reply that Mansfeld was loyal to his employers, but at present he was free and acting for himself, guided only by his own counsels and requirements. He was not under the orders of your Serenity, who, for your own interests, would have preferred to see him nearer in the Valtelline and you desired in France that peace from which you hoped for the benefits that others pursue in war.
His Majesty has sent back in haste Schomberg, the nobleman who came in the Palatine's name to bring word of his withdrawal to Sedan, committing himself and all his hopes to his Majesty. He bears letters for his master praising this decision and renewed promises of his Majesty either to lose himself together with him, or to restore him to his dominions.
Meanwhile letters with bad news have reached the king from the Palatinate. Cordova has taken Germese and Neustadt and was proceeding to Franchendal. They capitulated on terms which were ill observed. To the remonstrances of the king's ministers Cordova replied that he had done nothing except in accordance with his instructions and they would soon see that he had other orders still. The negotiations at Brussels seem changed, and they have referred all decision to the emperor, to whom the Ambassador Chichester must betake himself. Thus to the force of arms they add the deceit of negotiations, and attain a safe acquisition by means of promised restitution.
The kings' commissions which now remain idle at Brussels were never admitted as good by the ministers there, who refuse to give any title to the Palatine and simply call him the king's son-in-law.
The withdrawal of Baden from the Union has not sufficed to save him, as we hear that the Spaniards have recently devastated the whole of his state.
Twenty-seven of the king's ships are nearly quite ready, and one who has seen them tells me so. They are detaining ships every day, and so far may have detained about sixty. Many of those which bring coal from Scotland can be armed easily, but they seem better adapted to carry troops. Money certainly is lacking, and without a parliament it will always be difficult, if not impossible, to provide it. Troops are so numerous that they could soon muster 50,000 men, and I know that the Governor of Dover without leaving his district undertakes to collect 15,000 foot in fourteen days.
Probably some of this preparation is for la Rochelle, though their chief object may be to excite alarm. Some one from Dover has just been to tell me that they hear a great deal of firing, possibly of a fight between the Dutch ships and those of Dunkirk.
The reply given to the representations of the ambassadors of the States to his Majesty about the taking of sailors by the Spanish ambassador, which I reported, was that he had done this without any permission, but they would prevent its execution and already those enlisted have been disbanded. Despite my observation of the facility with which they make and unmake decisions, which I have previously reported, I should think I was mistaken did I not have things from the source, in this particular instance, from the ambassadors themselves, but it seems clear to me that this variation aims at avoiding a declaration for any one and to remain neutral with all, which is one of the chief secrets of the policy of this government. I pray heaven that it may prove useful to them.
London, the 12th August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Aug. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
558. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Every day of late English soldiers have been deserting in more numerous groups than before, as many as forty at a time, some even coming on here to the Hague. In particular an ensign has fled from Spinola's camp and some other officers of the same nation. Two Italian companies also intended to desert, but Spinola heard of it and hanged their captains.
The two ships of Dunkirk are still blockaded in Scotland by Dutch men-of-war.
The States have learned with sorrow that two hundred sailors have been enlisted in England for the King of Spain. They do not know what to say about that monarch as he grants all that the Spaniards can ask to their prejudice.
They also lament and take it much to heart, that their ambassadors with his Majesty cannot finish their business, as what is arranged one day is upset the next. They do not think it wise to recall the ambassadors, as the king might consider it an insult.
The Scottish captain taken at the enterprise of Count Henry of Berg has been released on promising to send a proper ransom. (fn. 2)
The Hague, the 15th August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Aug. 17.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
559. Sig. Vait Ferens, sent by the Count of Mansfelt, came into the Cabinet and said:
The count has proved his fidelity; he was the only one to do anything at Prague, and he has since operated successfully in the Upper and Lower Palatinate. But now the Kings of England and Spain and the emperor have made these affairs a matter of negotiation. The Palatine has dismissed the count with all his forces at the request of the king his father, who would deprive him of any further assistance if he disobeyed, whilst it is impossible to keep even a hundred soldiers together in Germany now against the wishes of the Austrians. The count has gone with the men to Lorraine, where he can keep them for four or five weeks. He sends to know if you wish to have him alone, or the whole or a part of his men, and in the latter case how many. He asks the republic not to believe those who question his fidelity.
