Venice
November 1622, 1-14

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1911

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488-501

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'Venice: November 1622, 1-14', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 488-501. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88846 Date accessed: 23 August 2014.


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November 1622

Nov. 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian.
Archives.
645. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I imparted my information to Puisieux, in order to learn his opinion and encourage confidential relations. He seemed to favour negotiations everywhere, but no warlike operations could be hoped for yet. He said the Grisons had allowed themselves to be led to the precipice. He admitted that force would remedy everything. They would adopt a high tone and he hoped the Spaniards would yield. I told him that generous resolutions would result in glory for France, with peace in this kingdom, the raising of the siege of Bergh, and the resentment which England begins to show, since his ambassador has left Brussels in disgust, and if they yielded now the Spaniards would grow arrogant.
Arles, the 1st November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Nov. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
646. To the Proveditore General and Inquisitor in the Islands of the Levant.
The Proveditore of Cephalonia reports to us various disorders which seriously affect our revenues from the new custom on raisins. We confide in your zeal to repress those who think of nothing but smuggling to the total destruction of revenues formerly so flourishing. We direct you to attend to this, punishing those who deserve it, putting a stop to building near the coast, especially in places where ships can approach to lade raisins, forbidding the passage of barques laden with such merchandise, as they all serve for smuggling.
The same proveditore has brought other things to our notice, and we direct you to consult with him upon the measures necessary to be taken. As these are matters of great importance we feel sure that you will attend to them with zeal, abandoning for the moment all thought of new buildings at Corfu, especially the Cathedral, as though they may be necessary, the expense will be considerable and we think it better to defer until another time.
Upon your arrival at Cephalonia and Zante we feel sure that you will attend to putting the customs straight, which have suffered so much, punishing those who have caused the mischief.
That a copy of the above be sent to the said proveditore with a letter in conformity.
Ayes, 90.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Nov.4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives
647. To the Secretary at the Hague.
You will have heard of the establishment of peace in France, which should produce the best effects in this province, as leaving the Most Christian free to deal with the Spaniards. This has induced us to write to our Ambassadors Moresini in Savoy, and Pesaro in France to take advantage of the proposed conference between the king and the Duke at Marseilles to represent the urgent need for that king to interfere, especially in favour of the Grisons, speaking of our own disposition to back any proposal for restitution, thus opening the way for his Majesty to relieve Italy from Spanish predominance.
We have also instructed the same ambassadors to advance as much as possible the interests of the States with his Most Christian Majesty, especially in assisting them effectively, and to neglect no opportunity of fostering the good understanding existing between that monarch and the King of Great Britain, equally necessary and profitable for the friends of both crowns.
We therefore direct you to inform their High Mightinesses of what we have notified you above, so that they may perceive how much we have the common interests at heart, and that we always strive for their interests. You will tell them our remarkable satisfaction at the news of Prince Maurice's success, whom you will thank for the communication, wishing him still further prosperity.
That a copy of these presents and of what has been written to the ambassadors in France and Savoy on the subject be sent to the ambassador in England for his information.
Ayes, 88.Noes, 3.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Nov.4.
Senato.
Secreta,
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
648. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The changes of scene at this Court are constant but the result is always the same, to procrastinate and temporise in the present circumstances favourable for peace. Amid the ardour of these fresh discussions the prince has vanished, leaving the Council alone as usual to its affairs. Cottington is sworn secretary of his Highness. He seems to have been admitted for the same reasons for which he may afterwards be dismissed, although More the old one has not gone unrewarded. Ghezi has gone to Spain with special commissions from the king alone about the marriage; he will then proceed to Rome on the same business. He has instructions to call at Florence in return for the embassy sent here and at Parma with condolences upon the duke's death. This mission is replete with irregularities. He simply bears the title of gentleman; and it is certainly remarkable that one who is avowedly a Catholic should be employed in public functions by the king's own choice. Possibly they hope in this way to qualify him for other negotiations, save expense by withholding the title of ambassador and keep the royal reputation safe in case the negotiations turn out badly.
