Venice
November 1622, 17-29

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1911

Pages

501-514

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'Venice: November 1622, 17-29', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 501-514. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88847 Date accessed: 02 September 2014.


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November 1622

Nov. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
664. To the Ambassador in England.
We have this week received your despatches of the 14th and 21st ult., which must have come together owing to the bad weather for crossing the sea, and are full of important matter, giving us full satisfaction. We send you a copy of what we hear from our ambassador at Rome about the Archbishop de Dominis and the Spanish marriage, to serve you for information and help you to penetrate further into the matter.
Ayes, 73.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Nov. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
665. ALVISE CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I find that the Ambassador of Savoy has acquainted the duke and Prince Philibert of what I reported about the project to marry the king's sister to the latter. The report is widely circulated, but it does not seem probable, seeing that they need not despair of issue to Prince Victor. They probably wish to deceive the duke.
Madrid, the 18th November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Nov. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
666. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Three couriers have arrived for his Majesty from Spain within a few days, with letters from the Ambassador Digby about the proposed joint offices to the emperor and the hopes of the marriage. Among other things Digby says that although he knows well that many blame him here for promising too much in a matter far from success, yet he cannot do less than report the good inclination he observes over there, and he would almost stake his life upon the effectuation of the marriage. I hear various opinions expressed about this minister and some think that he does not contemplate returning home again. It is known that the favourite stands ready to credit him with every want of success. The news of the fall of Heidelberg had not reached Digby, but possibly the ministers there, knowing it, suggested these missions so as not to leave the wound without some salve.
They appear to lament the death of Zuniga here as the loss of one well affected to them. (fn. 1) They protest, at all events, that his successor should be a man of like inclination.
The Spanish ambassador had audience two days ago and gave his Majesty letters from his king confirming what Digby wrote, specious promises of a speedy and favourable issue to the marriage negotiations, complete satisfaction about the Palatinate, compelling the emperor by force, if necessary, and proposals, I understand, for a complete suspension of hostilities in the Palatinate, both sides keeping their acquisitions until everything has been settled by negotiation. This may serve as a reply in advance to the despatch sent by Porter and act as a narcotic to make them sleep the more profoundly this winter.
The Ambassador Chichester has returned from Germany. The king seems in no hurry to hear him, putting it off until he approaches this city twelve days later. His arrival will make little difference but the ambassador makes the worst possible report. He says he received no satisfaction in his negotiations and no honour for his person. He will speak as a good minister and his exposition to the king will be warm and sincere, but we are arrived at such a pitch. God grant he may help the business and not injure himself. He is of opinion that Mannheim can hold out, the view generally held here, but they can have no certain knowledge as it is some time since news came through. Tilley turned back some messengers sent from here with their letters unopened.
The poor Palatine, to whom little remains except the power to lament the misfortunes of himself and his house, keeps reminding his Majesty, by frequent missives, of his numerous promises, but gets nothing but fresh promises in reply.
With the movement of Mansfelt as a diversion in favour of Mannheim, it has sufficed here to give good words about it, as they do anything good with the utmost trepidation and think it a lesser evil to hurt themselves than to offend the Spaniards. The latter have already complained of the breach of the promise to dismiss Mansfelt and his passage to Holland, where indeed, through the conjunction of various circumstances, he has afforded a strong fillip to the States. We learn here that Spinola is involved in trouble with his own troops and through lack of money, and has gone towards Maastricht to suppress a mutiny there and thwart Mansfelt's plans. Some think an encounter may have taken place between the two.
The gentleman has returned from France whom I reported the king had sent to the Most Christian with fresh exhortations to peace. He attributes this in great measure to this mission and partly to his Majesty. He reports that he was introduced to the king immediately he arrived, who, in his desire for peace, after reading his Majesty's letter, remarked publicly to the bystanders that God had sent him. He says he found the Huguenots obstinate and Rohan discredited. On entering Montpellier with Rohan he addressed himself to induce the Huguenots to think of peace. It is customary for all, but especially at this Court, to desire glory while hating trouble, and so they claim here the glory of this benefit. I do not know how that may be, but as this accommodation may prove of public service I will take the first opportunity of congratulating his Majesty and some of the ministers on their good work. For the rest this may serve as the beginning of a reconciliation between the two kings, who seemed so far apart. The English already promise themselves the favour of France for the Palatinate, and certainly their negotiations with the Spaniards are now greatly benefited, as the latter in their fear of France will try the harder to satisfy England.