Councillor Nicolo Contarini replied, thanking the count and promising to send an answer.
[Italian.]
Aug. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
560. With regard to the office passed by the English ambassador in the Cabinet about permitting Colonel Peyton to go and fight in the Grisons, if the ambassador's secretary prefers any further request, our Savio alla Scrittura shall tell him that in the midst of the present disturbances our republic cannot deprive herself of her soldiers, among whom we value the colonel highly, and therefore we cannot gratify his desire.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 0.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
Aug. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
561. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On Tuesday in this week they celebrated as usual the discovery of the Gowrie conspiracy against his Majesty. A gentleman involved in this, after eighteen years' imprisonment (fn. 3) and Sir [Edward] Cuch put in the Tower for affairs of the last parliament, received their freedom, among the favours of the day. The ceremonies consist of drinking and in making merry as they call it. Only the Spanish ambassador was invited and took part. He called the king to drink the health of Donna Maria, the name of the promised bride. His Majesty answered that he had anticipated it, but with all his respect for the ladies he would not rise at the name of one destined to be his daughter by marriage. The ambassador replied by assuring him that it would certainly take place.
The king has issued a general order throughout the realm that all lay Catholics shall be released from prison and that the ecclesiastics shall also go free, (fn. 4) with the usual obligation of leaving the country. I understand that his Majesty would even consent to allow them all to remain if only the Jesuits were excepted. The king fears these and they are hated by the other religious, but are so well supported both within and without the kingdom that nothing to their prejudice would be allowed even though it might prove to the advantage of religion. Hitherto, for their own purposes, they have opposed the marriage, but now they seem to have changed their original opinion. Recently some officials who are accustomed to go through the kingdom every year to convict and detect the Catholics, went to the king before starting, to receive his commands. They received from him an oracular response, on the one hand leaving them their customary authority, on the other restraining it to little or nothing. One recognises that all this is done in favour of the marriage, and certainly the Catholic religion has never been practised in this realm so freely as at present; but probably this will not satisfy the Spaniards, as it amounts to nothing and may all be revoked in a moment, unless supported by a decree of the parliament (si conosce che tutto cio vien fatto in gratia del matrimonio, et è certo che mai la religion catolica in questo regno s'esercilò più liberamente di quello si fa al presente. Ma si puo credere che a Spagnoli non basti perche tutto è nulla o rivocabile in un punto, senza decreto del Parlamento).
It is announced at court that the Spaniards have obtained from Rome a bull permitting the marriage, but my informant who said he had seen a copy, observed that under a show of complete liberty there were stringent conditions.
Soubise has taken leave of his Majesty and is about to depart. The return of Doncaster, the reports of Mansfelt and the decisions in this quarter have moved him to return to France. They say he leaves neither wholly satisfied nor wholly dissatisfied. He takes some money rather as a private gift than for his general service.
He certainly got some troops to go, but not nearly enough for the needs of the Huguenots, though sufficient to offend the French. Two of the king's ships, (fn. 5) well armed, are taking him, accompanied by three of la Rochelle. The French ambassador told the Secretary Calvert that if his king's ships met them they could do none other than fight the enemy where they found him. I hear that ships are already prepared for this stroke. It might perhaps be easier for them to forbear here than for the others across the water to abstain. Meanwhile the king is relieved from a goad in his side which he could not help finding troublesome.
An English ship containing many French gentlemen and some English was stopped on its way to la Rochelle by the French ships; all were taken and sent to the galleys. The French ambassador keeps complaining strongly to the king that contrary to the promises given and to all right, they continue to incite the rebels from this quarter, a thing they would not do with his rebels.
