Venice
April 1623, 11-20

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1911

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622-633

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'Venice: April 1623, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 17: 1621-1623 (1911), pp. 622-633. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88856 Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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April 1623

April 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
847. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Marquis of Caluso has sent the duke important particulars in cipher. These he confided to me with the utmost secrecy, namely that negotiations are proceeding for the marriage of Madame Henriette to the emperor's eldest son. This news has affected the duke deeply, as he foresees the total loss of Italy's liberty if this takes place.
Turin, the 11th April, 1623.
[Italian.]
April 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
848. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
News has arrived of the welcome of the Prince of Wales in Spain and the honours which he has received from the Catholic king, circumstances which touch his Majesty here to the quick, and his dissatisfaction is increased by its being pointed out to him that the King of Spain is now recognised as a king of kings through having so great a prince at his court. This feeling has settled the question of paying the Dutch and the king has given special orders for it.
Melun, the 12th April, 1623.
[Italian.]
April 12.
Misc. Cod.
No. 520.
Venetian
Archives.
849. (fn. 1) Instructions to Mons. de Massimi, Bishop of Bertinoro, Papal Nuncio in Spain, to negotiate with the Catholic king about the dispensation for the marriage between his sister and the Prince of England.
This is the most serious request that the Catholic king has made of his Holiness, and a similar demand by King Philip III was refused by Pope Paul V, as there seemed then no sufficient reasons. But his Holiness is most anxious for the salvation of those people and realms, and this seems to offer the best opportunity that has yet occurred for the relief of the Catholics there. As the schism there began with the repudiation of Catherine daughter of Ferdinand the Catholic, there is hope that the true worship may be restored by Mary, daughter and sister of Catholic kings. Other indications lead his Holiness to incline that way, as it was through a Gregory that England was first converted and Popes Gregory have always proved auspicious to that country.
His Holiness has seen the conditions offered by the King of England for this marriage. The first provides that it shall be by his dispensation, to be obtained through the Catholic king. This amounts to a recognition of the Holy See. The pope feels that this advantage to the Catholic religion cannot be slight, and the immediate and ultimate results cannot fail to be of the highest importance to Christendom. Accordingly he has committed the consideration of this affair to Cardinals Bandini, Barberini, Melini, Ubaldini, Santa Susanna and myself. After hearing Father Diego, sent by the Catholic king for the purpose, and having carefully considered the matter, we are unanimously of opinion that his Holiness may and should grant it. We rely upon your prudence, considering not only the many hopes of good, but the danger of harm to the English Catholics if the dispensation be refused, and the danger that even a Catholic prince might make the marriage without your authority. As his Holiness cannot treat directly with the King of England to obtain the observance of the articles agreed upon and of the things promised separately we instruct you to obtain such guarantees as shall satisfy his Holiness.
I send your Excellency the articles, presumably drawn up in England with the consent of the king. They were presented to us by Father Diego. We have considered them deeply and suggested a few alterations, which we have communicated to Father Diego.
I also enclose his Holiness's brief of dispensation, drawn up in the most weighty form used in such grants. But as we have no security for the observance of the articles or of other things which his Holiness desires, the pope expressly commands your Excellency not to consign this brief to the king, his ministers or others before obtaining the following things from them, some being absolutely necessary and others so far as they can be obtained.
The pope desires that his Majesty shall promise him to secure the observance of the articles by all the means in his power, in a royal schedule which your Excellency will draw up in the strongest manner possible. If there is anything in the articles which should not be published you will have it placed in a royal schedule apart.
The pope desires that his Majesty shall promise that only Catholic servants shall be appointed to attend upon the Infanta, and if these promises are not obtained you will not give the dispensation. You will try and secure the following points, but you will not withhold the dispensation if you do not succeed.
