Venice
September 1622, 2-10

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1911

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401-414

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'Venice: September 1622, 2-10', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 401-414. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88840 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


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September 1622

Sept. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
577. To the Ambassador in England.
If the news which our Ambassador Moresini sends us from Lyons of the route of Mansfelt is true it will have reached England earlier than these presents, and they will have recognised that it would have been better not to enter upon negotiations, and not to interrupt the prosperous course of arms until complete advantage and safety have been attained. The news that reaches us is that Tilly and Cordova united and struck the blow and that the count has taken refuge at Mozon in France, his forces being scattered, and has asked the Most Christian to allow him to collect his men there. Hostilities continue in the Palatinate, and we hear on good authority of the capture of the three remaining fortresses there.
We hear from Rome of fresh negotiations about the Spanish marriage by Cardinal Borgia, with some other motives. We send you a copy.
Your letters reach us week by week; the last are of the 5th inst., and are most useful touching the essentials of the proceedings in those parts. We direct your attention to this end in sending news.
Ayes, 140.Noes, 3.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Sept. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
578. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
My predecessor's diligence did not quite complete the affair of the recovered guns, though he did his part, because in the arrangement with the divers the cost of getting the bronze taken to the Arsenal was deducted from the public share, but allowed to them for the iron ones as a reward for their labours. Although the royal licence was obtained for taking it away it could never be carried into effect owing to the difficulties raised by the ministers here. My predecessor and I spoke about this to the Marquis of Buckingham, the Lord High Admiral, and afterwards doubts were expressed as to whether the pieces to be taken out were the same as those recovered. Although the identity was fully proved by witnesses and I have petitioned again, the matter is not accomplished. I know the natural tardiness of this Court and that a free release is repugnant to certain private interests of the admiral, but as the matter is public both naturally and by the king's promise, even though it may injure private interests, I consider it my duty to obtain a proper issue and to extricate your Serenity from the difficulties interposed.
Many of the English enlisted by the Spaniards to serve in Flanders have returned and a large number have entered the service of the Dutch. In many actions which took place Englishmen found themselves opposed to their countrymen. This was possibly owing to Spanish arts, exciting the detestation of right-minded people here, who hate the leave granted for this levy.
Tilly's troops in the Palatinate remain quartered near the fortresses which still remain to the Palatine and neither allow the garrisons to come out nor help to enter in. Pleading his own needs he commandeers all the provisions, producing the effects of a siege, and without great show of injury will straiten them so that they must soon fall. They recognise the danger here but employ no other remedy except to urge on the negotiations for an armistice. But by a circular movement of protests and delays they revolve round the fixed point of concluding nothing. Weston writes that they are expecting orders from Brussels and on their arrival they promise themselves the end desired. The Secretary Calvert tells me he is rather afraid that the Spaniards contemplate bringing the whole business before the diet at Ratisbon, which has been postponed until next month. They will do everything possible to prevent this, however, as they recognise the disadvantages since Bavaria and the Catholics would have the upper hand there. Once an armistice was arranged they feel sure that the restitution of the Palatinate would follow with the conclusion of the marriage. The hopes for the latter seem ever greater here. Digby's health has improved, and with the arrival of Gondomar, highly esteemed at the Court, they have news by a courier from Spain that matters are going very well. They expect to settle every point so that the bride may cross in the spring. This may mean that there is no need to hurry over the present negotiations as they will be obliged to await that season better suited for effecting the marriage. The usual promises about restoring the Palatinate are repeated. Someone told me that in Spain they are asking for some better guarantee of the prince's desire for this marriage.
His Majesty is aware that the pope has been strongly urged to nominate four bishops in this realm and that he inclines to make two, and as one of these they mention Father Maestro who resided here a long while and proceeded to Rome on the subject of the marriage. This news has caused the king no little annoyance, as he imagines that they might give the new bishops the titles of the bishoprics of this realm. Accordingly he has made a remonstrance on the subject to the Spanish ambassador, who has escaped with his usual tricks, protesting that he knows nothing about it.
The Jesuits, fearing that through this marriage something to their prejudice might be concluded in this kingdom, owing to the hatred the king bears them, have sent one Gazi from Rome to Spain to obtain favour and recommend their interests at that Court, with a false report that he was going to England. They fear Gondomar owing to differences which they have had with him here, but they are quite friendly with the present Ambassador Colonna.