New proposals have come from Spain. I hear in a most secret manner that they offer to restore the Palatinate but to the Palatine's son, who must be brought up as a Catholic, with a promise to marry him to a daughter of the emperor; that certain fortresses shall remain in the hands of the Spaniards and that something already usurped from the ecclesiastical princes shall be restored. I further hear that the king, to avoid the troubles of war, begins to show signs of inclining to such an arrangement, although reasons of state, religion and his own honour should weight so strongly on the other side.
The Spanish ambassador here, remarking on the progress of Tilly, has suggested to his Majesty that it might be better to deposit the two places of the Palatinate in the hands of the Infanta, the same being done with Heidelberg, because restitution would become more difficult if they were captured by force. His Majesty declined the proposal, from which we may see that they are not without hopes that Mannheim will hold out for some months, and apparently they think of relieving it by a diversion, by getting Mansfelt to invade the dominions of the elector of Cologne. The Secretary Calvert, whom I thought fit to tell about the recent events in Rhetia, touched on this question. He said my news had not reached his Majesty from any quarter, and I am greatly astonished that at least the Resident Wake did not send word from Turin. The same secretary added that the marriage negotiations were proceeding favourably and but little remained to be settled. From other sources I hear that the most difficult points are the education of the children, the king agreeing that the mother shall direct it until the age of nine, and the Spaniards desiring it up to fourteen, a public chapel for the Catholic worship and the exclusion of any one not a Catholic from the Infanta's court, two points to which so far the king will not agree. Among other things Gondomar gets Digby to write home that he would like to bring over the bride or return and ask his Majesty's pardon if the marriage is not arranged.
The Spanish ambassador induces English sailors to pass daily one by one to serve the Flanders ships. I do not know whether this is by licence or connivance. The Spaniards have lost two of these ships in a brief space.
One of Soubise's ships from la Rochelle has made a prize of a ship coming with Spain, which pretended it was going to Calais, but really was going to Flanders with the money of individuals. There are various reports about the amount. Soubise hastened down to obtain his share, but meanwhile the ship being taken to Plymouth orders arrived from the Council to stop it. The gold, like quicksilver in this case, may easily disappear beyond hope of recovery.
They are preparing two ships here for the east, one for Syria and the other for Constantinople. They will carry a cargo of from 4,000 to 6,000 cloths of these parts. I am told that a single merchant is sending more than 500 pieces.
The French ambassador here has received confirmation of the news of peace. He said he did not know the terms, but I think he wishes to conceal them. I went on purpose to congratulate him on the good news.
The negotiations of the Dutch ambassadors proceed with the customary slowness. Some think that they have paid down a considerable sum of money to win over the king and the leading ministers, and it is conjectured that they have some understanding, as the ambassadors have taken about 100,000 crowns on exchange in this mart. The English merchants interested more than the others believe it, but I consider the notion false and that they are blinded by their own prejudices.
They hope here to derive great advantages from Virginia, considering that land very well adapted for the cultivation of wine, silk, tobacco and fruits. Many leave for those parts every day, and orders have issued from the king and a concession of arms to take there and arm the colony.
We are without the ordinary this week, perhaps because of the bad weather.
London, the 4th November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Nov. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
649. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The archbishop Dominis has arrived from England. He came in grand style with fourteen mouths. He is lodged and defrayed by the pope. They say at Court that he has affairs to negotiate by order of the king. A person who was formerly his friend, and also a friend of myself, whom I sent covertly to him to gather information, says that he is strongly persuaded that the marriage of the prince will take place, because it will bring great good to Christendom. For the rest he confesses his errors and thanks God for granting him light to return to the Catholic religion, saying that his sin may perhaps have brought about that good. He made an abjuration in Flanders; it is not known whether he will make another here. I find that they want to keep him in retirement here, to write against what he has written, and that is the reason of their caresses.