The pope desires you to urge his Majesty to obtain a promise from the King of England that the children of the marriage shall be christened by Catholic priests after the Catholic rite. It is also of the utmost importance that the children should be educated by their mother at least to the age of twelve, and so far as possible you will insist upon the boys remaining till their fourteenth year. You will remind his Majesty of the importance of his having Catholic nephews, and that members of the royal house of Spain and of Austrian blood should not be educated by heretics, and that the greatest benefit to be expected from the present marriage is the propagation of the faith, and as the power and the hatred of the Puritans for the Catholics do not allow hopes of obtaining liberty of conscience in that kingdom, it will be a matter of no small moment if the persecution of the Catholics ceases entirely. However all the articles except the last concern the Infanta, her children and servants more than the said Catholics. But as nothing induces the pope more to grant the dispensation than the hope of helping the Catholics it will remain utterly useless if the last article is not observed, and you must therefore endeavour to obtain from the king and his ministers an undertaking to protect them, releasing them from their troubles, the easier to obtain as the penalties are all pecuniary and concern the royal treasury. A thousand times in his hope for the marriage has the English king expressed to the Catholic ambassador his intention of remitting these penalties, but it was nothing but words, as they still continue according to the latest advices, and in Scotland are carried out with even more rigour than in England. Thus the Spanish ministers themselves, as appears by the letters of the resident there for the Infanta Isabella, are amazed and scandalised, arguing that if the king does not move to keep his word when he hopes to have the Infanta for his daughter-in-law, still less will he do so when she is in his power, and so they all say with one accord that unless some way is found to force that king to keep his promises no satisfaction or profit will ever be obtained for the Catholic religion.
They therefore propose that his Majesty shall on no account allow the Infanta to go to England before everything is done that can be done beforehand in carrying out the promises, especially for the last article. His Majesty can easily find ways of keeping her or can send her to Flanders before going to England, and this might lead to the prince staying on and becoming a Catholic himself or strongly attached to Catholics.
Moreover, his Majesty might retain a portion of the dowry as security for the fulfilment of the promises. You will urge these considerations upon his Majesty and tactfully indicate to him how much he will lose in dignity and how he will show that he cares more for interests of state than for the Catholic religion if he neglects them, and if he does not undertake gradually to humble the pride and power of the Puritans and to obtain liberty of conscience for the Catholics he will always have to fear for the Infanta and the prince and will never be able to count upon any friendship and alliance with that Crown.
As we do not wish the Catholic to bind himself to the pope except in so far as he has promises from England, you will try to obtain a copy of these promises and send it to me with the royal schedule.
With the brief for the dispensation you will receive another to present to his Majesty, telling him that the pope will grant the dispensation the more readily the more he feels assured of the observance of the promises and of assisting the Catholic religion, and that his Majesty has an opportunity of conferring a great benefit upon the Catholic church and should receive recompense in the affairs of the Netherlands and the trade in the Indies, while he can lay the English Catholics under an obligation to him and cause them to multiply without number, so that they will always have great power in that kingdom. The importance of the affair, the hopes of this Court and above all the sighs and tears of those persecuted Catholics call for special efforts from you to obtain if not more than is meet at least more than is promised.
Rome, the 12th April, 1623.
With these instructions were two letters written to the nuncio in Spain upon the same subject, about the alteration of the articles and treating for the conversion of the Prince of Wales, not altering the substance of the articles.
Most Illustrious and Reverend:
The dispensation for the marriage between the Infanta Maria and the Prince of Wales could not be granted without a good cause, such as some notable benefit for the Catholic religion. This does not seem sufficiently guaranteed, because some of the conditions, which are kept secret, not being confirmed by the royal council or parliament, they can always throw the blame upon others if they are not kept. It is necessary that the king should grant freedom of worship and of conscience to all his Catholic subjects, and that this grant be approved by the council and parliament. The pope therefore directs that you shall not consign the dispensation to his Catholic Majesty unless he obtain security for this from Great Britain, and unless you obtain his Catholic Majesty's promise thereupon. After this you will use every effort for the conversion of the Prince of Wales, without which his Holiness would not desire the marriage to be made, and it would certainly cause him more joy than anything else in the world.
Rome, the 12th April, 1623.
[Italian; Copy.]
Misc. Cod.
No. 520.
Venetian
Archives.
850. Considerations upon which the English marriage might prove useful to the Catholic religion.
The conditions offered by the King of England do not offer great advantages to the Catholic religion in that kingdom according to the general opinion. If it is most pernicious to allow heresy to become at home (adomesticare) in Catholic countries, to introduce the Catholic religion in public and in persons of authority and influence should help to ruin heresy in that kingdom. It will certainly help to relieve the English Catholics. From modifying the oath imposed upon the Catholics we may hope for the conversion of many, while there is less danger that the Catholics will gradually fall away. The way will also be smoothed towards universal liberty of conscience. The Catholics will also enjoy the protection of their queen, who will be valued for her own sake and for the authority of the Catholic king. There seems no fear of her, as she has been excellently brought up to the true faith, and she will be surrounded by learned religious persons, like guards in an enemy's country.