For the most part they hope for good results in the Valtelline, though not without the fear, that besides other impediments the interposition of the intervening winter months may afford opportunities for the customary Spanish frauds.
The French ambassador here reports that a fight took place between the fleets of the king and those of la Rochelle, in which the latter suffered severely, the combat being terminated by the news of peace.
Soubise, either by his own address or through the connivance of the royal officials at Plymouth, has left there with the Spanish ship I wrote of, and taken it to la Rochelle. They say the booty will amount to some 300,000 crowns and they boast of having repaid the Spaniards for a ship they took from those of la Rochelle.
The ships of Spain and Holland have fought in the Strait.
The council of the Duke of Brunswick, previously utterly corrupt, has been recently reformed by the execution of some of the worst councillors. The princes of the circle of Saxony have held a secret conference.
I left your Serenity without letters last week and may possibly do the same frequently during these winter months, affairs getting frozen up with the season, and leaving me with little material worth reporting. But if my hand rests, my mind will not sleep or omit to send anything of public service.
I have received the ducal missives of the 16th ult.
London, the 18th November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Nov. 19.
Senato.
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
667. To the Ambassador in France.
Having learned of the coming of the Prince of Condé to Italy and his intention to pass through our state, we directed all our rectors to show him every mark of honour and esteem. They fulfilled our intentions by such demonstrations as the shortness of the time and the speed of his journey permitted, and he even declined much that was prepared for him.
In the meantime the French ambassador came into the Cabinet and asked that the prince should be treated as a Highness, in consideration of his close relationship to his Most Christian Majesty; but as this did not correspond with the manner in which the republic has treated him and other princes of the blood, we replied that we were bound to continue in our customary manner, and he must rest satisfied with our demonstrations of friendship. The ambassador seemed much dissatisfied with this reply, and pressed his request again. But then Condé arrived unexpectedly in this city, incognito, on the following morning he visited the house of Cavalier Angelo Contarini and said it was very far from his thoughts to desire the republic to make any change in its customs. He asked us to permit him to make a private visit to our Camera without appearing in the Collegio, and to be called Highness once or twice, while retaining Most Illustrious and Most Excellent for every other occasion. Accordingly our Collegio decided to admit this modest request, and two Savii went to visit him. He said he would come to visit us on Tuesday next week, but desired to keep incognito in order to remain free for his private enjoyment, and for that reason he has declined so far to enter the house prepared for him though he will do so next Monday. He told our Savii that he would strongly urge the king to move for the restitution of the Valtelline, the kingdom being now quiet, and he hoped that his Majesty would take some good resolution for the benefit of this province. He would especially urge upon him the interests of the republic, wherein he would have the help of the constable, though no friend of his otherwise, and of Schomberg and the Cardinal Rochefoucauld, both good Frenchmen; they would remove Gueffier from the Grisons and send an ambassador to the Swiss and possibly another to Spain. But if the king did not decide quickly, internal troubles might easily arise again. He expressed the most friendly feeling towards the republic and promised to give our ambassadors all the help in his power.
We send this for your information.
That these particulars about the Prince of Condé be sent to Rome, Spain and England.
Ayes, 114.Noes, 3.Neutral, 12.
[Italian.]
Nov. 20.
Collegio,
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
668. Letters patent of Antonio Priuli, Doge of Venice, to allow seventy bales of the goods of the Countess of Arundel to be taken to London, to pass freely without hindrance.
Ayes 19.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.669. The Countess of Arundel has ordered the goods which she has used and had in this city for a long time to be sent to England. She has had them packed and sealed with her seal, and they amount to about 70 bales in all, but are all goods of her using. Request for permission to allow them to go as goods that have been used.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.670. Notification that the bales of the Countess of Arundel have been examined in accordance with the orders of the Collegio, and so far as can be seen they are all goods she has used.
The 19th November, 1622.
LUDOVICO COLLINI, governor of the Customs.