I have also learned on excellent authority that the Spanish nuncio at that court is also in appearance negotiating very zealously for the marriage, actively assisted by the Count of Gondomar, some saying that it will certainly take place, others that it is merely a show to lull England to sleep, and that he has spoken about it very intimately with the said count and the ministers, so that nothing may be done without the pope's knowledge, and for this he obtained a promise from them. That this report had even reached the Infanta and that she should speedily prepare herself for that kingdom. She had seemed displeased, but had been consoled by the Countess of Lemos and the Cardinal Infant and by all the ladies of the palace who exhorted her to go joyfully. That the English ambassador had been permitted to see and visit her, and during the office she never answered but kept her eyes on the ground. That the Infanta of the barefooted nuns as well as the king have both spoken to her about this marriage, the nun telling her to think over it well as it concerned her alone, and she asked the king of his favour not to let her go, so the nun was persuaded that as the girl clearly has no inclination for this marriage it would be better to wed her in Germany and give the emperor's daughter to England. Owing to the introduction of these doubtful ideas it is argued that the Spaniards, finding themselves in the end unable to do otherwise and after they have obtained the fruit that they desire, may release themselves from their promise by saying that the girl does not want to be married in England, and lay everything on her shoulders (onde da questi concetti dubbiosi che si introducono si va argomentando che possino Spagnoli in fine quando non possino far altro et cavatone il frutto che desiderano liberarsi dalla promessa col dir che la figliuola non vuole maritarsi in Ingra et addossar a lei tutto). (fn. 1)
The same nuncio also writes that the English ambassador said they were sending from Rome a prelate with priests to the kingdom, who would be welcome and well treated, and they exclude none but the Jesuits. Here they have begun to make the congregation de propaganda fide before the pope with hope of great advantage to the faith in those parts and also in Germany and the Grisons. They hoped the same in France, but these hopes have disappeared with the peace.
The same nuncio writes that he found an excellent understanding existed between the two courts of France and Spain and so he hoped he could persuade them to something good and a union against infidel princes, and he also insisted that the Palatine should not be reinstated, to which he found them well disposed.
Rome, the 5th November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Nov. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
650. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In conversation with Lodovisio I draw from him various matters about the affairs of the world which seem worthy of the notice of your Serenity. He said among others things that he thought Bavaria would certainly have the electoral vote. When I asked him about England and the marriage, he replied that the Spaniards did not want the marriage, but are negotiating with that king for the sake of their interests and to keep him quiet. On his side he is most infatuated about it, because he thinks that in this way he will establish himself in his kingdom amid the difficulties that pertain there. When I asked if licence was given him to to make it he replied that the licence had not been given, but they were holding things up a little, and that is worth considering because during this interval the affairs of religion will improve in that kingdom and the Catholics will obtain relief. I asked him if they really had any hope that he might become a Catholic, and that I understood the archbishop of Spalato brought important proposals in this connection, and appeared to come rather as an ambassador than a penitent. He said, Would to God he had an idea of becoming a Catholic; but that is all nonsense, and what he does is all for reasons of state and to make this marriage which he believes will render him perfectly safe in his kingdom (mi ha detto che piacesse a Dio che havesse pensiero di Catholico; che tutta e vanità, et che quello che fa, tutto fa per ragion di stato et per far questo matrimonio, che stima che lo assicuri bene nel Regno).
He told me that the Archbishop of Spalato came solely as a penitent. He had renounced his errors in Flanders, but they have decided that he shall do the same here. I remarked that he had come at a large outlay of money, and asked who had given it to him and why the Spaniards made so much mystery about it. He said the Marquis of Codmar had done it all, a pious man who thought he was doing a great service to religion in bringing him back to the Roman church, as indeed he had, and that he had given his Majesty to understand that this Dominis will assist the marriage, as he expects to do. The pope has given him a house, provision for fourteen months and a coach, but he must make a public recantation, and he must write against his own previous publications, such as the one in which he relates the reasons of his going to England. The best is the one about the Council, which is a great book; (fn. 2) he repeated this twice and added laughing, He did not write it: it is not his style (non l'ha fatto lui che non e sua frase). It is said your father Paul wrote it. I also laughed and said it was a great book, adding that poor father Paul was persecuted by the Jesuits merely for his virtues. At this Ludovisio laughed and we proceeded to talk of other matters (fn. 3)
Rome, the 5th November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Nov. 5.