On the other hand, we may hope that the prince, being young, and not naturally over-wary but rather easy, and being in a friendly country and secure will not be on his guard against her or her ladies, and may be won over, as ladies win over men, but men rarely induce ladies to follow their sect. Even if the prince is not converted he will almost certainly do much for the Catholic religion out of love for her. The children of the marriage being educated by their mother up to a certain age, we may feel sure that God will at least save some and one of them might easily become king. A king out of love for a lady not of royal birth repudiated his lawful wife and ruined religion in England, and a king might easily restore it in a lawful manner by a true and just love. Indeed, it seems that if England apostatised by Henry's repudiation of Catherine God wishes to bring it back to obedience by this marriage, and that the Catholic religion may return with a Spanish queen as it was driven out with one.
The Spaniards are naturally constant and do not easily change, and as they are well disposed towards religion and united among themselves, especially in foreign countries, we need not fear that any of them will be lost, but rather that they will win over others by their example. Finally the danger will be for few but the gain for countless numbers, and we think with so many safeguards that we may well venture a queen to catch a king who may bring with him two or three whole kingdoms.
If some say that the securities offered by the King of England are insufficient and that we build upon hopes alone, we may answer that the hopes are well based upon reason, and even if not entirely fulfilled some great advantages are sure to result, seeing the present deplorable state of affairs. This is indicated by the encouragement afforded to the Catholics and the well disposed merely by the hope of the marriage, and according to information quite ten thousand have been converted, who will all enjoy the present benefit. But the chief reason is the King of England has eagerly sought this marriage for a long time for reasons of state, as not feeling sure of the loyalty of his subjects, who mostly belong to a different sect from his; he hopes to support the succession of his son by the power of the Catholic. Accordingly it is unlikely that he will act openly against his promises. Thus if the affairs of the Catholic religion should begin well it would seem that God means to use it for his purposes, as the Puritans undoubtedly mortally hate this marriage and the queen, and therefore suspect the more the Catholics and the king, which will throw the king more into the arms of the King of Spain and the Catholics, so that he will grant liberty of conscience merely for reasons of state, to keep one party to balance the other. If the king does not his son almost certainly will.
If this marriage does not take place, what will happen? The king will feel sure that the pope refused the dispensation and will persecute the poor Catholics the more out of revenge, dispersing all hopes of that kingdom returning to the pope's allegiance. He will also turn to France, where the king's councillors may think more of political than other reasons and may act without leave from the Apostolic see. This would also destroy another hope of a successful war against the Dutch and the restoration of the Catholic religion in those provinces by force or love, while it will endanger the dominion of the Indies and the Catholic religion planted there. It therefore appears that this seems to afford the greatest opportunity that has ever occurred for restoring the true faith in Great Britain, and it seems likely that the beginning of this, if not the complete recovery, is reserved for a Pope Gregory, a lucky name for that kingdom, as Gregory the Great was the Apostle, and other Gregories, the Ninth, Eleventh and Thirteenth, in various ways were the special promoters of its piety and glory.
[Italian.]
April 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
851. ALVISE CORNER, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ordinary ambassador of England has been to thank your Serenity, by express command of the Prince of Wales, for the office I performed upon his coming to this court. I seized the opportunity to obtain some information. Our conversation turned upon the marriage and the ambassador told me that the pope would certainly grant the dispensation at the appearance of the last courier; he could not refuse, because the Catholics profited so completely and because of the pressure from his Majesty here and the earnest petition of his own king. If, however, he persisted in making difficulties, it would be necessary to issue a declaration for which essential cause difficulties were raised, as they could on no account allow these lengthy negotiations to fall through, especially after they had been so advanced by the prince's action. He spoke precisely to this effect.