[Italian.]
Nov. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
671. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Duke of Savoy asked the ambassador of the States to get their High Mightinesses to give up the Count of Mansfelt, promising to treat him well. He said that if his Majesty proved successful in the Grisons he felt sure they might expect further progress. The ambassador told me all this. The duke seemed to think that the King of Great Britain might even now have engaged the count, and in that case they would be compelled to think of another captain.
His Highness leaves to-morrow and will take the shortest route to Turin.
Avignon, the 21st November, 1622.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
672. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The very evening of the day that I sent my last despatches news arrived that Mannheim had surrendered to Tilly. (fn. 2) The letters reached the Ambassador Carleton, and the news was published on the following day, causing much sorrow. Their Majesties and the king in particular hoped that Vere would not have surrendered so soon and he had shown no sign of such intention as only a few days before he had set fire to the town, causing misery and destitution to the wretched inhabitants, and withdrawn to the citadel in order to hold out longer, but the Prince of Orange told me on Tuesday that he felt sure the King of England had ordered Vere to surrender the fortress, and that the messenger whom Tilly would not allow to enter Mannheim, brought the instructions, which he handed to the Governor of Frankendal, who subsequently found a means of transmitting them to Vere.
I enclose a copy of the terms of surrender. The agent of the States at Cologne sent them to their Excellencies. They do not know what route Vere will take from Frankfort and fear that the Spaniards may try to surprise him and take him prisoner as a servant of these States. We have no news of Frankendal except that it is holding out, although they expect news at any moment in spite of the report that the soldiers and inhabitants are determined to hold out as long as they can and its investment is uncertain.
On the day following the news of the loss of Mannheim the king here and the English ambassador sent a gentleman of his Majesty to the King of Great Britain with special letters, for the king, the prince and Buckingham, pressing for a definite resolution now that the whole of the Palatinate is lost and begging him to have compassion upon the Palatine's condition. The letters will be given to Councillor Pauli for him to make representations in conformity.
The one fear is that the reply from Spain, expected in England and unlikely to differ from preceding ones, may keep the king of Great Britain undecided, with his excessive inclination for peace, and being full of promises and tricks may simply serve to gain time for even worse results, especially as their High Mightinesses hear from Vienna that the Spaniards exert an influence upon the emperor quite other than what they represent and entirely inimical to the princes here and the common cause. At all events they cherish hopes here that the eyes of the King of Great Britain may be opened to their tricks and artifices.
In discussing the request made of the Duke of Bavaria to relinquish Upper Austria in exchange for the promise of the electoral vote and the Upper Palatinate, they feel sure that he will not be so simple, as he will always be involved in disputes about this king's possessions and the electoral title. The English ambassador, whose good sense grasps the situation, said as much to me.
This Ambassador Carleton, in his king's name, requested the States to support the troops of Mansfeld and Brunswick; but they excused themselves owing to the burdens upon their Provinces, though they added that if they received assurances from his Majesty that after the month for which he asked them to support the troops until the reply came from Spain he would support them himself, they would make every effort to oblige him, otherwise they could not. This reply was despatched to England and they hope that it and the news from Mannheim may produce favourable results.
While awaiting England's decision they have not thought it expedient to let the young Duke of Brunswick go, as they had intended, but they will await the answer from the King of Great Britain before deciding about him.
The merchant Dulbier continues to solicit the States and Prince Maurice on behalf of the Count of Mansfelt, but they will not spend any money which might cause the King of England to keep his hand closed.
The Hague, the 21st November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
673. Capitulations whereby General Vere came out of Mannheim, granted by Baron Tilly.
The troops to come out with all their baggage, flags flying, matches burning, balls in mouth.
They may take away two falconets with their ammunition.
They may take 30 casks of wine and 200 sacks of corn, taking with them provision for three days, and sending the rest by water.
They shall have escort of 1,000 horse as far as Frankfort, until they are conducted to their own country by some ambassador or commissioner. All the Germans shall be dismissed.
Those who have goods elsewhere shall have free transport where they like, without anything being taken.
The ministers may stay or leave, as they please.
They are forbidden to bear arms in the Palatinate or land at Papemuts, but may do so anywhere else.
[Italian.]