Misc. Cod.
No. 61.
Venetian
Archives.
651. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A courier has arrived here from England for the resident, whom he immediately followed. I have not discovered what he brought. He merely left word that an accommodation had been arranged in France and confirmed the raising of the seige of Berg.
Vienna, the 5th November, 1622. Copy.
[Italian.]
Nov. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Ceffalonia.
Venetian
Archives.
652. ANDREA MOROSINI, Venetian Proveditore at Cephalonia, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Sends account of the revenues of the island, carefully extracted from the public books.
Cephalonia, the 5th November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
653. Account of all the money which should come to the island of Cephalonia and which should come from its produce as specified below, with an account of what it is necessary to expend upon the produce which reaches the island yearly.
Coming to the island.ducats.
For raisins growing in the the island, six millions bringing in about 30 ryals the miliare comprising the duty of the new impost, at 6 lire the ducat240,000
Deduct one third for London and kersey cloth brought from the West, amounting to80,000
160,000
For wine, muscatels and ribole (fn. 4) , which are sold and go out of the island, about4,000
For cotton1,000
For sowing flax2,500
For coarse blankets and wool500
168,000
Deduct the amount given below105,000
53,000 (sic)
Note that goods are brought from Venice iron ware, wooden articles, silk, wool, etc., for30,000
Net amount23,000
What is spent and goes out of the island.ducats.
For grain, i.e., wheat, barley, etc., from the mainland, about40,000
For flesh brought from the mainland, about5,000
For cheese1,000
For salt and salt fish3,000
For cordovans and skins of various kinds3,000
For wines from the mainland2,500
For oil from Zante and Corfu1,500
For earthenware pots, jugs, etc.1,000
60,000 (sic)
For what is sent to the Chambers of Corfu and Crete45,000
Total105,000
[Italian.]
Nov. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
654. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The rumour of the ships from Spain said to be in the Ocean is gradually dying away. Their High Mightinesses have no certain advices. They received word from England that the king there had been asked for a place of repair but had refused. The English ambassador himself has nothing to say on the subject except that a fleet was seen in Spanish waters. Others say the same.
The Hague, the 7th November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Nov. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
655. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Prince Henry went with his cavalry to escort the troops of Mansfelt and Brunswick. Brunswick is detained here by his wound and the persuasions of Prince Maurice and the king here. He learns that of the three regiments he has orders to levy one is practically made and the other two are being formed. He pretends that he does not want more than 8,000 foot and 2,000 horse under him. It is unknown how he will keep them. He has not enough money of his own and some think he is supplied secretly either by Denmark or his own brother. He and the princes here would especially like to see all these troops taken into the service of the King of Great Britain and paid by him. I have already reported that the king has already approached his Majesty of England and the Ambassador Carleton wrote on the subject. The king here begged the Ambassador Chichester to persuade his Majesty. That ambassador left on Friday with a favourable wind. Three days before, three of the gentlemen in England for the Palatine, who were eagerly expected, came with letters from the king, prince and favourite. All confirm the king's resolution to recover the possessions of these princes by force of arms, and his determination upon a good war or a good peace. The letters of the Prince of Wales speak a little more openly and say in particular that they may now rest assured that the numerous promises made will be carried out. They were awaiting the courier sent to the court of Spain to obtain a passage for 40,000 foot through Flanders and if it was not granted they would take it.
The letters of the ambassadors to their High Mightinesses and to certain individuals, who have told me, relate that since Cottington's arrival from Spain they had held fresh deliberations; the king's decision was confirmed, but the king with his own hand had written to Digby, sealing it without informing any one, so that no one knew the contents. This does not excite very good hope. Many consider any resolutions on the part of England uncertain and some cannot be persuaded to look for anything but the original coldness of the king and the usual arts of the Spaniards. However they base great hopes upon Chichester's report, and they count upon his reputation as a sincere man and a true servant of that crown.