In order to learn more I remarked, choosing my words carefully, that I had heard something of a demand that his Majesty should consign fortresses to the Catholics if they did not publish liberty of conscience. The ambassador replied that his Majesty would concede everything possible, but the two points were impossible, as they would occasion a great stir and extreme commotion (gran sollevatione et estremo moto). He further remarked that the considerations which existed amid the disturbances of France did not apply for consigning fortresses, as in those times they feared the Huguenots and this was not the case with the Catholics in London or in any other part of his king's dominions, where they live dispersed and without any power; and therefore the royal promise sufficed that they should not be disturbed in their secret and private worship. All the same, the ambassador repeated that nothing would prevent them from proceeding to carry out the alliance.
The Infanta displays a settled melancholy and absolutely protests that she will not consent unless the Prince becomes a Catholic, reproaching the Count of Olivares and the Count of Gondomar for having engaged the king's interests so far and risked her own person. The queen also strengthens the disposition of the Infanta. At the instance of the princess they have reinstated in the junta her confessor and the king's. This has greatly disturbed the Count of Olivares in particular. However, he tries hard to reconcile the Infanta, impressing upon her the merit and glory she will acquire in Heaven and in the World, by benefiting so great a people in our faith, and also encouraging hopes in her that the prince may incline to become a Catholic, but does not announce it from fear of his father. They relate as a fact that when Prince Don Carlos heard the discussions held with the Infanta to induce her to believe that the Almighty had chosen her to redeem those realms, he remarked briskly May the Devil not induce us to send the Infanta thither to destruction. When after the first conference with the prince the king reported that he had come with the intention of making himself a Catholic, it was Don Carlos again who remarked that his Majesty should take care that the prince did not think of leading him into heresy, as association with them was dangerous. (La Infanta dimostra una fissa melancolia et assolutamente protesta di non assentire se non si fa il Prencipe Catholico, rinfaciando il Conte di Olivares et conte di Gondomar che habbino impegnato tanto gli interessi del Re, et arischiato la propria persona di lei. La Regina anche confirma la inclinatione della Infanta ad instanza della quale si sono rimessi nella Giunta il suo Confessore et quello del Re. passandosi in gran combustione di animo del conte di Olivares in particolare. Studia però egli far consolar l'Infanta con imprimergli il merito et gloria che acquisterà nel Cielo et nel Mondo beneficando tanto popolo nella fede nostra et seglida anco speranza che il Prencipe possi inclinar ad essere Catholico ma che per timor del Padre non lo publichi. Dicesi per certo che il Prencipe Don Carlo udendo li discorsi che si tenevano alla Infanta nell'incaminarla che Sua Divina Maestà l'havea eletta a redimere quei Regni, sodamente risponse che il Diavolo non induca noi mandare a perdere ivi la Infanta. Al Re anco, quando abboccatosi la prima volta con il Prencipe rifferiva ch'era venuto con intentione di farsi Catholico, il medesimo Don Carlo motteggiò che mirasse la Maestà Sua che non pensasse il Prencipe condur essa nell'heresia, perche la prattica di questi era pericolosa.
The members of the Inquisition know that no people is readier to infect itself with other beliefs than the Spanish, and they have not forgotten the heresies which came with the return of Philip II from England, on the death of Queen Mary. (fn. 2) Accordingly they have notified Buckingham that whereas they hear that many cases of books have been landed at la Crugna, they will only permit the distribution of enough for their use. But it is thought that these English have great designs because four preachers are coming of the most villainous and impious doctrine, that they possess.
The Count of Olivares asked the nuncio if the marriage could not be effected without the pope's permission supposing the prince secretly abjured or covertly professed our religion, seeing that a public profession or open worship did not comport with his interests. I hear that the nuncio told the count, No, that the pope would not pronounce the marriage valid since his good pleasure was required for a secret faith. This report of Olivares' approach to the nuncio corresponds with what the English ambassador said, that nothing would prevent them from carrying out the alliance.
They are sending frequent couriers to England, as well as the Marquis of Inoiosa as ambassador extraordinary, who was sent for on purpose from his governorship of Navarre and admitted to the Council of State.