Nov. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
674. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Duke of Saxe Weimar has come to the Hague. In speaking of Germany he told me he felt sure they would form the third party, everything depending upon finding a chief. No one would do better than the King of Denmark, but they were awaiting the decision of the King of Great Britain, because his interests in these affairs had become so great that the world cannot but believe he will be forced to take some decision.
Upon this point a gentleman well versed in affairs has been to see me. He told me that the States were advised from London that matters were growing steadily worse, the king being apparently too far won over, especially by Digby's last despatch which declared the marriage practically certain as well as the restitution of the Palatinate; that the King of Spain will join forces with his Majesty if there is any hesitation about restitution and so forth. This causes their High Mightinesses both disgust and sorrow and takes away all their hopes.
The French report that Berch spoke to the ministers at Paris about the truce, though I am assured that he had no instructions and his letters say nothing about it. The French agent left here said that Berch spoke to President Jeannin about the truce and in order that the Most Christian should interest the King of England, and received a very sharp reply from that minister. But another French gentleman, who has letters from the leading men told me that this had only happened in conversation, and the announcement has greatly displeased their High Mightinesses. The English ambassador said he thought the publication was a twist of the old dogma of Arminius, that is to say, an Arminian invention.
The Hague, the 21st November. 1622.
[Italian.]
Nov. 22.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
675. The doge went in state to the house of the Prince of Condé, who met him at the water gate. They mounted the stairs together to the reception chamber. After they were seated the doge explained the object of his visit. Condé replied: I have to thank you for the many favours shown to me. The republic ought always to be united with France, with whom you can do anything, without her, nothing. All these gentlemen are older than myself, and more prudent, but sometimes they do not know exactly which way to take. In France also, we often do not know what is best for us.
Think a moment what you may expect from other powers. Any one who reflects can see that England is a poor creature (un huomo da poco). What has he done for the Palatine, his son-in-law? What for our heretics in France? He has abandoned his own flesh and blood for delusive negotiations for a Spanish marriage. No dependence can be placed on Germany. Bavaria is entirely dependent upon the house of Austria. Yet the Spaniards would rather give back the territory to the Palatine's son, although a heretic, to keep the King of England friendly, than give any part of it to Bavaria.
The faults of the Dutch government are well known, and their internal dissensions. Spain has many pensioners among them, so I do not see what can be expected there. Moreover you have to consider what the world will think.
[Italian.]
Nov. 24.
Cinque Savii
alla
Mercanzia,
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
676. The five Sages of the Board of Trade to the Proveditore and Captain of Corfu.
Sir Henry Wotton, ambassador of the King of Great Britain, has asked us to approve of Nicholo di Antonio da Venezia whom he has chosen to act as consul for his nation in your town: we have taken information and notify you that we have approved and confirmed this individual. He must not, however, receive more than 3 ducats for each English ship, in the usual way.
Correr.Savii.
Ruzini.
Molin.
Zustignan.
[Italian.]
Nov. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
677. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Little else than the loss of Mannheim brings the pen to my hand, though that is matter enough for grief. Vere's terms were that he should come out with all his men and baggage, colours flying, matches burning, balls in their mouths, two falconets, 30 tuns of wine, 200 measures of flour, provisions for three days, to proceed in safety to Frankfort, the German soldiers to be disbanded, any one taking goods into the citadel for safety may dispose of them at will; the Protestant ministers to remain or leave at will.
It was commonly believed that this captain, through excess of courage, would perish with the fortress, but he had 1,500 men, 500 cantara of powder, 500 sacks of flour, salt, wine, 40 bronze cannon and 12 iron, so he was not hard pressed. They think he agreed to a composition owing to the king's first orders, which I reported; and it is useless for a commander to be brave against the wishes of his prince. The safety of Vere and the honourable terms diminish the sense of loss here. They consider the grant of the two falconets as an honour to Vere as general, but whatever the honour the loss is very great. However their skin is hardened to blows, and these losses, so long foreseen, are as usual little if at all felt.