On the very day that he began his journey a courier arrived, whom he had sent from Frankfort to the Count of Oñate, the Catholic ambassador at Vienna, complaining of the treatment of Heidelberg and Mannheim. Oñate replies that they greatly regret what has happened, but there was no remedy as he did not possess sufficient influence, and so forth. This touched Chichester to the quick and only spurred his interest to give his king a full report about this affair of the Palatinate and the manner in which they are deceiving his Majesty.
Vere is bravely defending the citadel of Mannheim. He has made a large ditch and out works on the side of the town. But the greater his valour and skill the more surely must his strength and hope lessen daily if he has no hope of succour to maintain himself. If that citadel falls, Franchendal must follow immediately, as Mannheim is considered the key of the Lower Palatinate, owing to its situation on both the Neckar and the Rhine. When I spoke to the English ambassador yesterday about that fortress he seemed to attach great importance to it, seeing no remedy if it fell. As regards help from his king he displayed some inner feeling in saying, And what would you wish my king to do, and then fell silent.
At the king's Court here they are advised that the princes are concerting together in Lower Saxony, joined by some of the towns, and if England's resolution is confirmed there are hopes of the formation of a third party in that quarter. This would afford them some relief especially as they have some hope of the Duke of Saxony. I have learned from the Baron Dohna that the Margrave of Brandenburg drew from the duke these words, Brother we are the ones who must reinstate the Palatine and give him back his electorate. I hear that the duke has two causes of offence, one that the King of Great Britain in his powers to his Ambassador Weston at Brussels, removed the title of elector from his son-in-law, considering this prejudicial to the electoral dignity. The second that although he is engaged as mediator and commissioner in the matter of religion yet the Lutherans who are specially under his protection have been expelled by the emperor. These things afford good ground for the king, queen and others to augur well of Saxony's disposition in their favour.
The Hague, the 7th November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Nov. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
656. ALVISE CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Count of Olivares has employed the persuasions of his confessor and other divines to convince the Infanta that the marriage with England would be a holy act, as she might bring back that kingdom to the true faith, hoping thereby to remove her opposition. She recently declared that in the service of God and to please the king she would submit to anything. The Junta upon the marriage meets frequently, but the ambassadors are seldom present. They are said to have discussed the articles, and I have heard from the ordinary ambassador that they are disputing whether the education of the children shall rest with the father or the mother. They keep the negotiations very secret, especially those with the ambassadors. The inveterate idea that the English and Spaniards are intentionally deceiving each other receives confirmation, and even though the Count of Olivares desires it arranged it never will be. I have heard from a source of some repute, that as Prince Vittorio of Savoy has no issue, they have encouraged the duke's hopes that they will give the Infanta to Prince Philibert. I cannot vouch for this, however.
Madrid, the 8th November, 1622.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Nov. 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Zante.
Venetian
Archives.
657. AUGUSTIN SAGREDO, Proveditore of Zante, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Five pirate bertons have recently been heard of in these waters. They chased a Flemish ship which came from Alexandria to this port, and another afterwards. This casts doubts upon the news previously brought here of the death of the pirate Sanson, as well as Captain Guard, as Sanson is said to be on these bertons. Two ships arrived here yesterday, one Flemish and one English, from Leghorn, the captains of which report sighting six ships, which they believed to be pirates, standing towards Cephalonia. By good fortune they managed to escape this danger, though the ships came near enough for them to hear the voices. As these six ships may easily inflict some damage in the sea between Cephalonia and Corfu, I have sent a frigate to Corfu to warn the Proveditore General there to stop any ship that might be coming this way, and I have also sent word to the General Belegno.
Zante, the 29th October, old style.
[Italian.]
Nov. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
658. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Archbishop of Spalato has made a fresh abjuration into the hands of Cardinal Bandini, head of the Holy Office. He will now begin to officiate (pontificar) and he may ask permission to come and see me, so I should like instructions.
Rome, the 12th November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Nov. 12.