The king finds himself divided between the promises and declarations he has given and his obligations and interests with the Huguenots, his advice being always neutral. He speaks with two tongues and always acts differently from himself. He frequently laments the harsh action of the French king but at present yields to the demands of his ambassador at whose instance he has issued orders that no one shall leave here. While he thinks this will suffice to keep him straight with the ambassador he wishes his subjects to realise that the orders are merely for show and they may have complete freedom. Here they have learned with disgust and amazement that Lesdiguieres has become a Catholic. (fn. 6) I do not know whether it is desirable or credible that Mansfeld has entered France. We know that the Dutch are inviting him to proceed to Flanders upon certain conditions. I enclose a copy of a letter in which Mansfield asks for provisions from the Duke of Lorraine and a way through. But the Secretary Calvert told me he heard that Cordova, leaving the Palatinate, had started to follow Mansfield. In speaking of the Catholic forces which were in the Palatinate a short while ago, he remarked, what is difficult to believe though I report it to your Serenity, that there were over 40,000 soldiers.
The Infanta of Flanders has sent the king a present of two fine mules. The Spanish ambassador has presented the Prince of Wales with a jennet and given some things to the favourite. By such means, which are beyond private resources, they insinuate themselves to obtain what they want in this court.
The Ambassador Weston at Brussels seems very anxious to return. Apparently they propose to send in his place a Councillor named Sergiam.
A gentleman of the King of Denmark has arrived here. He says he comes on his own affairs, although some believe he has been sent by that king. He says that his master has gone to Norway to hold a parliament there.
The depredations of the pirates of Algiers weigh heavily upon the merchants here, owing to the quantity of booty lost and the large number of their men made slaves. The king, as I wrote, resents their agreement with the Dutch, although he has never said a word about it to the ambassadors here. Some women, wives of men made slaves at Algiers, have knelt before the prince and besought him with tears for some remedy in their misfortune. They obtained fair words from him, not without remark of him and to the amazement of those who observed him (dal qual ne pur ripportarono buone parole non senza nota di lui e con stupore di chi l'osservo). Meanwhile the usual trade with the Turks proceeds steadily. A ship has gone to Syria; they think of lading another for Constantinople. One of the merchants told me that the last letters thence report that since the death of the late Sultan they have sold more in four days than they did in six months before, owing to the commodity of money obtained from the troops there. The same merchant added that they send scores of thousands of their cloth to those parts every year. They have renewed the order here very stringently, against exporting non-manufactured wool.
Orders have been issued for making the musters throughout the realm with more diligence than usual, and that the rolls be sent out clearly. The Earl of Arundel has injured his head by a fall from his coach and lies in some danger of his life.
His Majesty has favoured me with the usual permission to hunt the deer, giving me a special and courteous invitation.
London, the 19th August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.562. Copy of letter from the Count of Mansfelt to his Highness of Lorraine.
Requests passage for his troops through to France. Sends notice because his soldiers are rather out of hand for lack of payment. The duke's subjects should take their valuables to a place of safety, and he should garrison his strong places. His army consists of 15,000 foot and 10,000 horse. If sufficient provisions are not provided he will not be able to prevent his men from foraging on their own account.
From the camp before Zaverne.
[French.]
Aug. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Candia.
Venetian
Archives.
563. ZACCARIA MORESINI to the DOGE and SENATE.
Sends advices about the Turkish fleet by this English ship, with enclosure.
Corfu, the 9th August, 1622, old style.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.564. Interrogation of Captain Richard Ripera of the English berton Gionatà.
Left Lisbon some seven weeks ago, with a cargo of sugar, brazil wood, pepper and cinnamon for Venice. At Minorca saw six galleons, said to be Turks, but heard afterwards they were of Naples and were going towards San Luca. In the waters of Messina saw seven galleys, one flying the white cross. Heard there were thirty galleys in Sicily in addition to these. They included galleys of the Pope, Florence, Spain, Malta and Naples. Did not hear whether this fleet was to sail soon, only that the seven cruised about from time to time. Did not know if they were going against the Turks or elsewhere. Remained four days at Majorca but heard nothing fresh. Heard nothing of the Turkish fleet because did not go that way. Asked if in Lisbon they were collecting troops to send to Italy or Flanders, replied, he had heard nothing except that the fleet which sailed every year had also sailed this. Going to start for Venice directly.
[Italian.]