At the moment when the news of Mannheim came, there arrived as by fatality a gentleman from Spain from Digby with the water prepared to extinguish any conflagration. (fn. 3) He brings more certain promises than ever of the conclusion of the marriage, copies of letters from the king there to the emperor and Infanta charging them to satisfy his Majesty or else threatening hostility, in short he brings what they expected with Porter and any well informed person could foretell the proposals and answers. They now say that if Vere had held out a week longer they would have saved the place by an armistice in the Palatinate as proposed here and ordered from Spain, and as if this jest did not suffice they offer an armistice for Franchendal which may be already lost. Meanwhile the king certainly seems to place more reliance in the words from Spain than in the deeds of Germany. I feel even more certain that this confidence arises not from ignorance but from his inclination, as such ignorance would be incredible in the most foolish man in the world, let alone in one who does not lack sense.
My impression is continually being confirmed that this credulity is nothing but a show, for otherwise one could not imagine such ignorance in the most fatuous person in the world, let alone in one who has given previous proof of deep knowledge; but I must humbly repeat to your Lordships that the king is especially afraid of the Spaniards from fear for his own life and is absolutely resolved upon peace with them. Negotiations are kept up as a pledge of friendship with them and as a pretext to stop the mouths of others; necessity alone, which in the long run can do any thing, could make him change his mind, but for the moment that is a remote possibility. His subjects are blindly submissive and the hottest spirits would not find it easy to get a leader. The prince, possibly warned by his brother's death, either does not venture or does not know, although his excellent and earnest appeal of late, which I reported, was perfectly authentic; but counsels go for naught, and the king uses his Council merely for show and when he has been advised one way he makes up his mind to the opposite (io sempre mi confermo che questa sia credeza di sola mostra poiche altrimente non si poteva supporre un tal ignoranza nel più idiota del mondo non che in uno che mostrò già di saper molto ma Serenissimo Prencipe, Eccmi Signori replico riverentemente che il Re, timoroso de' Spagnoli in particolare per dubio della propria vita è altamente rissoluto alla pace con essi, i negotii si mantengono come pegno d'amicitia con quegli e per pretesto di chiuder la bocca agli altri; la sola necessityà (che in fine tutto può) potrebbe far mutar pensieri; ma questa per hora si mostra lontana. Sono questi sudditi in una cieca obedienza et i più vivaci in ogni occasione non troverebbero cosi facilmente il capo il Signore Prencipe con I'esempio forse della morte del fratello o non ardisca o non sa seben fu verissimo quello ch'io avisai de' buoni et rissoluti concetti con che egli parlò a di passati. Ma a nulla servono i consigli et a sola apparenza il Re usa il Consiglio rissolvendo in un modo le cose consigliatesi all' altro).
I see that it is easier for me to lament present misfortunes than do anything for the public service. I feel this very keenly. At the first impulse I should, on hearing of this fresh loss, have hastened to the king to make an ardent remonstrance, but prudence warned me that one who sows in the sand can gather nothing but the thorns of wrath, as such an office, however modestly performed, must of necessity be a reproach of cowardice. Amid so many evils one stands out supreme and possibly unexampled, namely, that the king, in order to win the confidence of the Spanish ambassador more completely, is accustomed to relate to him the most important things said to him by the other ambassadors. The French ambassador in particular, who is thoroughly aware of the defects of this Court, has complained of this to me; and that is perhaps the reason that although, as I find, France is by no means averse from a marriage between Madame Henrietta and the prince here, he nevertheless does not venture to broach the subject. Upon certain occasions I have not hesitated to invite the ambassador to take this up, pointing out to him that difficulties will only augment his glory and how it will benefit the others. When a safe opportunity presents itself I do not hesitate to do what may redound to the service of the state with various lords and ministers (ma tra tante cose male v'e n'e anco una pessima e forse inaudita che quello di più importante che viene detto al Re dagli altri Ambasciatori egli usa rifferirlo a quello di Spagna per guadaguarsi seco maggior confidenza. Di questo in particolare si e molte volte meco doluto il signor Ambasciator di Francia che conosce al intiero i difetti di questa corte et egli è forse la cagione che seben com' io scopro, non è in tutto lontana la francia dal matrimonio di Madama Henrietta con questo Prencipe, tuttavia non si assicura di tenerne proposito. Io in certa occasione non ho mancato di animar esso signor ambasciator all' impresa considerandogli che la difficultà accresceva per lui la gloria e per gl'altri il beneficio. Con diversi signori e ministri nelle occasioni certo io non tralascio cosa che possi riuscire di publico servitio).