The Archbishop of Canterbury has ordained the king's will upon what I wrote in my last and I enclose a copy of what the Bishop of London has commanded in his diocese in execution of this, although I understand that in a sermon delivered before the king a few days ago the preacher expressed dissatisfaction with these proceedings and referring to the Gunpowder Plot said of the Catholics opera illorum ignea. Soubise on leaving received a present of 15,000 crowns in cash and took with him arms for 2,000 soldiers. Men are continually passing from here to la Rochelle but only by connivance.
The French ambassador, who came to call upon me to-day, told me of his hopes of peace in that kingdom upon which the constable is negotiating with Rohan, and said that the Most Christian desired it in order to proceed to Lyons and attend to the Valtelline. He told me many things about that kingdom which it does not concern me to report, but I remarked something extraordinary about this office of his. He added that Mansfelt would certainly come to an agreement with the Most Christian.
The king has appointed Tuesday next for the audience of the Dutch ambassadors. God grant that it may pass favourably and not be put off and in a reasonable fashion with due regard for the political situation.
The Ambassador Wotton has sent a servant here upon his private affairs, upon which he is uneasy.
I have received your Serenity's letters of the 30th July about the disputed road. At last the paper has reached me about the marriage touching the negotiations for the dispensation at Rome. It is enclosed.
London, the 2nd September, 1622.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
579. Condiciones oblatae ex Anglia.
(1) Quod matrimonium proferendum est per dispensationem Papae sed haec procuranda est per operam Regis Hispaniae, qui super verbo Regis fidem daturus est Regii Magnae Britanniae si facturum quod possibile est ut Papae dispensatio procuretur.
(2) Quod matrimonium celebrandum est in Hispania et in Anglia: in Hispania secundum formam Ecclesiae Romanae et in Anglia secundum omnes ceremonias quae Regi Magnae Britanniae convenientes videbuntur, modo nullae sint quae contradicant religioni Dominae Infantae, sed de hoc formula statuenda est quomodo sit hic et illie perficiendum. Matrimonium semel tantum celebrandum est in Hispania; verum si aliquae solemintates in Anglia sint faciendae declaretur formula solemnizationis, faciendae in Anglia.
(3) Quod Serma Infta habebit et habitura erit liberum usum et publicum exercitium religionis Catholicae in modo et forma prout infra capitulatum est.
(4) Quod Serma Dñ a Infta servos et familiam secum habitura est per electione et nominationem fratris sui Sermi Regis Hispaniae, modo Rex nullum servum nominaverit qui fuerit vassallus Regis Magnae Britanniae sine sua voluntati et consensu.
(5) Quod habebit decens Oratorium in suo Palatio, ubi Missae celebrari possint pro libito Sermae D. Inftae et quod hoc Oratorium est adornandum cum tali decentia. Habebit et ecclesiam publicam Londini et ubi Serma Dña Infta morabitur et utrobique omnia officia divina celebrentur, verbum Dei predicetur et sacramenta ministrentur quae Serenismae Dominae convenientia videbuntur. In dicto Oratoria vel Capella quod sacerdotibus ejus licebit exercere liberum usum sui sacerdocii prout dicta Ser. Domina ordinaverit.
(6) Quod servi et servae Sermae Dom. Inf. et servi servorum et omnes pertinentes ad familiam suam esse Catolici liberi quod non tam est intelligendum, ut quicumque servus fuerit, obligetur, ut servus esse Catholicus.
(7) Quod servi supradicti qui fuerint Catholici, possint ita liberi esse in forma sequenti.
(8) Quod Serma Dom. Inf. habebit in Palatio vel contiguam palatio unam Capellam tam capacem ut dicti servi Catholici possint intrare et commorari in illa, in qua sit una porta publica et ordinaria per quam servi supradicti possint intrare et altera porta interior de palatio per quam Serma Dom. Inf. possit intrare in dictam Capellam audire et celebrare officium quod Ser. Dom. Inf. habebit in Palatio unam Capellam tam capacem ut dicti servi et familiares ut supra possint commorari in illo et entrare, in qua una sit porta publica et ordinaria per quam ii possint intrare, et alia interior per quam Ser. Dom. Inf. habeat ingressum in dictam Capellam ubi ipsa et alii ut supra divinis officiis possint interesse. Quod servi et servae Ser. Dom. Inf. et servi servorum eorum filii et dependentes at familiares omnes quomodo cunque inservientes debeant omnino esse Catholici liberi. Quod servi et familiares supradicti debeant libere esse Catholici in forma sequenti.