Misc. Cod.
No. 61.
Venetian
Archives.
659. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Father Hyacinth has arrived at Ratisbon, and shortly afterwards a person arrived sent by Naiburgh on purpose to treat with him, although the negotiations will take place with the Spanish ambassador who has already arrived there, as well as the English resident. They say that the latter was expecting Cicerstorf, the ambassador of his king; the last advices from the empire, state that Cicerstorf has been recalled by his master, though this is not confirmed, the ordinary not having arrived this week owing to the constant rain and wind which have rendered the roads impassable.
Vienna, the 12th November, 1622. Copy.
[Italian.]
Nov. 14.
Senato.
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
660. ZUANE PESARO. Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The constable, to whom one must attribute the glory of France and all other worthy decisions, assured me that things are now going on well; the king has decided to issue from the Grisons with honour, and this alone will relieve Germany. He will send a special ambassador to the princes and free towns urging them to look to their own safety and liberty, offering excuses for France having done nothing in the past, though she will in the future; but for the present they will confine themselves in Germany to offices.
He told me that they would endeavour to get the King of England to take up the cause of the Palatinate and induce the States to contribute succours; they would send an ambassador to smoothe the way and accommodate all the misunderstandings of the past.
Of the Grisons he said the republic should have no other aim than to interest the king, so they must not haggle about 2,000 foot more or less; the republic has great interests involved.
Avignon, the 14th November, 1622.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Nov. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
661. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
We have heard nothing certain of where Mansfeld has pitched his winter quarters. He was not altogether satisfied with the terms offered him by the States. He expected they would give him a monthly subsidy for his troops, but the deputies said they had no orders. I perceive that they would have liked to do something, but their Excellencies thought it best to abstain in order not to encourage the disposition of the King of Great Britain to do nothing and leave all the burden of these armaments upon the shoulders of these Provinces. As the letters of that king to the Palatine were very general and in no wise different from his original ideas, they foretell that little or nothing can be expected from that quarter. Some minister of that sovereign has written to indicate that they wish to take the troops of Mansfelt and Brunswick into his Majesty's pay, but adds that until the orders are issued to summon a new parliament and means are found, they would like the States to maintain these troops. Here they do not seem inclined to undertake so considerable a charge unless they can clearly promise themselves some advantage. Meanwhile I have been assured that Mansfeld has received 50,000 florins beyond his appointments.
The Hague, the 14th November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Nov. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
662. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The best informed do not expect much from Lower Saxony or the duke elector, especially as they see matters taking the wrong direction in England and that nothing beyond the usual lethargy can be expected there. Reports are current here that Mannheim and Frankendal must fall soon, before any succour from that king can arrive, as he insists upon proceeding with deliberation and awaiting the reply from Spain when they could act with firmness for the common benefit and reputation.
They are somewhat doubtful here whether the Prince of England has been diverted from constant attendance at the Councils, although it appears that he understands current affairs in the most prudent manner, but they have been relieved on hearing that good friends of the cause have thought it best for him to act thus in order not to give occasion to his father (who is suborned by Spanish representations and interests) to remove him entirely from the control of affairs. The ambassadors and some other eminent personage at that Court have sent this information to the States.
Two ships have been sent to England to bring back the ambassadors, although their business is not yet settled. But they feel sure here that his Majesty, for his own objects, will not allow them to leave before Porter returns from Spain; they do not expect him soon and think he will bring a captious and equivocal answer in order to delay his Majesty's decision still further.
Colonel Vere, owing to certain advices, imagined that Mansfeld and Brunswick would return to the Palatinate to raise the siege of Mannheim. So he sent by night to Frankendal to learn whether this succour was coming and when it would arrive and to arrange what mutual signs should be given by light or fires. Finding himself disappointed he also recognised that he could not hold out for long, with his food and munitions running short, and although he himself wrote to assure the king that he had provisions for six months, it is doubtful whether he has not reached the end.