I also seized an opportunity to speak to the Marquis of Hamilton, who is certainly excellently disposed, about the internuncio of Poland going to Spain, remarking that in view of the harmony existing between the King of Poland and the house of Austria it seemed likely that he would not send and so alarm others unless he had previously been urged to do so by the Austrians themselves.
There have been some differences (discontenti) between the king and the favourite. The matter is most secret, the outcome uncertain. (fn. 4)
We hear that the Spaniards under various pretexts are trying to induce Cologne to receive garrisons of their troops in Westphalia and Liége, but so far he remains obdurate.
One of the leading men here, back from Holland, where he had an important charge, told me among other things that he had heard a rumour of a truce. This may only be the fear of a soldier who desires war too much.
The Spanish ambassador here has not been able to conceal his chagrin at the news of the peace in France; he hopes, so I understand, that it will not last, relying perchance upon the indefatigable instruments whom they maintain in that kingdom.
We hear of the death of Leopold, but it is not credited. They doubt whether it would prove beneficial or hurtful to the house of Austria. Certainly he had very strong views with regard to the empire even to the prejudice of his brother.
I wish I had better or less hateful news to impart to your Serenity, but I must not depart from the truth, whatever it may be. The nature of the matter must not prejudice my zeal in serving.
I send my best wishes to your Serenity and your Excellencies for the coming holy feasts.
London, the 25th November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Nov. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
678. To the Ambassador in France.
Besides what we sent you in our last, the Prince of Condè. has said other things which we think proper to send to you, even though he spoke them as from himself and said he left France without any commissions from the king. He insisted strongly upon a good union between France and the republic, with which they could do anything but without nothing. He remarked that we could hope for no assistance of moment from any prince except the Most Christian, owing to the lukewarm character of the King of England, the absolute dependence of Germany upon the Spaniards and the confusion and imperfect government of the Dutch States. The republic had done itself great wrong in spending so much money uselessly. He said he loved and honoured the republic so much because he recognised her as truly Catholic, not friendly with the Spaniards and disinterested with France, though he added that the world took ill our employing heretics in our service. As regards the Grisons, he believed the king really meant vigorously to support the liberty of the province now that peace was established in his own kingdom. The Spaniards now pretended that they were ready to carry out the treaty of Madrid, but the Most Christian must make the Swiss subscribe the conditions to which they are bound, whereas their ministers did nothing but prevent the signing of the treaty, and they would need two months for negotiations, in some part of Italy, France or Spain, he suggested Rome or Lucca.
We assured him of our desire for union with France, as shown by our sending special ambassadors, and in every other way. If our advances had met with a corresponding disposition, things would not be in their present deplorable condition. We hoped his Majesty would take the resolutions necessary for the weal of this province, for whose defence and liberty the republic has expended so much, in the confidence that France would fulfil what she had so often promised; and while assistance was refused to us from every other quarter, we had to obtain it where we could, in order that we might not be compelled to submit to the unjust violence of others.
Such is the substance of what took place at the interviews with the prince, and it will serve for your information.
The like to Rome, Spain, England, Savoy.
Ayes, 134.Noes, 1.Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
Nov. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
679. To the Proveditore General of Corfu, Zante and Cephalonia.
Paulo Basadonna, the returning Proveditore from Zante, has told us of many disorders. He informed us that owing to the death of numerous inhabitants by the plague, many lands remain untilled. You must try to obtain farmers from the Morea and Albania, though you must act cautiously to prevent the Turks from taking offence. You will find other expedients also to prevent the abandonment of those fertile lands.
Also a debt of about 60,000 ducats in the Chamber there, almost impossible to discharge owing to the poverty of the debtors. You will try to spread out the payments upon a proper security.
That owing to the depressed condition of the inhabitants few attend to collecting the customs, and they are very feeble. We do not know what to direct; but you must investigate the matter and provide the remedies you find to be necessary.