Aug. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
565. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
His Majesty's ambassador in England has sent distasteful news by a gentleman, that Soubise by connivance will have forces to invade this kingdom. They seem to fear that the Huguenots of those provinces may join Mansfeld.
Aigues Mortes, the 20th August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Aug. 20.
Misc. Cod.
No. 61.
Venetian
Archives.
566. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Now that Mansfelt has evacuated the empire it appears that the Spaniards propose to restore the Palatine's dominions if not to him at least to his sons, and going from what the Catholic ambassador here says. When asked if the Catholic would help Bavaria to keep the electorate he answered they must first see whether Saxony would consent, as if not, his king could not have his hands full in so many parts; but even if he agreed it was much more necessary that the King of England should consent, because he claims restitution and declares that if it does not follow he will take arms, in which case his master would be obliged to unite with that sovereign, because he could not possibly be engaged in Flanders, in the empire and in Italy. Nevertheless it is persistently reported that the congress will reassemble on the 1st of October.
The emperor himself has suggested to the Catholic ambassador here a marriage between his eldest son and the Infanta of Spain, and has ordered his ambassador at that court to make the same offer to the king. It is thought to be all contrived to help the negotiations with England, alarm him about the marriage, and enable the Spaniards to go on with what they have in hand, to their manifest advantage, as they are well acquainted with the character of that king.
Vienna, the 20th August, 1622. Copy.
[Italian.]
Aug. 22.
Consiglio d. X.
Criminale.
Venetian
Archives.
567. In the COUNCIL OF TEN.
That Girolamo Vano of Salo and Domenico son of Zuanne of Venice, detained by order of Inquisitors of State, be committed to the said inquisitors for the things said, read and reported.
Ayes, 14.Noes, 1.Neutral, 0.
Before it was read the oath of secrecy was imposed on the Council.
[Italian.]
Aug. 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
568. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The States remain on the defensive. The Count of Bergh remains near Goch, where the Prince of Orange cannot attack him. The Spaniards push on their works at Berghen op Zoom.
On Tuesday night the Italians surprised the quarters of the English and Scots and soon captured two demi lunes, but the defenders rallied and drove them out. A truce was arranged to bury the dead. It is said that the defenders only lost about 100 slain with many wounded, but the Italians had numerous wounded and 5 to 600 slain by the cannon fired from the English quarters. Four English captains were mortally wounded and Colonel Henderson, a Scot, had his thigh broken by a musket ball. (fn. 7) He was brought here on Friday evening in a very dangerous condition, from constant fever. The States would be sorry to lose him as he is a capable and valiant soldier.
Spinola told two Scottish gentlemen, who went to his camp out of curiosity, that he was determined to take the fortress.
The Hague, the 22nd August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Aug. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
569. To the Ambassador in England.
We had the first news of Mansfelt's departure last week. God grant that the consequences be not what we have always predicted. We already hear that the Spaniards have invaded the Palatinate, capturing some places which had the shadow of England's flag, and that they are preparing to attempt Franchendal. The English agent at Turin has agreed with the duke there and with all good men, in perceiving the harm done by Mansfelt's departure from Germany, and the much greater harm done by the disbanding of his troops, and to divert such results he made various representations at that Court to a gentleman of the count who has since come on to us. We send you copies of his negotiations with us and of our reply.
As regards the electorate of the Palatine, the intrigues and hopes of Bavaria continue, while the promise to the pope has been confirmed. Father Hyacinth asserts in the Imperial Court that he has the will of the Spaniards in hand so long as he negotiates about the title only; from past events one may fear the opening of the most pernicious intrigues after the sudden dissolution of the forces of Bohemia.
With the retaking of Raetia the affairs of the Grisons seemed hopeful, but now the forces of Leopold and Feria are not diverted. The situation calls for speedy help to maintain the country from every person interested. We have done our utmost so far and shall continue to exert ourselves, and this has helped to bring matters to their present state, but we wish that the other interested parties would consider the importance of the matter and co-operate while there is time, as if those people fail now they are lost for ever.
We send you all these particulars for information, knowing how prudently you will use them in our interests. We have paid 300 ducats to your agents for extraordinary expenses for couriers and the carriage of letters, for which you will render account in the usual way.