(9) Quod ita Capella ornetur cum decenti ornatu Altarum, ornamentorum et aliarum rerum necessarum pro cultu divino qui in ea celebrandus est secundum usum S.R.E. et quod dictis servis licebit se conferre ad dictam Capellam omnibus horis, prout videbitur. Quod ita Capella et Ecclesia publica ornetur cum decenti ornatu Altarium et aliarum rerum quae necessariae sunt pro eo divino qui in illis celebrandus est secundum usum S.R.E. et quod dictis servis et aliis ut supra licebit se conferre ad dictam capellam et ecclesiam omnibus horis, prout illis videbitur.
(10) Quod cura et custodia dictae Capellae erit in manibus Capellanorum dictae Dom. Inf. et ad hoc licebit constituere servum vel servos, ne quis possit intrare ad faciendum quod indecorum in ea. Quod cura et custodia dictae capellae et ecclesiae erit penes eos qui deputabuntur a supradicta Domina cuilibet constituere, ne quis possit intrare ad faciendum quid indecorum in eis.
(11) Quod ad ministrandum sacramenta et serviendum in Capella erit numerus ministrorum qui conveniens videbitur Ser. Dom. Inf. modo tale numerum non excedat, et isti ministri nominabuntur per supra dictam Dominam modo non sint Vassalli Regis M. Brit. aut si fuerint cum sua voluntate et consensu. Quod ad ministrandum sacramenta et serviendum in Capella et Ecclesia predictis erit numerus ministrorum qui conveniens videbiter Ser. Dom. Inf. et isti nominabuntur per dictam Ser. Dom. modo non sint vassalli Regis Mag. Brit, aut si fuerint cum voluntate et licentia sua.
(12) Quod sit unus minister superior cum auctoritate necessaria ad omnes casus qui accederint speciales ad Religionem Catholicam. Quod sit unus minister in ordinatione Episcopali constitutus cum auctoritate notoria ad omnes casus qui acciderint spectantes ad Religionem Catholicam.
(13) Quod isti minister superior possit carrigere, emendare et castigare Catholicos qui delinquent potuerit autem supradicta Dom. Inf. de servitio suo abdicare. Quod iste minister supradictus poterit corrigere, emendare et castigare Catholicos qui delinquerint et in illis omnem jurisdictionem Ecclesiae exercere et ultra hoc poterit et Ser. Domina de suo servitio abdicare.
(14) Quod licebit Ser. Dom. Inf. et servis Catholicis acquirere dispensationes indulgentias, jubileos et in eis quod videbitur conscientiis suis competere. Quod licebit Ser. Dom. Inf. et servis suis ut supra acquirere Romae dispensationes indulgentias jubileos et ea omnia quae videbuntur conscientiis suis competere.
(15) Quod Catholici qui in Angliam migrabunt suscipient juramentum fidelitatis Regis Mag. Brit. cum omnibus clausalis et cautionibus quas S. Maj. mandaverit modo nulla sit clausula neque Verbum in dicto juramento quod contradicat Religioni Catholicae. Quod servi et familiares ut supra Ser. Dom. Inf. qui in Angliam migrabunt suscipient juramentum fidelitatis Reg. Mag. Brit. modo nulla sit clausula nec verbum quod contradicat Religioni et conscientiis Catholicis; atque ideo forma juramenti concipiatur per sedem Apostolicam approbanda neque conscientiis Catholicoram quem ad finem forma juramenti concipienda est.
(16) Quod leges qui sunt in Anglia spectantes ad Religionem, dictos servos Catholicos non attingant, qui cum legibus tam paenis transgressionibus eorum impositis, erunt exempti, in quo opus erit videre, quomodo se res habeat. Quod leges quae sunt vel erunt in Anglia spectantes ad religionem, dictos servos et alios, ut supra, Laicos non attingant qui cum legibus, tum paenis contra transgressores impositis erunt exempti. Ecclesiastici vero nullis legibus subjaceant nisi solum ecclesiis superiorum.