That small money is received in that chamber, contrary to the law, with undue gains for individuals, and the large lire being current in Cephalonia at 20 soldi only whereas here and elsewhere they are current at 24, they are all taken to Zante. This disorder has caused an extraordinary appreciation in the ryals and thalers, to the serious detriment of the inhabitants, who can use no other currency to obtain from the Turkish dominions the necessaries of life, of which the island only supplies one third. Upon this point it is advisable to fix the value at 20 throughout all those islands and to see that the laws about values are observed with penalties against those who break them.
Finally the necessity of a mole for the safety of the port of Zante. Although there is an imposition upon ships especially set aside for this purpose, collected by persons chosen by the community, no accounts have ever been rendered. We desire you to see that this charge is levied as a duty, and the money set aside for the maintenance and repair of the said mole.
He also said something about the falling off of the business of the raisins, but as we are expecting fresh information upon which to base our decisions, we merely direct you to keep on the look out for every advantage and benefit.
Ayes, 116.Noes, 2.Neutral, 8.
[Italian.]
Nov. 26.
Senato,
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
680. To provide against the disorders in the island of Zante, diminishing the customs, that all ships whether foreign or native may lade merchandise of any kind anywhere in the island, that laded for foreign lands paying 6 per cent. as against 4 per cent, when laded for this city and our state. No subject of that island may go to the Morea to trade for the lading of foreign ships with goods, and those who have gone for the purpose shall be recalled.
Ayes, 129.Noes, 0.Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
Nov. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
681. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I went to the Assembly last Saturday to carry out your Excellencies' instructions in your letters of the 4th inst., recommending the interests of this province, asking for effective help and to procure good relations with the Crown of England. They gave me a most favourable reception. I could not see Prince Maurice before to-day. He expressed his satisfaction at the representations to be made in France, but as regards the offices, which he considered most prudent, to induce the Most Christian to bring England to a good understanding, he said: God grant he may do so, but it is doubtful if not hopeless.
The Hague, the 28th November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Nov. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
682. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
General Vere should now be at Groningen in Friesland with the garrison of Mannheim, who do not number 800. The English ambassador has asked the States to take that garrison, without allowing them to be mingled with others in the towns or country, but merely to keep them until orders arrive from his king as to where they shall march.
This ambassador communicated to us the strong orders sent by the King of Spain, so he said, to the infanta, to tell Tilly not to besiege Mannheim if he had not begun, to leave it if he had, and to attack no other place if he had taken it, and that the king wished to see the effect of these new instructions. He told Prince Maurice who informed me, with a smile at such fatuousness. They may leave Frankendal alone, said he, but it is nothing to leave a village after taking an entire country, that is nothing but a jest and a mockery.
We do not know what will happen to Frankendal but its capture is considered inevitable. The Ambassador Carleton told me that Tilly had summoned the Governor of Frankendal in the name of the emperor, Spain, Leopold and Bavaria, promising honourable conditions, but the worst treatment if he did not surrender. The Governor replied that it was neither usual nor fitting to surrender for a piece of paper, but for Tilly's honour and his own there ought to be attack and defence. We are now waiting for news of the issue.
The Hague, the 28th November, 1622.
[Italian.]
Nov. 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
683. To the Ambassador in France.
To thank the king and commend his idea of having Rhetia and the Valtelline restored to their pristine state, saying that the republic would always support such a policy. Mansfelt can only be used for a diversion after everything else has been settled. At present he must only bind the republic to bear a portion of the necessary expenditure. Commend the idea of helping the States, as well as the notion of rousing Germany and inciting England to the recovery of the Palatinate, though he must say that the republic considers that the French Crown will employ itself best at present in working for the recovery of the Valtelline.
Ayes, 53.Noes, 4.Neutral, 55.
Second vote: Ayes, 62. Neutral. 51.
Final vote: Ayes, 142. Noes, 0. Neutral, 25.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Don Baldassare de Zuniga died suddenly on the 7th October, 1622, after an illness of only a few days.
2 On Oct. 28./Nov. 7.
3 Arrivo hieri il Signor Grislei, gentilhuomo del Signor Conte di Bristowe, nostro Ambasciatore straordinario in Spagna. Salvetti on the 25th November. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962B. The person in question, Walsingham Gresley, was Digby's steward.
4 See below, Valaresso's despatch of the 23rd December.