Ayes, 88.Noes, 4.Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
Aug. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Acrhives.
570. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassadors of the States recently came to call upon me, as is customary where good relations exist. They styled me Excellency and I spoke to them in the third person. They told me, what I had heard something of, that their negotiations with the Council were broken off owing to differences about restoring property taken on either side. The Dutch, so they say, claim equal conditions of time, place and circumstance and mutual restitution on both sides. The English do not agree, claiming an advantage and that the terms of restitution to them must be made first, and they will afterwards treat about what they will do for the Dutch. This point is the only one in dispute, and, as I have already advised, it involves about 50,000 reals, and the negotiations were broken off.
The ambassadors and Council have separately referred their arguments to his Majesty. But he says he cannot decide the question upon this separate information and has determined to hear them together. This should take place within about twelve days when the king approaches the city. The ambassadors feel confident in their case and that he cannot fail to decide in their favour, as they say he has done previously in other disputes with the English.
However it is certain, and they admitted as much to me, there will be no lack of opposition to their cause in this Court. The party of their opponents, the rivalry in shipping and trade and the Spanish faction, especially just now, may do much to their prejudice. Accordingly I remarked that it was to be feared that even the king's mind might not remain uncontaminated by these influences and induce him to form an opinion against them, which it would be bad to accept and even worse to refuse. They answered that they relied with confidence upon the uprightness of their cause and the king's integrity, while the judgment was to be of the nature of a composition not of a decision. I contented myself with some observations which I had made and reported before, concluding that nothing was more desirable than to settle the business. They remarked that as the matter concerned private interests and pure justice, it was not altogether proper to appeal to reasons of state, and moreover in the numerous differences with this nation, if they yielded once it would prejudice them for ever, but in any case, and they repeated this many times, once the question was settled it would be for good.
The affair makes a great stir in the city. An open rupture was announced and even the dismissal of the ambassadors. I know that this rumour was supported from the Spanish embassy, and I have discovered that the Spaniards are not without suspicion that under cover of this commercial business the ambassadors are staying here for more important affairs. This suspicion may not displease the king and it serves his ends.
From the enclosed copy your Serenity will see the manner in which his Majesty orders the release of the Catholics, of which I wrote before. It was also ordained, although this has not yet been executed, that the archbishop of Canterbury should forbid the preachers here to attack the Roman faith or enlarge upon any disputes and disagreements with the Catholic church. I hear that they also propose to confine to Sundays only the preaching which is now so frequent through the week. Although all these things afford great joy to the Catholics and seem to promise the marriage, they incense the others to a remarkable degree and may possibly sow the seeds of a civil war (tutte cose che sicome ralegrano i Catolici e pare che promittino il matrimonio cosi accendono a meraviglia gli animi degli altri e forse possono riuscire semi d'una guerra civile). There do not lack those who say, as a leading councillor did, that these demonstrations in favour of the Catholics are not from any hope the king has of the conclusion of the marriage, since he knows that is far off, but in order that after he has done everything that can possibly be expected of him, the dishonest proceedings of the Spaniards may be exposed the better, and his wrath against them justified. It is hard to believe that this may prove the correct interpretation; certainly the king's mind is hidden, the negotiations secret and open to very few. I know however that the visit of the favourite to Mora, (fn. 8) sometime the prince's secretary, who was dismissed with Naunton at the instance of the Spanish ambassador in his country house, with unusual marks of friendliness has led some of the courtiers to infer that the marriage negotiations are about to fall through, as the visit shows that a minister of the opposite party may rise again. The visit certainly took place, though the reasons remain obscure, but men's opinions generally follow their wishes.
Some religious have arrived in this kingdom, sent by the new congregation at Rome to propagate the faith (de augenda fide). Their numbers increase hourly with the growth of liberty in the kingdom. The ordinary alms are less however while they have to be divided among more people, so there is dissatisfaction, as I know by experience.
I have received your Serenity's letters of the 23rd ult., including the reply to the gentleman of the Margrave of Baden; also the letter for his Majesty. About the negotiations of the Palatinate we hear nothing. They are bound up with the marriage negotiations, and are expected here to follow their course.