(17) Quod leges contra Catholicos late non attingant liberos et hoc matrimonio oriundos, et non ab hoc perdent jus successionis in Regno et dominio Mag. Brit. Quod liberi, et hoc matrimonio oriundi non cogentur neque compellentur in causa Religionis conscientiae neque leges contra Catholicos attingant illos; et in casu si quis eorum fuerit Catholicus non ab hoc perdet jus successionis in Regno et Dominio Mag. Brit.
(18) Quod nutrices quae lactabunt liberos Ser. Dom. Inf. eligantur et admittantur cum consensu dictae Ser Dom. et familiae suae adnumerabuntur. Quod nutrices quae lactabunt liberos Ser. Dom. Inf. sint omnino Catholicae, et a dicta Ser. Dom. eligantur et familiae suae adnumerentur.
(19) Quod personae ecclestiacae Religiosae qui in familia dictae Dom. Inf. poterunt retinere suum vestitum et habitum. Quod Episcopus personae ecclesiasticae et religiosae qui in familia Dom. Inf. poterunt retinere vestitum et habitum dignitatis et professionis more Romano.
(20) Quod poterit castigare illos cum paenis et censuris ecclesiasticis sed non cum poenis temporalibus, poterit autem Ser. Inf. illos de servitio suo abdicare. Quod superis in ordine Episcopali constitutus poterit servos et alios ut supra, Ecclesiasticos punire juxta leges et poenas ecclesiasticas et illos Ser. Inf. a servitio abdicare.
CONDITIONES ADDITAE EX ANGLIA.
Pro securitate quod non dissolvatur matrimonium firmiores obligationes non possunt excogitari, quam re ipsa sunt Religio et Lex Regni cum repudium utrique vel maxime contradicat neque aliud potest adhiberi vinculum quam illud honoris; fiet tamen omne quod decenter et commode fieri potest.
Quamvis pro majori securitate sit oblatum ut tam sponsa quam dos etiam postquam contractum matrimonium retinerentur in Hispania quousque condiciones omnes conventae sint adimpletae, tamen quia quoad repudium vitandum majora vincula requiri videntur, desideratur, quod fieri possit securius.
EX HISPANIA.
(1) Quod declarandum est per Serenissimum Regem Mag. Brit. quae securitas detur quod in nullo casu matrimonium semel factum, possit dissolvi.
(2) Ad eam aetatem ad quam in usu est liberos Regum Mag. Brit. permanere sut regimine mulierum et cura et hoc pro temperamento et valetudine liberorum erit brevius aut longius duraturum. Quod declaretur ad quam aetatem Ser. Dom. Inf. habeat educatorem liberorum ex hoc matrimonio oriundorum.
(3) Servi qui ex Hispania venerint nominabuntur per Regem Catholicum, quotiescunque loci vacaverint. Quod declaretur, quod quandocunque loci servorum vacaverint et servarum quos Ser. Dom. secum attulerit, per Regem Cath. fratrem suum nominatos ipse Ser. Rex Catholicus alios nominabit in loco aliorum quandocunque vacaverint sive moriantur, sive abdicentur secum sive sua sponte venerint.
(4) Pro securitate, quod totum uti est capitulatum compleatur Rex Mag. Brit. et Princeps Vualiae juramento constringendi sunt Consiliarii Regis frastarum Chirographo firmare debent. Rex etiam et Princeps Vualiae verbo Regiam fidem daturi sint, se facturos quod possibile est, aut omnia capitulata per Parlamentum stabiliantur, et quoniam nullam recusat cautionem, cui praestandus animus est, si Rex Hispaniarum, quid aliud addiderit vel proposuit quod congrue et cum honore fieri possit, illud Rex Mag. Brit. perlubens faciet. Quod supradictus Rex Mag. Brit. declaret securitatem, quam potest dare, quod totum, uti est capitulatum inviolabiliter compleatur.
(5) Praesupponitur quod dispensatio Papae procuranda est, antequam quid fiat, uti capitulatum est in primo articulo. Quod praesupponitur priusquam assentiatur et capituletur illud quod visum fuerit circa hoc matrimonium, quod satisfieri et contentari debet Papa.