At Frankendal they are awaiting results. They are not formally besieged, but the enemy remains near at hand on the watch, preventing them from doing what they want. They occasionally make sorties and take prisoners whom they put to ransom not for money but to bring butter, lard and other food, a new device which shows their necessity of providing against future hunger.
One hears nothing more about the Spanish fleet. They say that it was at Sorlingen (fn. 5) with twenty-five ships observing those little islands opposite the county of Cornwall in England, to wait there and support the merchant ships issuing from the Mediterranean accompanied by other men-of-war which might escape from Fasciardo. There are reports here that they were attacked successfully, an Easterling ship even bringing word of Fasciardo's death.
The Hague, the 14th November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Nov. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
663. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have not neglected to consider the persons here suitable to serve your Serenity. There is Count Henry of Bergh and also Count John of Nassau, both serving the Infanta. On this side there are four, Prince Henry, Count Ernest, the Sieur de Marchet and General Cecil, an Englishman, the second colonel of his nation, who commanded 4,000 foot at the siege of Juliers.
Colonel Cecil was known in England to several of your Excellencies' ambassadors, and his worth is well known here. He is quick, a good soldier and hates the enemies of both republics. He has served more than twenty-five years in these countries and grown grey. He could bring his own countrymen and I believe he would leave everything to go to your Serenity, though I have not enough information yet to state absolutely whether he is adapted for what your Serenity requires and if he could command a large army, although fully capable of commanding a regiment.
I may also add the name of General Vere now in the Palatinate, who came to these parts many years ago and of whom the Prince of Orange thinks very highly. He has experience and has seen many sieges, though he has never had any other appointment here than as Colonel.
So I conclude that Prince Henry and Count Ernest would be the best fitted.
The Hague, the 14th November, 1622.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 This portion of Zen's despatch is printed by Gardiner in a note, Hist. of Eng., iv, pages 389, 390. The Infanta of the barefooted nuns was the Archduchess Margaret, youngest daughter of the Emperor Maximilian II, who had taken the veil at the Carmelite Nunnery at Madrid.
2 Storia del Concilio Tridentino published in London in 1619 under the name of Pietro Soave Polano, an anagram of Paolo Sarpi, Veneto, the famous Servite of Venice, who was the real author. Dominis took the MS. with him to England at the end of 1616 (Vol. XV. of this Calendar, page 523) and by many was reputed the author. See a letter of Carleton to Chamberlain of the 9th March, 1622, in Birch: Court and Times of James I, ii, page 299.
3 The substance of this interview between Zen and Cardinal Lodovisio is confirmed in a despatch of Wotton of the 12 December. He writes: We have this week a new story from one acquainted with more than dreams, even from the Cardinal Lodovisio himself, the best commentary of the pope's informations, from whom a person of some confidence with him (at least in anything where the interests of this state and of Rome do not encounter) drew this much in private discourse touching the archbishop's report.
That the said archbishop doth indeed prosecute the marriage between England and Spain, though rather out of his private conceipt than by any commission.
That he relateth a great increase of Roman Catholics, and in the disposing of some affections that way exalteth his own zeal and merit.
That his bringing of any business about the conversion of his Majesty was a mere fable, his Majesty having never discovered the least inclination thereunto.
That whatsoever his Majesty had done in clemency to the Romanists within his kingdoms had no imaginable reference to religion but only to state, their number being now grown more considerable than heretofore.
That touching the person of the archbishop they will have him make a public abjuration of his manifesto printed at Heidelberg and of his Scogli and Predica set out in England. As for the Historia del Consilio Tridentino, we know, said he, that Spalato was not the Author of that but our Fra Paolo da Venezia, twice repeating with an eulogy, strange from his mouth that it was in vero un gran libro. Of his works de republica ecclesiastica he said nothing more but that himself would write against himself. State Papers, Foreign: Venice.
For the works of Dominis mentioned see Pearsall Smith: Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton, ii, page 372.
4 Ribola, a kind of delicious wine. Baretti: Italian Diet.
5 Aston, writing on the 1/11 November says the fleet is at "the sorlinge." State Papers, Foreign: Spain.