The French ambassador in discussing with me the report that Mansfeld had entered France said he could not believe he had taken any such resolve, as he would not only involve himself with the French crown but would lose the support of your Serenity. I made a suitable reply similar to what I have said to others, as I have reported.
London, the 26th August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
571. His Majesty having decided for important reasons of State and because he expects the like of foreign princes and professors of our religion, to grant his favour and countenance to the Papists of this realm detained in prison, has ordered the issue of two writs under the great seal, requiring the judges of each county to set at liberty the aforesaid prisoners in accordance with the contents of those writs.
I have to give notice on his Majesty's behalf that his royal will is that after the receipt of these writs no niceness or difficulties shall be made about the said Papists enjoying this favour, whom you find imprisoned, for refusing to go to church, for refusing the oath of supremacy, for possessing or disseminating Papistical books, for the Mass or for any other point of religion alone or which is not entirely civil or political. (fn. 9)
[Italian.]
Aug. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
572. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have heard in a most secret way that Cardinal Borgia told the pope he had letters from the King of England, recommending to him the matter of the marriage alliance and asking him to undertake some correspondence here. But the pope gave him no particular reply. Borgia said that if it took place he thought his Majesty would send him to accompany his sister, in which case he hoped his Holiness would supply him with briefs. Well informed people here consider that marriage a chimera and an invention of the Spaniards, merely to dazzle that king with hopes with which they accomplish their ends. Here in Rome they only want the negotiations to keep up appearances, and in the end they can easily find pretexts for a refusal, saying they could not obtain the dispensation, just as they promised England the Palatinate and the electoral vote, while at the same time they agreed to give them to Bavaria at the pope's request. The object of the Spaniards is always negotiation, as they profit thereby.
Rome, the 27th August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Aug. 27.
Misc. Cod.
No. 61.
Venetian
Archives.
573. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English resident has received instructions by express courier from his king to remonstrate strongly with Cæsar, that after promising that the deputies at Brussels would deal with the case on its merits after the withdrawal of the forces from the Palatinate or the making of an armistice, yet now that his son-in-law has gone to Sedan, and Mansfelt has evacuated the empire with all his forces, not only have they omitted to withdraw their forces from the Palatinate, but instead of treating in conformity with the promise given at Brussels, they have intimated the meeting of a congress, contrary to the intentions which he had. The resident spoke at length to Cæsar on the subject. The emperor replied that he had not failed in his promise, because upon the question of an armistice the infanta had full powers and they ought to treat with her. He left everything in her hands, although Mansfelt continued his hostilities. He could not stop the congress because it was already announced and all the electors had promised to come. The king should not take this ill, because the negotiations would have the greater weight if his king sent his representatives, as he had asked him to do. The resident was not satisfied with this reply and immediately sent back the courier to inform his master of what is taking place and how little they must expect from this quarter. (fn. 10)
Vienna, the 27th August, 1622. Copy.
[Italian.]
Aug. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
574. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
News arrived on Monday from Berghen that on the night of the 20th the Italians made a fresh attack on the English and Scottish quarters, trying a different way, and entered the two demi lunes but were again driven out with 400 slain, the English and Scots losing fifteen, there being many wounded on both sides. The Spaniards are trying their utmost to take the place. They have got little more than a pike's length from the English and Scottish quarters, but are a long way from the town. Firing is constant on both sides. There are about 6,000 to 7,000 foot in the fortress and some 8,000 scattered about the forts. The last troops to enter were about twelve companies under Colonel Charles Morgan, an Englishman, sent by Prince Maurice to take Henderson's place, who died on Tuesday night after finally arranging his affairs, made his will and drank to the health of the King of Great Britain, the King and Queen of Bohemia, the States, Prince Maurice, Prince Henry and Count Ernest of Nassau, commending to God all those who were present and invoking the same for the princes aforesaid, the English ambassador and all his friends. He asked that his brother might have his regiment. In all this action, which happened within half an hour of his death he showed courage. He recommended his soul to God and they say he displayed great piety in his Calvinist faith.