(6) Quoniam praescriptae condiciones a Rege Mag. Brit. oblatae videntur tantum securitatem Religionis et conscientiae Ser. Inf. et ejus familiorum respicere ad concedendam vero dispensationem petitam, alia requiruntur ad utilitatem, augmentum et magnum aliquod bonum Catholicae et Romanae Religionis spectantia. Haec proponenda erunt a Rege Mag. Brit ut S. D. N. deliberare possit, an talia sint, quae dispensationem suadeant.
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
580. Declaration of his Majesty's will by the Reverend Father in God, John (sic) Bishop of London, to all the clergy of his diocese, the 31st August, 1622.
(1) The clergy shall not meddle with affairs of state touching his Majesty's prerogative.
(2) They shall not ask for what reason his Majesty releases the Catholics of all the realm.
(3) They shall not preach the damnation nor cry out against the pope or any of his sect or any other thing pertaining to him, but simply upon faith and good works.
(4) They shall not give readings or preachings upon working days or preach in private houses, but only in churches and public places, and then only on Sundays and the principal feasts, and once a day only, before dinner.
(5) They shall not venture to interrupt anything whatsoever that the Papists may do such as saying Mass, writing Papistical books or any other ceremonies soever.
(6) They must preach this purpose of his Majesty discreetly to their parishioners.
(7) Finally they must observe all the instructions aforesaid under pain of his Majesty's displeasure.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.581. Declaration of John, Bishop of Lincoln, keeper of the Great Seal.
His Majesty for profound reasons of state and expecting the like from foreign princes for those who profess his religion, desires to show favour and mercy to the imprisoned Papists in his kingdom, and has commanded me to issue an order under the Great Seal to this effect, requiring the judges of every circuit to release the said prisoners in conformity therewith. I have to make known his Majesty's pleasure, and at the receipt of these commands you shall raise no doubt or difficulty about extending his royal favour to all papists whom you find imprisoned for any cause of schism or for having refused the oath of supremacy, circulating popish books, hearing mass or any other point of recusancy concerning religion and not for what seems a civil or political matter.
From the College of Westminster, the 2nd August, 1622.
[Italian].
Sept. 3.
Misc, Cod.
No. 61.
Venetian
Archives.
582. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany to the DOGE and SENATE.
They write from Brussels that as the deputies of the infanta refused to accept the Palatine's proxy because it contained the titles of King of Bohemia and elector, of which they asserted he had been deprived, the English ambassador sent it back and obtained another without any titles whatsoever. As the deputies could not raise any objections against this, yet in order to gain more time they told the English ambassador that before beginning the negotiations it was necessary for them to know whether his king and the Palatine considered Mansfelt as their dependant. The ambassador asked for time to reply and complained that although the Palatine and Mansfelt had left the Palatinate, Cordova kept forces at Neustat and other places pertaining to the princess Palatine and not to her husband, contrary to the promise given to his king. He waxed very warm about this but obtained nothing beyond a formal reply.
I enclose a copy of the letter recently written by the emperor to the King of Breat Britain. Your Excellencies will be interested to see the way in which they speak that king fair without giving him any real satisfaction, while he relies upon the promises previously given to him.
Vienna, the 3rd September, 1622. Copy.
[Italian.]
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
583. Letter of the EMPEROR FERDINAND to the KING OF ENGLAND.
Acknowledges letter of the 8th July, expressing surprise at the report of a diet at Ratisbon. After the armistice was arranged promised to appoint a place for settling a peace. Many difficulties have arisen at Brussels to delay the armistice. Moreover Baden, Mansfelt and Brunswick are in arms against their lawful sovereign, although it was said that the Palatine would humbly submit himself. Thus there seemed little hope of peace, and the best course seemed to be to summon a diet to Ratisbon. Asks king to send representatives to this in the interests of peace. As regards an armistice, the infanta has full powers. (fn. 1)
Dated at Vienna, the 21st August, 1622. Copy.
[Latin.]