Madrid, the 14th April, 1623.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
April 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
852. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Court has become an echo which emits no other sound than events from Spain. With the return of the marquis's servant two days ago, his Majesty has heard of the splendid honours accorded to his son. A state entry, quarters in the royal palace, the service of the greatest nobles, the release of all prisoners, the non-execution of the pragmatic during the ceremonial, the suspension of the Inquisition for the English, the dispensing of every vacant office, the pretence that the council will decide nothing except at his pleasure, and what is no less valued and unexpected, the right hand always given him by the Catholic; God grant they be not chains of gold. All this is related and perhaps amplified. By the king's express order the whole city here lighted bonfires to celebrate the prince's safe arrival and his favourable reception in Spain. The order was fully carried out, and the people now seem better disposed towards the marriage either from natural flexibility to do the behest of him who commands them, or from a new friendliness corresponding to the honours accorded to their prince or perhaps from necessary dissimulation. By this last advice the marriage has been promised with asseveration in Spain, and apparently they expect the dispensation from Rome very quickly although the Spanish divines are of opinion that it can be done without this. (fn. 3) The king's hopes coincide with these promises and those of many others, but the best informed do not know what to think. Certainly it is more advantageous for the Spaniards to keep the affair in suspense. They will not think of concluding unless under pressure of the threatening impatience of the king, or compelled by dire necessity in Flanders, Germany and Rhaetia. They will find means for appeasing the former and may not fear the latter.
Some assure me that the prince will not take the Infanta unless accompanied by some settlement of the affairs of the Palatine.
This also must needs prove a very doubtful and difficult question as besides the good-will of Spain they will require the consent of the pope, the emperor and Bavaria, who are all interested in the destruction of the Palatine. So far as the pope is concerned he seems at present to be increasing difficulties about the dispensation, but whatever his own disquiet and danger the prince can never abandon his sister and nephews to beggary whilst the Spaniards must always become more jealous of the greatness of Bavaria, indeed if the emperor should die now Bavaria with his forces, and favoured by the princes and ecclesiastics, would hold the best position in the empire.
His Majesty has sent back the bearer of the first despatch about his son's arrival. He wrote for two days and always with his own hand. Four other leading cavaliers are started off by land, and with so many gentlemen away a great deal of gold must have left the kingdom, (fn. 4) which must necessarily benefit Spain. The Earl of Arundel is not well content. The king refused to allow his wife to go to Spain. There may be divers reasons, but the court ladies, especially those of the marquis, have thrown many hindrances in the way out of jealousy.
His Majesty's resident writes from Brussels that they fear the passage of Mansfeld may do harm there, the country lying open, and cause some disturbance among the people. This gives colour to a false report current in the city here of an open revolt among the people there.
The Spaniards descant upon the new devotion of Brunswick to the emperor. The French ambassador has asked for audience. The king is at present suffering from the gout but was ready to give it at London, where he is expected the day after to-morrow to celebrate the festivities which come a week after ours. I shall have my audience after him.
One who had it from the king's own lips tells me that the affair of the Valtelline has been referred to the pope, and that his brother, among others, was going to receive the forts of that valley. All this makes our communication of the league necessary and soon. I expect the king will be very angry. I understand that in the articles of the league he is mentioned after the Swiss. I expect the Spanish ambassador will tell him this and make the most of it. I hear he was offended because the league disposes of Mansfeld, thinking it too injurious to Spain to employ so open an enemy and rebel of the house of Austria. As I simply know of the existence of the article concerning the king I shall find it hard to satisfy enquiries about it. If the king speaks to me about Mansfeld, though it would be an impertinence, I shall indulge in generalities; and if he complains of his position I shall feel glad that the French ambassador has preceded me, as he will have to bear the brunt. For the rest I shall try and make his Majesty understand that the Swiss are probably mentioned first as being nearer and more concerned, as in other respects they cannot compare with the dignity and greatness of this Crown. But perhaps the king will say nothing about it as silence agrees better with his peaceful intentions, unless with his usual devices he meant to seize upon this occasion for offence as a pretext for his alienation from the league.
I have received the ducal missions of the 9th March, and shall use the advices for the public good.
London, the 14th April, 1623.
Postscript.—I have just received your Serenity's letters of the 17th March.
[Italian.]
April 14.
Senato.
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Candia.
Rettori, etc.
Venetian
Archives.
853. COSTANTIN PASQUALIGO, Venetian Rector of Candia, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On the 5th inst, a baroque reached this island with fifteen persons of French, Flemish, Portuguese, Spanish and English nationality. The captain of the Guard found that they came from one of the three pirate ships which captured the Vidalo on the 4th March last near Modon. Accordingly I had them all brought here and examined separately. All of them said they were slaves, some lent and some bought, and had no payments for services as sailors except the Flemings aud English, who served as gunners. But some who have arrived since say they were not slaves but served freely for pay and even shared the booty. They all confirmed the capture of the Vidalo. All these persons are in safe custody, and I have sent to the Proveditore General of Candia to learn what is to be done with them.