One of Prince Maurice's natural sons accompanied Colonel Morgan, and many express a desire to go to the siege, but his Excellency will not deprive himself of everybody.
An English gentleman who arrived here from Bergh yesterday evening reports that some small action takes place every day, but so far everything is in very good train for the States.
I hear that the States are advised this morning by letters from Bergh that the enemy has received a reinforcement of English to the number of 1,700. This has caused a great deal of feeling here, notwithstanding other advices that the King of Great Britain has resolved not to allow any more levies to be made in his kingdom, because they see themselves excluded by the neutrality which that sovereign seems inclined to declare and they do not know what they may expect from his friendship, especially as their ambassadors cannot settle their negotiations after so long a time.
The Hague, the 29th August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Aug. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
575. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The messenger has reached Brussels with full powers for the Ambassador Weston. The king simply calls the Palatine his son. This has satisfied the Spaniards for the time being, and now they should begin their negotiations. The outcome is awaited with curiosity.
The States General have issued a rigorous edict to lower the price of gold and silver money, both native and foreign, which kept increasing, particularly in the Provinces of Holland, and especially the English Jacobus, which has been reduced from 12 florins 12 piacchi, at which they stood, or 37 lire 16 soldi of current Venetian money to 11 florins 8 piacchi, that is to say 24 piacchi less or 3 lire 12 soldi of current Venetian money, and other values have been reduced in proportion, with no small murmuring and discontent among the people.
The Hague, the 29th August, 1622.
[Italian.]
Aug. 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
576. ALVISE CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador Digby has had a long and dangerous illness and therefore the negotiations of his embassy have not been pursued. They must be taken up again, as in particular he will ask for the nomination of those who are to conduct the negotiations with him about the marriage, and from this it would appear that he believes they are ready to conclude it.
Madrid, the 31st August, 1622.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 "On Wednesday last an English corporal of my Lord of Argyle's regiment with a whole squadron rendered themselves with their arms for which, besides want and ill payment they gave this reason that they were abused in the leaving of England with the name of the Low Countries, they imagining to come to the States' service, when they were carried to the other side." Carleton to Calvert, the 2nd August, 1622, old style. State Papers. Foreign: Holland.
2 Sir William Balfour who subsequently led the parliamentary horse at Edgehill. "At a cavalry skirmish between Cleve and the Prince of Orange's camp near Skinscone on Saturday, the 27th inst., in which Duke Weimar of Saxony and Sir William Balford were both taken owing to their horses falling." Carleton to Calvert, the 30th July, 1622, old style. State Papers. Foreign: Holland.
3 Patrick Ruthven, the Earl of Gowrie's brother who fled to England the day after the tragedy (Lang: James VI. and the Gowrie Mystery, page 124); according to Chamberlain he was released on the 1/11 of this month. Coke was liberated on Thursday, the 18th. Birch: Court and Times of James I., ii, page 326.
4 The Lord Keeper issued orders to the Judges for their enlargement on the 2/12 August, Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23 page 436.
5 The Garland and Adventure. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, pages 441, 517, 518.
6 He was offered the constableship of France on condition that he became a Catholic. The ceremony took place with great pomp at Grenoble, on the 25th July, 1622. Bazin. Hist de France sous Lovis XIII, vol. ii, page 97.
7 Antony Stafford sent an account to Carleton on the 8th August o.s. of this affair, which took place two days before. The attack was made on a new work, only just completed, and the English troops were weary with overwatching, as they were doing duty 3 and 4 nights together. The assault lasted 5 hours, the work being thrice taken and retaken, and finally abandoned by both sides. Besides Henderson, Capt. Carey was shot through the body, Capt. Killegrey in the arm, Lieut. Blundell had 5 wounds and Sir Michael Everard was shot through the shoulder. State Papers, Foreign: Holland. Everard died before the end of the month (Carleton to Calvert 22 Aug., ibid.), the rest, except Henderson, seem to have recovered.
8 Thomas Murray.
9 Issued by the Lord Keeper to the judges. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, page 436.
10 Simon Digby's despatch upon those matters is preserved among the State Papers, Foreign: Germany (Empire), and dated the 14th August, old style.