Sept. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
584. VALERIO ANTELMI, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Spaniards incline to give satisfaction to England in order to deprive the Dutch of the support of that kingdom, knowing full well from past experience that the help from Germany first and then that of France was not nearly so beneficial to the Dutch as the constant warm support of England, and so the Spaniards will do their utmost to bring affairs in Germany into their pristine state, in order not to make Bavaria more powerful; to divert English help from the Dutch, and to remain quiet in Germany, so that they may devote all their efforts to the affairs of Flanders and Italy.
Florence, the 3rd September, 1622.
[Italian.]
Sept. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
585. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
With the first news of the possibility of Mansfelt making terms the States decided to make new and extensive levies. They sent to England charging the English captains to fill up their companies and enlarge them, although they did not know what to expect seeing that the King of Great Britain had forbidden the levy of any more men in his kingdom. But now with the coming of Mansfelt it is not thought that they will have anything further to do with this levy.
They have no hopes about the negotiations at Brussels. Heidelberg is besieged and notwithstanding the fair promises to the King of Great Britain they expect soon to hear that his forces have been driven out. The English themselves say that they perceive that the Spaniards and the house of Austria are much more anxious to have the Palatinate in their hands than the friendship of the King of Great Britain, and that the King of Spain feels quite sure of gaining more advantage from the fear that monarch has of making war than from his arming against his Catholic Majesty. They also mention and discuss the ill feeling of the people there towards the king's person, and how, if only they had a leader, they could give the king or the kingdom a severe shock. The English themselves here lament in various ways over their race (cosi parlono et discorrono del mal talento che gl'istessi Popoli portano alla persona del Re, et che un solo capo che havessero potrebbe dar un gran scaco o al Re o al Regno; portandosi qui diversi lamenti da gli stessi sudditi Inglesi di quei Popoli).
The Hague, the 5th September, 1622.
[Italian.]
Sept. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
586. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SANATE.
My instructions of the 23rd July stated that from France they had repeatedly dissuaded his Majesty from the truce in the Palatinate. I felt morally certain at the time that such offices had not been passed from that quarter, and this has been confirmed and I have further ascertained that the Ambassador Tillières never received any instructions about this from his court. The French are too intent upon their war against the Huguenots to spare any thought for the Palatinate, and they are too suspicious of this side, not only because they allow persons to go to la Rochelle by connivance but their suspicions also extend to what the king may do for the regulation of the state and religion. Accordingly any pacific thoughts of his in the interests of the Palatine, which are practically his own, might not displease the French, as being an argument of a similar inclination, with better cause, in the affairs of the Huguenots.
The Dutch ambassadors, in conformity with the arrangement which I reported, saw his Majesty at Windsor and negotiated their affairs before him with the Council, the prince also being present. The ambassadors had the advantage over the Council. The matter lasted three hours, at which the king declared himself very tired and went hunting for rest. They arranged an accommodation or rather a compromise of their differences. The details of the treaty are long and difficult to narrate. The ambassadors seem satisfied, although there are indications that they dissimulate their feelings. In fact the advantage rested with the English although with some diminution of their first claims. Many proofs remain to be made on one side and the other which require time and may possibly give rise to new difficulties. For the rest the king showed courtesy to the ambassadors and spoke graciously to them.
I reported that advices from Spain had reached the king, with good news about the marriage and the Palatinate. They have published abroad throughout the whole city that it means the conclusion in one case and restitution in the other. As rumour increases usually in private affairs which are either feared or desired. The publication in English of a book formerly printed in Latin, in praise of the marriage, coinciding with this news, may possibly have encouraged the popular rumour and belief. (fn. 2) It is certain that the last dispatches from that quarter encourage hope, and the king seems to believe and rejoice, but the reality remains doubtful to those who know most about it. Judging by the customs and practices of princes the two sovereigns are playing with each other with intent to deceive. Possibly the king here enjoys such negotiations, allowing him to temporise in the continuance of the peace to which he is so fanatically devoted, and under that pretext escaping from the obligation to arm.