Tine, the 14th April, 1623.
[Italian.]
April 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
854. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador in Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Last week a courier arrived from the nuncio in Spain with news that the Prince of England was at that Court, and accordingly complete license and dispensation to go on with the marriage has been sent to him from here, to the amazement of some who do not want to see that dispensation, as there are various prohibitions against alliances with heretics; but the marriage may easily be arranged, and they may give absolution after the fact, as it is not so easy to arrange conditions which permit it to be done.
The General of the Jesuits has spread a report in the Court here that the King of England is ill and in danger of death, and that his son will readily become a Catholic, and so that kingdom will return to the obedience of the Catholic Church. God grant it be so and let us all pray for it. But others comment in a different manner upon this news of the king's indisposition. They say that if he dies a revolution will certainly take place in the kingdom, and, finding themselves without a king, they will send for the king's daughter and the Palatine as their sovereign, leaving the prince to Spain to marry as he pleases, and so the Spaniards will have their turn of experiencing a son-in-law without dominions, and learn whether it is advantageous or their duty to recover them for him.
This second opinion has spread through the Court and caused much uneasiness. The Cardinal Bandini has endeavoured to gain a personal advantage from the sending of the dispensation to Spain, asserting that it passed the congregation chiefly owing to his efforts.
Rome, the 15th April, 1623.
[Italian.]
April 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
855. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Certain spahi claim compensation from the bailo for the ship and goods of a Greek confiscated at Corfu. An English voivode, a friend of the Bailo, stilled their clamour by promising that the Bailo would satisfy them and brought them to the Venetian embassy. The Bailo explained that the republic was under no obligations except to write asking for the despatch of the business. A man of this voivode has run off with money and escaped to Parga. The Bailo has written to the Rectors of Corfu to have him arrested.
The Vigne of Pera, the 15th April, 1623.
[Italian.]
April 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
856. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have already informed your Serenity of the feelings evoked here by the journey of the Prince of England to Spain. I can add nothing further except that the amazement at such an unexpected step still continues, and they are waiting to see the outcome, the more so because they have heard that the King of Great Britain has recalled his favourite Buckingham from Spain. Every one comments upon this after his own fashion.
The Hague, the 17th April, 1623.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
857. Extract from a letter of Rotta from Lcer of the 5th April, 1623.
Mansfeld needs money but cannot get it from the States. The people of Emden spread a report that Denmark was at loggerheads with Mansfeld, but that is a lie. They also say that Saxony will not let him pass and refuse to believe that Montereau and Bos were sent expressly to him by his Most Christian Majesty and the Duke of Savoy. They declared that was a trick of Mansfeld's. They afterwards visited Colonel Gray and presented him with some good wine because they thought he was the ambassador of the King of Great Britain.
[Italian; deciphered.]
April 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
858. That the Ambassador of the States be summoned to the Collegio and the following be read to him:—
In appearance the Prince of Wales has been received with every honour at the Catholic Court after some days' stay there incognito, but actually he has not been to visit the Infanta, who seems to hesitate and dislike the business of the marriage. The imperial ambassador has taken great offence because of his previous negotiations for a union with the son of his master.
Ayes, 154.Noes, 2.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 This and the following number are taken from a case labelled Varie Instruzioni della Corte di Roma. From the handwriting they are almost contemporary copies, but there is nothing to indicate how they came into the possession of the Venetian government.
2 Cf. the Preface to the preceding volume of this Calendar, page xxxiv.
3 A clause is inserted here to the effect that Philip told Charles that if he could not have his sister as his consort he would give her to him as his mistress (signora), but it has been deleted by the writer. Buckingham wrote to James that Olivares had promised "that if the Pope would not give a dispensation for a wife they would give the Infanta to the Baby as his wench," quoted by Hume: Court of Philip IV, page 79.
4 The messenger was Grimes, Buckingham's gentleman of the horse. The four cavaliers appear to have been Lord Kensington, Sir George Goring, Sir Thomas Jermyn and Lord Edward Montagu. Birch: Court and Times of James I, ii, pages 384, 385, 388.