Meanwhile he does not despair of the conclusion knowing that the fulfilment of their promises by the Spaniards would prove very advantageous to him owing to the quality of the princess, who has no peer in Europe; for her dower, which would supply the need of money without recourse to parliament the usual enemy of the kings; and by the restitution of the Palatinate, in which he is engaged for so many reasons. But the more these things are desirable for England the less likely is it that Spain will effect the marriage, whose advantages would cease with the conclusion of the affair and who would then begin to tie themselves in great measure to the desires of this side. Everyone sees clearly that their arts and advantage consist in keeping the king here fed up with hope, as with Atalanta's apple, and make sure of one who if he liked might trouble the course of their felicity. The intentions of the two kings being such it is difficult to observe with dry eyes that in these deceits, in which the king is artificer to himself, other princes suffer as well as his subjects. Beyond a doubt he begins his trading with a serious immediate loss in his fallacious hopes of future gain, as he grievously irritates his own subjects, dividing them into most pernicious factions, and practically himself supplies the Catholics with a leader to withdraw them from obedience to him by his declaration allowing them to practise the Catholic faith, not of his own free motion but at the express request of the Spaniards. The idea of bridling the tongues of the preachers in matters considered to pertain to their faith is like damming torrents, which only rage the more furiously and easily break into sedition. Two of these have been imprisoned for condemning the marriage under a parable and speaking ill of Spain (fn. 3) ; but the murmuring and whispering among the people only increase for this. God grant that these winds be not the harbingers of a serious tempest (rivolgendosi per quello è possibile di discorrere i pensieri de' due Re non si può osservare forse con occhio asciutto che negli inganni de' quali è fabro a se stesso questo Re s'includino con i suoi anco i danni degli altri Prencipi et è certissimo che con le fallaci speranze d'un utile futuro commincia egli la su mercantia da grave discapito presente; poiche disgusta acerbamente i suoi sudditi gli divide in perniciossime fattioni e quasi concede egli stesso a Catholici un capo che gli levi dalla propria soggetione mentre non per sua libera conscienza ma ad espressa instanza de' Spagnoli si dichiara di permettere la religione catolica ad essi. Il voler anco raffrenar la lingua a predicanti ministri nelle cose stimate attinenti alla lor religione riesce come trattener torrenti che impediti maggiormente infuriano e rompono facilmente nelle seditione; di questi ne sono stati impriggionati due per haver biasmato sotto parabole il matrimonio e sparlato di Spagna. Ma tanto maggiori ne seguono le mormorationi et i bisbigli de' popoli. Dio voglia che questi venti non siano prenuncii di grave tempesta).
The Englishman named Gazi who was in Rome soliciting for the dispensation and who spoke with duplicity about his journey on leaving there, arrived here unexpectedly yesterday. I will try to discover what he brings. With respect to this dispensation your Serenity may already know that Gondomar maintains to the king that they do not depend upon it, as they would make the marriage even against the pope's wishes and if they stopped with such an excuse it would be understood that they did not want it.
The news of Mansfeld is uncertain, as his decisions are always sudden and conceived for military reasons. It is understood that being paid by the French not to enter France and requested by the Dutch to advance into Flanders he has overborn the opposition offered by Cordova and gone to afford opportune help to the Dutch, who, with this occasion, ought to be masters of the field, but for the negotiations of the Palatine at Brussels it is not known whether this new accident will help or hurt.
I have an audience appointed with his Majesty and the prince for Sunday next at Windsor. I asked it dependent upon their convenience, as it was to present the ceremonial letter sent by your Serenity. They granted it with decision and promptitude. This is no small honour, because the king readily avoids the obligation for audiences of any kind. I will use the opportunity for other offices to the public advantage.
London, the 9th September, 1622.
[Italian.]
Sept. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
587. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have had occasion to speak and make friends with an Englishman, who is very conversant with all these marriage negotiations, from whom I have gathered various things worthy of your Serenity's knowledge.
What I wrote about the English cavalier (fn. 4) who came here with the king's knowledge is perfectly true. He left with word of the renewal of the commission, but they consider it as an-absolute licence to make the marriage, as soon as the articles are arranged between the kings, which are very favourable to the Catholic faith, but will only be published with the marriage so that in any case the support of Spain may serve to bridle the populace, and those who do not approve of the step. That the negotiations are far advanced, letters and portraits have been exchanged between the prince and the king's sister and even presents in the form of a betrothal, and among these the King of England has sent a cross with the Christ, all of jewels and of inestimable value.
When I asked him why the king favoured a Spanish rather than a French princess, what were his real views upon religion and how the affairs of the Palatine his son-in-law stood, the Englishman answered that they had very slight relations with the French, and every day feeling became more embittered. It did not suit them so well to make a marriage alliance with the French as with the Spaniards, since Spain could injure England more, and also help her more in case of need. Undoubtedly parliament would not approve of the marriage, especially because of some of the conditions, but the leading men of the realm had already signed it, partly of their free will and partly because the king desired it. England concluded this marriage in order to establish himself thoroughly in his kingdom, where the very worst humours existed, Scotland being strongly attached to France, Ireland utterly Spanish and England extremely dissatisfied with the present rule. The king also knows that the two crowns have even discussed working together to deprive him of those two subject realms, and so his Majesty contemplates breaking up this union by the marriage and by drawing closer to one of them considering Spain more advantageous for his interests than France, while Spain has advanced her cause by capturing the favour of all the ministers, especially Buckingham (che Inghilterra faceva quel matrimonio per fermarsi ben nel Regno poiche vi sono de cattivissimi humori, la Scotia molto devota alla Francia, l'Irlanda tutta Spagnola et I'Inghilterra malissimo contento del presente governo, et che sa anco il Re che hanno trattato anco le due Corone di levarli d'accordo quelli due Regni sudetti, onde vadi pensando appunto. Sua Maesta disunirli conqueste nozze, et maggiormente stringersi con uno di loro, stimando piu proffittevole alli suoi interessi la Spagna che la Francia; la qual Spagna s'e anco aiutata con haver preso et acquistato l'animo di tutti li Ministri, et particolarmente di Bochenger).
As regards the king's religion he seemed doubtful and did not know what he believed as he frequently disputed upon certain points of religion. Thus he was neither a good Catholic nor a good Calvinist. It is true that he is an enemy of the Jesuits and will not admit them into his kingdom on any account, as he knows that they were at the bottom of all the conspiracies against him, and at present oppose this marriage and the dispensation here at Rome (which is quite true). The Jesuits advised the introduction of religion into the country by force and not in this way, as they feel perfectly sure that they will never enter that kingdom by means of this marriage and these negotiations and they do not desire such a rebuff in the face of the world.
As regards the Palatine he told me a very important thing, namely that he was absolutely certain that in these marriage negotiations they were arranging nothing about the Palatine, and the promises and fair words of the king were merely to give an apparent satisfaction to the people of the kingdom, and he had stopped the Palatine not because he wished to adjust his affairs, but so that his interests and his arms should not disturb the marriage. He was absolutely certain of this; also that the king desires to keep the Palatine down and at low water, because he has frequently caused his Majesty great uneasiness, owing to his popularity with the people, and for the same reason the prince bears him no excessive good will. He wished to send one of his sons to England to be brought up at the Court, but his Majesty would not consent, thinking there might be some understanding with his people to proclaim the boy king one day and depose him. Accordingly the greater their uneasiness the greater also their anxiety to keep the Palatine in low water, without dominions or support (che anzi desidera tenerlo basso et in poca fortuna perche le ha dato piu volte delle gelosie grandi per l'inclinatione de' sudditi et che manco il Prencipe non le porta troppo affetto per il medesimo rispetto; che le ha voluto mandar uno delli figliuoli nel Regno ad allevarsi ivi in Corte ma che S. Mta non l'ha voluto havendo stimato che sii con intelligenza de sudditi per chiamarlo un giorno Re, et deponer lui, onde quanto maggiore e la gelosia, tanto maggiore e anco il desiderio di tenerlo in bassa fortuna, senza stati e senza appoggi).
Rome the 10th September, 1622.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 A copy of this letter in Latin is preserved at the Public Record Office. State Papers, Foreign: Germany (Empire).
2 The book was entitled Rosa Hispani-Anglica. See Salvetti's news letter of the 1st July. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962B
3 "One Dr. Everard, that preaches at St. Martin's in the Fields, is committed to the Marshalsea for saying somewhat he should not have done; and a substitute of his is in the Gatehouse for a like cause."—Chamberlain to Carleton on the 10th August o.s. Birch: Court and Times of James II, page 326. The name of the second preacher was Clayton. Ibid., page 329. Gardiner: Hist. of Eng., iv, page 346
4 George Gage